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1.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 284: 41-43, 2021 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1604166

ABSTRACT

After the COVID-19 pandemic occurred in South Korea in 2020, medical institutions have dealt with the epidemiological crisis. The institutions' strategies in response to the crisis were classified into four stages depending on the change of epidemic circumstances. Efficiently responding to the pandemic, close cooperation between the government and medical institutions is essential.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599599

ABSTRACT

Foodborne disease events (FDEs) endanger residents' health around the world, including China. Most countries have formulated food safety regulation policies, but the effects of governmental intervention (GI) on FDEs are still unclear. So, this paper purposes to explore the effects of GI on FDEs by using Chinese provincial panel data from 2011 to 2019. The results show that: (i) GI has a significant negative impact on FDEs. Ceteris paribus, FDEs decreased by 1.3% when government expenditure on FDEs increased by 1%. (ii) By strengthening food safety standards and guiding enterprises to offer safer food, government can further improve FDEs. (iii) However, GI has a strong negative externality. Although GI alleviates FDEs in local areas, it aggravates FDEs in other areas. (iv) Compared with the eastern and coastal areas, the effects of GI on FDEs in the central, western, and inland areas are more significant. GI is conducive to ensuring Chinese health and equity. Policymakers should pay attention to two tasks in food safety regulation. Firstly, they should continue to strengthen GI in food safety issues, enhance food safety certification, and strive to ensure food safety. Secondly, they should reinforce the co-governance of regional food safety issues and reduce the negative externality of GI.


Subject(s)
Foodborne Diseases , China/epidemiology , Food Safety , Foodborne Diseases/epidemiology , Foodborne Diseases/prevention & control , Government , Humans
5.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259631, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected all dimensions of lives and has become a social problem as it continues to spread widely through the continuous interactions of people in public spaces where they earn a living. Curbing the spread of COVID-19 requires restrictions in these public spaces, however, the compliance to these measures depends largely on the understanding and interpretations of COVID 19 by users of these public spaces. This study examined the contextual interpretations of public space users about COVID-19 prevention in Ibadan Metropolis, Oyo State. The study was a rapid ethnographic survey in selected public spaces (markets and commercial motor parks) in Ibadan metropolis. Data were collected through participant observation, key informant interviews (3 females; 3 males) and in-depth interviews (30) with, traders, head porters, clients/buyers and commercial vehicle drivers in these public spaces. Interviews conducted were transcribed, sorted into themes using Atlas-ti 7.5.7 and subjected to interpretive-content analysis. Findings revealed that some respondents felt COVID-19 was brought into Nigeria by rich frequent global voyagers, others felt it was through "uncultured" sexual life or wrath of God. Some also doubted the existence of the disease and many of the respondents perceived COVID-19 as a disease reported by the government or a political propaganda to siphon funds. The users of the public spaces in Ibadan Metropolis have variegated perception about the existence and severity of this rapidly spreading virus and this has grave implications for COVID-19 control in the State. Thus, regular interaction with public space users are essential for control efforts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Government , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nigeria/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
6.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e23957, 2021 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1576022

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic in Canada, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau provided updates on the novel coronavirus and the government's responses to the pandemic in his daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020, delivered on the official Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) YouTube channel. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine comments on Canadian Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings by YouTube users and track these comments to extract the changing dynamics of the opinions and concerns of the public over time. METHODS: We used machine learning techniques to longitudinally analyze a total of 46,732 English YouTube comments that were retrieved from 57 videos of Prime Minister Trudeau's COVID-19 daily briefings from March 13 to May 22, 2020. A natural language processing model, latent Dirichlet allocation, was used to choose salient topics among the sampled comments for each of the 57 videos. Thematic analysis was used to classify and summarize these salient topics into different prominent themes. RESULTS: We found 11 prominent themes, including strict border measures, public responses to Prime Minister Trudeau's policies, essential work and frontline workers, individuals' financial challenges, rental and mortgage subsidies, quarantine, government financial aid for enterprises and individuals, personal protective equipment, Canada and China's relationship, vaccines, and reopening. CONCLUSIONS: This study is the first to longitudinally investigate public discourse and concerns related to Prime Minister Trudeau's daily COVID-19 briefings in Canada. This study contributes to establishing a real-time feedback loop between the public and public health officials on social media. Hearing and reacting to real concerns from the public can enhance trust between the government and the public to prepare for future health emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Federal Government , Natural Language Processing , Public Health , Public Opinion , Social Media , COVID-19 Vaccines , Canada , Emigration and Immigration , Financial Stress , Financing, Government , Government , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment , Public Policy , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Unsupervised Machine Learning
7.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25734, 2021 02 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575972

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In a fast-evolving public health crisis such as the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple pieces of relevant information can be posted sequentially on a social media platform. The interval between subsequent posting times may have a different impact on the transmission and cross-propagation of the old and new information that results in a different peak value and a final size of forwarding users of the new information, depending on the content correlation and whether the new information is posted during the outbreak or quasi-steady-state phase of the old information. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to help in designing effective communication strategies to ensure information is delivered to the maximal number of users. METHODS: We developed and analyzed two classes of susceptible-forwarding-immune information propagation models with delay in transmission to describe the cross-propagation process of relevant information. A total of 28,661 retweets of typical information were posted frequently by each opinion leader related to COVID-19 with high influence (data acquisition up to February 19, 2020). The information was processed into discrete points with a frequency of 10 minutes, and the real data were fitted by the model numerical simulation. Furthermore, the influence of parameters on information dissemination and the design of a publishing strategy were analyzed. RESULTS: The current epidemic outbreak situation, epidemic prevention, and other related authoritative information cannot be timely and effectively browsed by the public. The ingenious use of information release intervals can effectively enhance the interaction between information and realize the effective diffusion of information. We parameterized our models using real data from Sina Microblog and used the parameterized models to define and evaluate mutual attractiveness indexes, and we used these indexes and parameter sensitivity analyses to inform optimal strategies for new information to be effectively propagated in the microblog. The results of the parameter analysis showed that using different attractiveness indexes as the key parameters can control the information transmission with different release intervals, so it is considered as a key link in the design of an information communication strategy. At the same time, the dynamic process of information was analyzed through index evaluation. CONCLUSIONS: Our model can carry out an accurate numerical simulation of information at different release intervals and achieve a dynamic evaluation of information transmission by constructing an indicator system so as to provide theoretical support and strategic suggestions for government decision making. This study optimizes information posting strategies to maximize communication efforts for delivering key public health messages to the public for better outcomes of public health emergency management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Education , Information Dissemination , Public Health/statistics & numerical data , Public Opinion , Social Media/statistics & numerical data , Communication , Disease Outbreaks , Government , Humans , Pandemics , Time Factors
8.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(2): e25429, 2021 02 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575482

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the number of COVID-19 cases increased precipitously in the United States, policy makers and health officials marshalled their pandemic responses. As the economic impacts multiplied, anecdotal reports noted the increased use of web-based crowdfunding to defray these costs. OBJECTIVE: We examined the web-based crowdfunding response in the early stage of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States to understand the incidence of initiation of COVID-19-related campaigns and compare them to non-COVID-19-related campaigns. METHODS: On May 16, 2020, we extracted all available data available on US campaigns that contained narratives and were created between January 1 and May 10, 2020, on GoFundMe. We identified the subset of COVID-19-related campaigns using keywords relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. We explored the incidence of COVID-19-related campaigns by geography, by category, and over time, and we compared the characteristics of the campaigns to those of non-COVID-19-related campaigns after March 11, when the pandemic was declared. We then used a natural language processing algorithm to cluster campaigns by narrative content using overlapping keywords. RESULTS: We found that there was a substantial increase in overall GoFundMe web-based crowdfunding campaigns in March, largely attributable to COVID-19-related campaigns. However, as the COVID-19 pandemic persisted and progressed, the number of campaigns per COVID-19 case declined more than tenfold across all states. The states with the earliest disease burden had the fewest campaigns per case, indicating a lack of a case-dependent response. COVID-19-related campaigns raised more money, had a longer narrative description, and were more likely to be shared on Facebook than other campaigns in the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Web-based crowdfunding appears to be a stopgap for only a minority of campaigners. The novelty of an emergency likely impacts both campaign initiation and crowdfunding success, as it reflects the affective response of a community. Crowdfunding activity likely serves as an early signal for emerging needs and societal sentiment for communities in acute distress that could be used by governments and aid organizations to guide disaster relief and policy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Crowdsourcing/statistics & numerical data , Financial Support , COVID-19/economics , Cost of Illness , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowdsourcing/economics , Government , Humans , Narration , Natural Language Processing , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
9.
Kennedy Inst Ethics J ; 31(4): 405-428, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1571967

ABSTRACT

Were governments justified in imposing lockdowns to contain the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic? We argue that a convincing answer to this question is to date wanting, by critically analyzing the factual basis of a recent paper, "How Government Leaders Violated Their Epistemic Duties During the SARS-CoV-2 Crisis" (Winsberg, Brennan, and Suprenant 2020). In their paper, Winsberg, Brennan, and Suprenant argue that government leaders did not, at the beginning of the pandemic, meet the epistemic requirements necessitated to impose lockdowns. We focus on Winsberg, Brennan, and Suprenant's contentions that knowledge about COVID-19 resultant projections were inadequate; that epidemiologists were biased in their estimates of relevant figures; that there was insufficient evidence supporting the efficacy of lockdowns; and that lockdowns cause more harm than good. We argue that none of these claims are sufficiently supported by evidence, thus impairing their case against lockdowns, and leaving open the question of whether lockdowns were justified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Government , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
10.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1554954

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a challenge for health systems. For this reason, it is essential to evaluate the management of health systems in the face of the pandemic, identifying the factors that may contribute to its failure or success. This management is more difficult in decentralized countries, since in them, health competencies are distributed among different levels of government. This is the case in Spain, one of the countries most affected by the pandemic. Therefore, the aim of this article is to evaluate how the Spanish health system has managed the COVID-19 pandemic. Four factors related to health management are analyzed: transparency, communication, reputation and well-being generated. For this purpose, a quantitative analysis is used with the contrast of secondary sources, such as the Merco rankings or survey data from the Centro de Investigaciones Sociológicas (Sociological Research Center). The results show that although the flow of communication about the health system increases considerably, such information comes mainly from the media, with a deficit in the transparency of health management. Likewise, although the reputation of the health system increases at the beginning of the pandemic, as it progresses, there is a deterioration in citizen satisfaction with the healthcare management and the services provided, as well as in the well-being generated by them. This study may have implications for decision making by public authorities regarding the different factors of health management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Government , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Responsibility
11.
Health Policy ; 126(1): 1-6, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1549805

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a catastrophe. It was also preventable. The potential impacts of a novel pathogen were foreseen and for decades scientists and commentators around the world warned of the threat. Most governments and global institutions failed to heed the warnings or to pay enough attention to risks emerging at the interface of human, animal, and environmental health. We were not ready for COVID-19, and people, economies, and governments around the world have suffered as a result. We must learn from these experiences now and implement transformational changes so that we can prevent future crises, and if and when emergencies do emerge, we can respond in more timely, robust and equitable ways, and minimize immediate and longer-term impacts. In 2020-21 the Pan-European Commission on Health and Sustainable Development assessed the challenges posed by COVID-19 in the WHO European region and the lessons from the response. The Commissioners have addressed health in its entirety, analyzing the interactions between health and sustainable development and considering how other policy priorities can contribute to achieving both. The Commission's final report makes a series of policy recommendations that are evidence-informed and above all actionable. Adopting them would achieve seven key objectives and help build truly sustainable health systems and fairer societies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Government , Health Policy , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Front Public Health ; 9: 779501, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528876

ABSTRACT

This paper examines the effects of stringency measures (provided by the Oxford Coronavirus Government Response Tracker) and total time spent away from home (provided by the Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports) on the COVID-19 outcomes (measured by total COVID-19 cases and total deaths related to the COVID-19) in the United States. The paper focuses on the daily data from March 11, 2020 to August 13, 2021. The ordinary least squares and the machine learning estimators show that stringency measures are negatively related to the COVID-19 outcomes. A higher time spent away from home is positively associated with the COVID-19 outcomes. The paper also discusses the potential economic implications for the United States.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Mobility , United States
13.
J Gen Intern Med ; 36(11): 3471-3477, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Research suggests that preventive measures are critical to reducing the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but evidence regarding the association between trust in government and the practice of preventive measures is limited. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the practice of preventive measures against COVID-19 differs by one's level of trust in government. DESIGN: A cross-sectional analysis using the Japan COVID-19 and Society Internet Survey (JACSIS) conducted in August and September 2020. PARTICIPANTS: A nationally representative sample of Japanese individuals aged 15 through 79 years. MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was the composite score for COVID-19 preventive measures, defined as the percentage of preventive measures an individual reported to be practicing (out of nine measures: social distancing, wearing masks, avoiding closed spaces, avoiding crowded spaces, avoiding close contact settings, hand washing, avoiding touching one's face, respiratory hygiene, and surface disinfection). The secondary outcomes were (1) support for stay-at-home requests, (2) use of a contact-tracing app, and (3) receipt of the influenza vaccine in the previous season. KEY RESULTS: Our analysis included a total of 25,482 individuals. After adjusting for potential confounders, we found that individuals with high trust in government were likely to practice preventive measures more frequently compared to those with low trust (adjusted composite scores, 83.8% for high- vs. 79.5% for low-trust individuals; adjusted difference, +4.3 percentage points [pp]; 95% CI, +2.4 to +6.2pp; P<0.001). We also found that high trust in government was associated with higher likelihoods of support for stay-at-home requests, use of a contact-tracing app, and receipt of the influenza vaccine in the previous season. CONCLUSIONS: High trust in government was associated with a higher intensity of practicing COVID-19 preventive measures among Japanese individuals at the national level. Our findings may provide useful information to develop and design effective public health interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Government , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Trust
15.
Health Policy Plan ; 36(10): 1613-1624, 2021 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522192

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has triggered an unprecedented number of policy responses around the world across multiple policy domains. While governments have combined containment and health policies with social policies (CHSPs) during the initial phase of the pandemic in various ways, the current literature offers little knowledge of the patterns of these combinations and their determinants and outcomes. This paper fills this gap by investigating CHSP combinations across ≥120 countries. We further examined whether the CHSP response was determined by political regimes or compensation hypotheses-serving the purposes of responding to pre-existing economic downturns, inequality or social unrest. We also investigated the associations between CHSP responses and mobility, virus infection and unemployment. Using policy data from the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker, results from sequence analysis indicated that governments' CHSP responses could be clustered into five categories: high social policies (SPs), middle SPs, containment and health (CH) leading SPs, low SPs and gradual high SPs. We used multinomial regression models to investigate determinants of CHSP responses. We found that CHSP responses did not differ by political regimes, and CHSP combinations were not driven by compensation hypotheses. Instead, gross domestic product per capita and government effectiveness were the key drivers for high levels of policy responses. We also found that low SP responses were associated with fewer mobility changes. Taken together, our findings suggest that lower-income countries required more support and resources in order for them to adopt necessary CH and SP responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Health Policy , Humans , Public Policy , SARS-CoV-2
17.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259362, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504217

ABSTRACT

We analyze whether and to what extent strategies employed by governments to fight the COVID-19 pandemic made a difference for GDP growth developments in 2020. Based on the strength and speed with which governments imposed non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) when confronted with waves of infections we distinguish between countries pursuing an elimination strategy and countries following a suppression / mitigation strategy. For a sample of 44 countries fixed effect panel regression results show that NPI changes conducted by elimination strategy countries had a less severe effect on GDP growth than NPI changes in suppression / mitigation strategy countries: strategy matters. However, this result is sensitive to the countries identified as "elimination countries" and to the sample composition. Moreover, we find that exogenous country characteristics drive the choice of strategy. At the same time our results show that countries successfully applying the elimination strategy achieved better health outcomes than their peers without having to accept lower growth.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Federal Government , Government , Humans , Internationality , Models, Economic , Pandemics , Physical Distancing , Public Policy , Quarantine , Regression Analysis , Risk , SARS-CoV-2
18.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 133-149, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497650

ABSTRACT

The failure to learn lessons from crises is a common observation. The UK Government has been criticized for its response to the COVID-19 crisis. Many critics have highlighted the Government's apparent failure to learn the lessons from Exercise Cygnus, which made recommendations to improve the UK's response to a pandemic. This article compares and contrasts the UK Government's response with the exercise recommendations. It critiques the gaps using current crisis management literature and argues that to avoid future failings, more emphasis is needed on the effectiveness of recommendations from exercises. If this is not done, exercise lessons identified, and their recommendations will not be operationalized. This article argues that the successful transition from policy recommendation to practice requires recommendations to be contextualized, so they are feasible and practical, before they can be institutionalized. It introduces a practical framework and organizational actions on how future exercises can close the gap from lessons identified to be learned and shape practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
19.
J Emerg Manag ; 19(7): 127-132, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497649

ABSTRACT

Drawing on the diverse perspectives of four emergency management professionals and a public administration academic, gaps revealed by our nation's response to the COVID-19 pandemic are discussed. These gaps range from political theory regarding our government system of federalism to fundamental questions around the public communication of risk management and the provision of mass shelter and care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Government , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Emerg Manag ; 18(7): 49-61, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1497630

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has been considered as a catastrophic global health response mechanism and demonstrated the international preparedness for the outbreak as well as government initiatives. This study aims to evaluate the comparative analysis of government response in China, India, Iran, and Pakistan (CIIP) countries regarding their policy enforcement on combating COVID-19 by using stringency, socioeconomic, and health containment indices. The proposed study analyzed the policy implications in CIIP from January 1, 2020 through July 21, 2020. Data have been collected from the European Union, World Health Organization, Humanitarian Exchange, and a selected National Database. Results show that despite a high degree of government's strict policies in India and Pakistan, they have been failing to control the brutality of the COVID-19. In contrast, the politics of China and Iran appear to be very successful in combating the situation in COVID-19. This study concludes that countries with ample resources and stronger coping strategies should provide developing countries with the mean for mitigating and improve their socioeconomic and economic crises, which hindered their consistent policy enforcement during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , China , Government , Humans , India , Iran , Pakistan/epidemiology , Policy , SARS-CoV-2
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