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1.
Am J Transplant ; 22(7): 1884-1892, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956680

ABSTRACT

The development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is common and results in adverse outcomes. In kidney transplantation, Belatacept has been associated with a lower incidence of DSA, but experience with Belatacept in lung transplantation is limited. We conducted a two-center pilot randomized controlled trial of de novo immunosuppression with Belatacept after lung transplantation to assess the feasibility of conducting a pivotal trial. Twenty-seven participants were randomized to Control (Tacrolimus, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 14) or Belatacept-based immunosuppression (Tacrolimus, Belatacept, and prednisone until day 89 followed by Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 13). All participants were treated with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin for induction immunosuppression. We permanently stopped randomization and treatment with Belatacept after three participants in the Belatacept arm died compared to none in the Control arm. Subsequently, two additional participants in the Belatacept arm died for a total of five deaths compared to none in the Control arm (log rank p = .016). We did not detect a significant difference in DSA development, acute cellular rejection, or infection between the two groups. We conclude that the investigational regimen used in this study is associated with increased mortality after lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
Lung Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prednisone
2.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10365, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1938663
4.
Front Immunol ; 13: 888385, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924104

ABSTRACT

Objective: This is the first systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the factors that contribute to poor antibody response in organ transplant recipients after receiving the 2-dose severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccine. Method: Data was obtained from Embase, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Biomedical Literature Database (CBM). Studies reporting factors associated with antibody responses to the 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in solid organ transplant recipients were included in our study based on the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Two researchers completed the literature search, screening, and data extraction. Randomized models were used to obtain results. Egger's test was performed to determine publication bias. Sensitivity analysis was performed to determine the stability of the result. The heterogeneity was determined using the Galbraith plot and subgroup analysis. Results: A total of 29 studies were included in the present study. The factors included living donor, BNT162b2, tacrolimus, cyclosporine, antimetabolite, mycophenolic acid (MPA) or mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), azathioprine, corticosteroids, high-dose corticosteroids, belatacept, mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor, tritherapy, age, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), hemoglobin, and tacrolimus level were significantly different. Multivariate analysis showed significant differences in age, diabetes mellitus, MPA or MMF, high-dose corticosteroids, tritherapy, and eGFR. Conclusion: The possible independent risk factors for negative antibody response in patients with organ transplants who received the 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 vaccine include age, diabetes mellitus, low eGFR, MPA or MMF, high-dose corticosteroids, and triple immunosuppression therapy. mTOR inhibitor can be a protective factor against weak antibody response. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO, identifier CRD42021257965.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Antibody Formation , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Diabetes Mellitus/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Mycophenolic Acid , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases , Tacrolimus
5.
Transpl Int ; 35: 10448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917242

ABSTRACT

The routine surveillance of kidney transplant allografts has relied on imperfect non-invasive biomarkers such as creatinine and urinary indices, while the gold standard allograft biopsy is associated with risk of bleeding, organ injury and sampling errors. Donor derived cell free DNA (dd-cfDNA) is being employed as a biomarker that addresses limitations of these surveillance methods, albeit has inherent drawbacks. This review provides an update on the enhanced understanding of dd-cfDNA and its expanded use beyond the conventional indication of detecting allograft rejection.


Subject(s)
Cell-Free Nucleic Acids , Kidney Transplantation , Biomarkers , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Tissue Donors
8.
Rev. bras. oftalmol ; 81: e0021, 2022. graf
Article in Portuguese | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1848155

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Este artigo descreve dois casos de reação imunológica de rejeição de transplante penetrante após a aplicação de dois tipos de vacina contra a COVID-19 - CoronaVac (Sinopharm/Butantan) e MRNA BNT162&2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) - com intervalo de 1 e 10 dias, respectivamente. A rejeição se manifestou com hiperemia, edema corneano e embaçamento da visão, que responderam rapidamente ao uso de corticoide tópico e subconjuntival. Até onde sabemos, este é o primeiro relato de rejeição de transplante penetrante de córnea pós-vacina anti-COVID-19. Recomendamos, presentemente, como prevenção, colírio de prednisolona a 1% 4 dias antes e durante 2 semanas após receber qualquer tipo de vacina para a COVID-19.


ABSTRACT This paper describes two cases of allograft corneal transplant rejection after the application of two types of COVID-19 vaccines - Coronavac (Sinopharm/Butantan) and MRNA BNT162&2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccines - with an interval of 1 to 10 days, respectively. The rejection manifested in the form of corneal edema, hyperemia and blurred vision, which responded rapidly to the use of topical and subconjunctival corticosteroid. As far as we know, this is the first published report of immunological rejection of penetrating corneal transplant after COVID-19 vaccination. As a preventative measure, we now recommend the use of 1% prednisolone eye drop 4 days before and during 2 weeks after having received any type of COVID-19 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/adverse effects , Vaccination/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Graft Rejection/etiology , Ophthalmic Solutions , Prednisolone/administration & dosage , Visual Acuity , Corneal Transplantation/adverse effects , Slit Lamp Microscopy , COVID-19 , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Rejection/drug therapy
9.
Clin Transplant ; 36(7): e14697, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840388

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic initially brought forth considerable challenges to the field of heart transplantation. To prevent the spread of the virus and protect immunocompromised recipients, our center made the following modifications to post-transplant outpatient management: eliminating early coronary angiograms, video visits for postoperative months 7, 9, and 11, and home blood draws for immunosuppression adjustments. To assess if these changes have impacted patient outcomes, the current study examines 1-year outcomes for patients transplanted during the pandemic. Between March and September 2020, we assessed 50 heart transplant patients transplanted during the pandemic. These patients were compared to patients who were transplanted during the same months between 2011 and 2019 (n = 482). Endpoints included subsequent 1-year survival, freedom from cardiac allograft vasculopathy, any-treated rejection, acute cellular rejection, antibody-mediated rejection, nonfatal major adverse cardiac events (NF-MACE), and hospital and ICU length of stay. Patients transplanted during the pandemic had similar 1-year endpoints compared to those of patients transplanted from years prior apart from 1-year freedom from NF-MACE which was significantly higher for patients transplanted during the pandemic. Despite necessary changes being made to outpatient management of heart transplant recipients, heart transplantation continues to be safe and effective with similar 1-year outcomes to years prior.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Transplant Recipients
10.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(5): 1817-1818, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835133

ABSTRACT

A 28-year-old female who underwent an uneventful femtosecond laser enabled keratoplasty (FLEK) in her left eye presented with pain, redness, and blurring of vision in the operated eye two weeks after getting immunized with COVID-19 vector vaccine (ChAdOx1 nCoV19 Vaccine Recombinant COVISHIELD, AstraZeneca). Slit-lamp examination showed donor stromal edema with Descemet's membrane folds and Khodadoust line (KP's on endothelium) with anterior chamber cells and flare. The patient was diagnosed with acute corneal graft rejection and advised hourly topical steroids with cycloplegics and oral steroids. The patient responded to treatment and there was progressive reversal of graft rejection with the patient achieving best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA) of 20/30 after five weeks of treatment. Our case highlights possible immune corneal graft rejection after COVID19 vaccination and the need to step up topical steroids before vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Corneal Diseases , Corneal Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Corneal Transplantation/adverse effects , Endothelium , Female , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Humans , Immunization , Postoperative Complications , Steroids , Vaccination , Visual Acuity
12.
HLA ; 100(1): 52-58, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816658

ABSTRACT

The effects of COVID-19 vaccination on alloimmunization and clinical impact in transplant candidates remain largely unknown. In a 61-year-old man who had no donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and was planned to undergo ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT), DSAs (anti-A24, anti-B51, and anti-Cw14) developed after COVID-19 vaccination. After desensitization therapy, antibody level was further increased, leading to flow cytometric crossmatch-positive status. Donor-specific T cell immunity using interferon-gamma ELISPOT was continuously negative, whereas SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity was intact. After confirming the C1q-negative status of DSA, the patient received ABOi KT. The patient had stable graft function and suppressed alloimmunity up to 2 months after KT. COVID-19 vaccination might relate to alloimmunization in transplant candidates, and desensitization through immune monitoring can help guide transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Alleles , Antibodies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Flow Cytometry , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , HLA Antigens , Humans , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
13.
BMJ Open ; 12(4): e061864, 2022 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794490

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Regulatory T cell (Treg) therapy has been demonstrated to facilitate long-term allograft survival in preclinical models of transplantation and may permit reduction of immunosuppression and its associated complications in the clinical setting. Phase 1 clinical trials have shown Treg therapy to be safe and feasible in clinical practice. Here we describe a protocol for the TWO study, a phase 2b randomised control trial of Treg therapy in living donor kidney transplant recipients that will confirm safety and explore efficacy of this novel treatment strategy. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: 60 patients will be randomised on a 1:1 basis to Treg therapy (TR001) or standard clinical care (control). Patients in the TR001 arm will receive an infusion of autologous polyclonal ex vivo expanded Tregs 5 days after transplantation instead of standard monoclonal antibody induction. Maintenance immunosuppression will be reduced over the course of the post-transplant period to low-dose tacrolimus monotherapy. Control participants will receive a standard basiliximab-based immunosuppression regimen with long-term tacrolimus and mycophenolate mofetil immunosuppression. The primary endpoint is biopsy proven acute rejection over 18 months; secondary endpoints include immunosuppression burden, chronic graft dysfunction and drug-related complications. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval has been provided by the National Health Service Health Research Authority South Central-Oxford A Research Ethics Committee (reference 18/SC/0054). The study also received authorisation from the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency and is being run in accordance with the principles of Good Clinical Practice, in collaboration with the registered trials unit Oxford Clinical Trials Research Unit. Results from the TWO study will be published in peer-reviewed scientific/medical journals and presented at scientific/clinical symposia and congresses. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ISRCTN: 11038572; Pre-results.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Living Donors , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , State Medicine , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use
14.
Curr Opin Organ Transplant ; 27(1): 64-69, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1794983

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this study was to describe recent developments in renal transplantation for HIV-positive recipients, especially the HIV Organ Policy Equity (HOPE) trial results. RECENT FINDINGS: HOPE trial data show that HIV-positive D+/R+ results are excellent and similar to D-/R+ in patients controlled on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients coinfected with hepatitis C or B virus now have effective treatment available. As pretransplant evaluation and post-transplant management is more complex in HIV-positive individuals early referral is important and coordination of evaluation and care with an infectious disease specialist is critical. HIV coordinated care services should be involved for best outcomes. HIV-positive renal transplant recipients have an increased risk of rejection and evidence suggests that standard lymphocyte depletion induction and maintenance immunosuppression be employed. Cardiovascular risk reduction and surveillance and attention to metabolic bone disease are important for HIV-positive renal transplant recipients. SUMMARY: HIV-positive to HIV-positive renal transplantation has been established as well tolerated and successful. Further efforts are needed to expand access to transplantation in this population. VIDEO ABSTRACT: http://links.lww.com/MOT/A29.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Kidney Transplantation , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepacivirus , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Transplant Recipients
15.
Cornea ; 41(5): 669-672, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778964

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report 5 cases of acute corneal graft rejection after COVID-19 vaccination and perform a review of the literature. METHODS: This was a case series and review of literature dated on the October 10, 2021. RESULTS: We describe 5 cases-2 patients with Descemet stripping automated endothelial keratoplasty (for Fuchs endothelial dystrophy) who presented with acute corneal graft rejection after their first dose of mRNA (BNT162) vaccine. The other 3 patients who had penetrating keratoplasty performed more than 10 years ago for keratoconus presented with acute graft rejection-2 patients after their second dose of adenovirus vector (AZD1222) vaccine and 1 patient after first dose of mRNA (BNT162) vaccine. Three patients were not using any topical steroid treatment at the time of diagnosis of graft rejection. The mean duration between vaccination and onset of symptoms was 16.86 ± 6.96 days for the mRNA vaccine and 17 ± 11.89 days for the adenovirus vector vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Corneal graft rejection has recently been reported after COVID-19 vaccination. Patients with keratoplasty need to be advised regarding the risk of corneal graft rejection and warning symptoms of rejection after COVID-19 vaccination. Seeking early referral to the emergency department and increasing topical steroids pre-COVID-19 and post-COVID-19 vaccination may reduce the risk of rejection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Corneal Diseases , Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty , Keratoconus , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Humans , Keratoconus/surgery , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
16.
Cornea ; 41(5): 651-653, 2022 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778963

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to report a case of "smoldering" keratolimbal allograft (KLAL) rejection in a patient with subtherapeutic levels of systemic immunosuppression in temporal association with BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccination for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. METHODS: This was a case report. OBSERVATIONS: A 72-year-old man presented with circumferential perilimbal engorgement, stagnation, and tortuosity of vessels with mild chemosis in his right eye KLAL segments 1 month after receiving the BNT162b2 messenger RNA vaccine while his tacrolimus trough blood levels were subtherapeutic measuring <2 ng/mL. He had undergone KLAL 6.5 years before for total limbal stem cell deficiency from a chemical injury and had been stable without any history of rejection. The donor was blood type O, and the patient had no systemic comorbidities. The patient was treated with hourly difluprednate 0.05% and increasing of his oral tacrolimus dose to 2 mg twice a day with improvement of rejection signs. CONCLUSIONS: There may be a temporal association between KLAL rejection after immunization against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 in patients with subtherapeutic levels of systemic immunosuppression. Patients should be on alert for any ocular signs or symptoms postimmunization and present for treatment immediately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Corneal Diseases , Limbus Corneae , Aged , Allografts , Corneal Diseases/diagnosis , Corneal Diseases/etiology , Graft Rejection/etiology , Humans , Male , Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 838985, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1742221

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Studies have shown reduced antiviral responses in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) following SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination, but data on post-vaccination alloimmune responses and antiviral responses against the Delta (B.1.617.2) variant are limited. Materials and methods: To address this issue, we conducted a prospective, multi-center study of 58 adult KTRs receiving mRNA-BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccines. We used multiple complementary non-invasive biomarkers for rejection monitoring including serum creatinine, proteinuria, donor-derived cell-free DNA, peripheral blood gene expression profile (PBGEP), urinary CXCL9 mRNA and de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSA). Secondary outcomes included development of anti-viral immune responses against the wild-type and Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Results: At a median of 85 days, no KTRs developed de novo DSAs and only one patient developed acute rejection following recent conversion to belatacept, which was associated with increased creatinine and urinary CXCL9 levels. During follow-up, there were no significant changes in proteinuria, donor-derived cell-free DNA levels or PBGEP. 36% of KTRs in our cohort developed anti-wild-type spike antibodies, 75% and 55% of whom had neutralizing responses against wild-type and Delta variants respectively. A cellular response against wild-type S1, measured by interferon-γ-ELISpot assay, developed in 38% of KTRs. Cellular responses did not differ in KTRs with or without antibody responses. Conclusions: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination in KTRs did not elicit a significant alloimmune response. About half of KTRs who develop anti-wild-type spike antibodies after two mRNA vaccine doses have neutralizing responses against the Delta variant. There was no association between anti-viral humoral and cellular responses.


Subject(s)
/immunology , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Kidney Transplantation , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Enzyme-Linked Immunospot Assay , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Isoantibodies/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Transplantation, Homologous , Vaccination
18.
Am J Transplant ; 22(8): 2083-2088, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741322

ABSTRACT

Nirmatrelvir/ritonavir (NR) use has not yet been described in solid organ transplant recipients (SOTRs) with mild COVID-19. The objective was to evaluate outcomes among SOTR and describe the drug-drug interaction of NR. This is an IRB-approved, retrospective study of all adult SOTR on a calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor who were prescribed NR between December 28, 2021 and January 6, 2022. A total of 25 adult SOTR were included (n = 21 tacrolimus, n = 4 cyclosporine, n = 3 everolimus, n = 1 sirolimus). All patients were instructed to follow the following standardized protocol during treatment with 5 days of NR: hold tacrolimus or mTOR inhibitor or reduce cyclosporine dose to 20% of baseline daily dose. Four patients (16%) were hospitalized by day 30; one for infectious diarrhea and three for symptoms related to COVID-19. No patients died within 30 days of receipt of NR. Median tacrolimus level pre- and post-NR were 7.4 ng/ml (IQR, 6.6-8.6) and 5.2 (IQR, 3.6-8.7), respectively. Four patients experienced a supratherapeutic tacrolimus concentration after restarting tacrolimus post-NR. Our results show the clinically significant interaction between NR and immunosuppressive agents can be reasonably managed with a standardized dosing protocol. Prescribers should carefully re-introduce CNI after the NR course is complete.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Organ Transplantation , Adult , COVID-19/drug therapy , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Retrospective Studies , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Sirolimus , Tacrolimus , Transplant Recipients
19.
BMC Nephrol ; 23(1): 91, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724444

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) was described in kidney transplant patients after viral infections, such as the cytomegalovirus. Very few cases were recently reported after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, probably in the context of lowering of immunosuppressive therapy. To date, no direct immunological link was proved to explain a connection between the coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) infection and antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) if it exists. CASE PRESENTATION: Here we try to find this association by presenting the case of a low immunological risk patient who presented, six years post-transplant, with c4d negative antibody mediated rejection due to an anti-HLA-C17 de novo donor specific antibody (DSA) after contracting the coronavirus disease 19. The HLA-Cw17 activated the antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity via the KIR2DS1 positive NK cells. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: This case report may prove a direct role for COVID-19 infection in AMRs in the kidney transplant recipients, leading us to closely monitor kidney transplant recipients, especially if they have "at-risk" donor antigens.


Subject(s)
Antibodies/immunology , COVID-19/complications , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Kidney Transplantation , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Time Factors
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686765

ABSTRACT

The outcomes of kidney transplantation depend on numerous factors and vary between transplant centers. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between selected organizational factors, comorbidities, and patient and graft survival. This is a retrospective analysis of 438 renal transplant recipients (RTR) followed for 5 years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated in relation to hospitalization length, distance from the patient's residence to the transplant center, the frequency of outpatient transplant visits, and the number and type of comorbidities. Five-year patient and graft survival rates were 93% and 90%, respectively. We found significant associations of patient survival with the prevalence of pre-transplant diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, the number of comorbidities, and the first post-transplant hospitalization length. The incidence of infections, cardiovascular diseases, and transplanted kidney diseases was 60%, 40%, and 33%, respectively. As many as 41% of RTR had unknown etiology of primary kidney disease. In conclusion, the organization of post-transplant care needs to be adapted to the multi-morbidity of contemporary RTR and include multi-specialist care, especially in the context of current problems related to the COVID-19pandemic. The high proportion of patients with undetermined etiology of their primary renal disease carry the risk for additional complications during their long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients
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