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1.
Indian J Ophthalmol ; 70(1): 319-321, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1597240

ABSTRACT

Endothelial rejection has been described following both m-RNA and vector-based vaccines for COVID-19. There is one case report of a stromal rejection described following influenza vaccination. We report a case of stromal rejection following vector-based COVID-19 vaccination, which might be the first case reported so far.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Keratoplasty, Penetrating/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Eye Contact Lens ; 47(11): 625-628, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1566082

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Owing to its rapid development, short-term and long-term effects of the COVID-19 vaccine are still not well understood. This case report highlights bilateral corneal endothelial graft rejection after administration of the Pfizer COVID-19 vaccine. A 73-year-old woman with bilateral Descemet stripping endothelial keratoplasty presented with bilateral decreased visual acuity, ocular pain, and photophobia after her second dose of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine. Two weeks after vaccine administration, the uncorrected visual acuity was 20/70 and 20/40. Central corneal thickness as measured by ultrasound was 809 and 825 µm and by Scheimfplug imaging was 788 and 751 µm at the pupil center. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy revealed quiet conjunctiva and sclera but was significant for thickened corneas with Descemet folds in both eyes. The patient was instructed to use prednisolone acetate 1% every 1 to 2 hours with Muro ointment at bedtime.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Corneal Diseases , Descemet Stripping Endothelial Keratoplasty , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines , Corneal Diseases/surgery , Descemet Membrane , Endothelium, Corneal , Female , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Transplantation ; 105(11): e234-e243, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data about SARS-CoV-2 vaccines efficacy in renal transplant recipients (RTR) are lacking. METHODS: To reveal predictors for humoral response to BNT162b2 vaccine among RTR, patients were divided into positive (N = 42) and negative (N = 78) response groups based on receptor-binding domain (RBD) immunoglobulin G (IgG) ≥1.1 and neutralizing antibodies (NA) ≥16 dilution versus RBD IgG <1.1 or NA <16, respectively. NA were detected using a SARS-CoV-2 pseudo-virus. RESULTS: NA were detected in only 42 of 120 (35%) of RTR versus 197 of 202 (97.5%) immunocompetent controls (P < 0.001). NA geometric mean titers in RTR were significantly lower versus the control group {83.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 50.5-138.8) versus 482 (95% CI, 411-566), P < 0.001}. In a multivariable analysis, mycophenolic acid (MPA) dose and hemoglobin level were found to be independent predictors for antibody response in RTR. A positive response rate of 27% versus 63% was observed in patients on and off MPA, respectively. An increase in MPA dose by 1 mg/kg weight reduced the odds for a positive response by 17% (odds ratio = 0.83; 95% CI, 0.75-0.92; P < 0.001). Geometric mean titers for RBD IgG were significantly reduced as MPA daily dose increased. Hemoglobin blood level <13 g/dL reduced the antibody response by 63% (P = 0.04). Pain at the injection site after the second vaccine dose was significantly higher in the responders versus nonresponders (20.5% versus 5.5%, P = 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Only 35% of RTR develop NA to the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine. MPA is a major suppressor of antibody response in RTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunity, Humoral/drug effects , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Cohort Studies , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , Mycophenolic Acid/administration & dosage , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
5.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e933001, 2021 Oct 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485494

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND There are many safety concerns regarding the use of antithymocyte globulin (ATG) in kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) during the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Hereby, we present our recent experience with ATG administration both as induction therapy and as an anti-rejection treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively analyzed all patients transplanted during the first 12 months of the COVID-19 pandemic who were treated with thymoglobulin. The ATG dosing, lymphocyte number and percentage in blood smear, adverse effects (thrombocytopenia and infectious complications), and kidney graft function up to 12 months and patients' outcomes were analyzed and compared to KTRs who received basiliximab induction. RESULTS During pandemic, a total of 31 patients were treated with ATG and 59 received basiliximab. The median cumulative ATG doses were 275 (175-325) mg in the induction subgroup and 263 (200-275) mg in the anti-rejection treatment subgroup. Mild thrombocytopenia was noted in 7 (22.6%) and 13 (29.5%) patients, respectively. There were more infectious complications among patients treated with ATG as compared with the basiliximab subgroup (32.3 vs 10.2%, P<0.01), but there were similar incidence rates of thrombocytopenia. Kidney graft function up to 12 months after transplant was comparable (1.1 [1.0-1.9] vs 1.1 [1.0-1.4] mg/dl, respectively). CONCLUSIONS 1. ATG use in the induction protocol or as the anti-rejection treatment during the COVID-19 pandemic appears to be safe and the risk of adverse events is acceptable. 2. During the COVID-19 pandemic the necessary use of ATG should not be postponed, especially in KTRs with increased immunologic risk.


Subject(s)
Antilymphocyte Serum , COVID-19 , Immunosuppressive Agents , Kidney Transplantation , Antilymphocyte Serum/adverse effects , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Basiliximab/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies
6.
Transplantation ; 105(11): e226-e233, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Initial reports in adult kidney transplant recipients (KTR) indicate low immunogenicity after 2 doses of the BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine. We describe the immunogenicity of this vaccine compared to the serologic response in naturally infected COVID-19 positive adolescent and young adult KTR. METHODS: For this prospective observational study, the study group included 38 KTR who received 2 doses of the tested vaccine, and the control group included 14 KTR who had a previous polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 infection. RESULTS: The mean age was 18 ± 3 y. Positive serologic responses were observed in 63% and 100% of the study and control groups, respectively (P = 0.01). Antibody titers were almost 30-fold higher in the control than the study group (median [interquartile range (IQR)]: 2782 [1908-11 000] versus 100.3 [4.7-1744] AU/mL, P < 0.001), despite the longer time from the COVID-19 infection to serologic testing compared to time from vaccination (median [IQR]: 157.5 [60-216] versus 37 [20.5-53] d, P = 0.011). Among vaccinated patients, higher proportions of those seronegative than seropositive were previously treated with rituximab (50% versus 8%, P = 0.01). Time from the second vaccine dose to serologic testing was longer in seropositive than seronegative patients (median [IQR]: 24.5 [15-40] versus 46 [27-56] d, P = 0.05). No patient developed symptomatic COVID-19 disease postvaccination. CONCLUSIONS: The BNT162b2 COVID-19 mRNA vaccine yielded higher positive antibody response in adolescent and young adult KTR than previously reported for adult KTR. Antibody titers after vaccination were significantly lower than following COVID-19 infection. Longer time may be required to mount appropriate humoral immunity to vaccination in KTR.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Male , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Transplant Recipients/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 251, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The ongoing coronavirus pandemic has major impacts on both patients and healthcare systems worldwide, thus creating new realities. Patients on maintenance dialysis listed for renal transplantation are a vulnerable subgroup with many comorbidities and recurring contacts with the healthcare system. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic transplant numbers have dropped considerably, further increasing waiting times in this high-risk population. On the other hand, knowledge of the severity of SARS-CoV-2 infection in immunocompromised patients, development and persistence of neutralising antibodies in such patients is just emerging. It is unclear how best to address the dilemma of postponing the life-saving transplantation. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case report of a successful kidney transplantation only 65 days after the recipient was hospitalized for treatment of COVID-19 pneumonia. In a follow up of 9 months, we observed no signs of recurrent disease and transplant function is excellent. Monitoring SARS-CoV-2 antibody response demonstrates stable IgG levels. CONCLUSION: This reassuring case provides guidance to transplant centers how to proceed with kidney transplantation safely during the pandemic. Careful consideration of risks and benefits of the organ offer, full recovery from COVID-19 symptoms and the presence of a positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody test, qualifies for kidney transplantation.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Female , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Transplantation ; 105(6): 1372-1380, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1249353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The magnitude and kinetics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-specific cell-mediated immunity (SARS-CoV-2-CMI) in kidney transplant (KT) recipients remain largely unknown. METHODS: We enumerated SARS-CoV-2-specific interferon-γ-producing CD69+ CD4+ and CD8+ T cells at months 4 and 6 from the diagnosis of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in 21 KT recipients by intracellular cytokine staining. Overlapping peptides encompassing the SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) glycoprotein N-terminal 1- to 643-amino acid sequence and the membrane protein were used as stimulus. SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies targeting the S1 protein were assessed by ELISA at month 6. RESULTS: Detectable (≥0.1%) SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ T-cell response was found in 57.1% and 47.4% of patients at months 4 and 6. Corresponding rates for CD8+ T cells were 19.0% and 42.1%, respectively. Absolute SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell counts increased from month 4 to month 6 in CD8+ (P = 0.086) but not CD4+ subsets (P = 0.349). Four of 10 patients with any detectable response at month 4 had lost SARS-CoV-2-CMI by month 6, whereas 5 of 9 patients mounted SARS-CoV-2-CMI within this period. All but 2 patients (89.5%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Patients lacking detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ response by month 6 were more likely to be under tacrolimus (100.0% versus 66.7%; P = 0.087) and to have received tocilizumab for the previous COVID-19 episode (40.0% versus 0.0%; P = 0.087). CONCLUSIONS: Although still exploratory and limited by small sample size, the present study suggests that a substantial proportion of KT recipients exhibited detectable SARS-CoV-2-CMI after 6 months from COVID-19 diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , Immunocompromised Host , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/administration & dosage , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/adverse effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/immunology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Transplant Recipients
12.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 78(14): 1287-1293, 2021 07 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169638

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nonadherence is a leading cause of death-censored allograft loss in kidney transplant recipients. Strong associations have tied tacrolimus intrapatient variability (IPV) to degree of nonadherence and high tacrolimus IPV to clinical endpoints such as rejection and allograft loss. Nonadherence is a dynamic, complex problem best targeted by multidimensional interventions, including mobile health (mHealth) technologies. METHODS: This was a secondary planned analysis of a 12-month, parallel, 2-arm, semiblind, 1:1 randomized controlled trial involving 136 adult kidney transplant recipients. The primary aims of the TRANSAFE Rx study were to assess the efficacy of a pharmacist-led, mHealth-based intervention in improving medication safety and health outcomes for kidney transplant recipients as compared to usual care. RESULTS: Patients were randomized equally to 68 patients per arm. The intervention arm demonstrated a statistically significant decrease in tacrolimus IPV over time as compared to the control arm (P = 0.0133). When analyzing a clinical goal of tacrolimus IPV of less than 30%, the 2 groups were comparable at baseline (P = 0.765), but significantly more patients in the intervention group met this criterion at month 12 (P = 0.033). In multivariable modeling, variables that independently impacted tacrolimus IPV included time, treatment effect, age, and warm ischemic time. CONCLUSION: This secondary planned analysis of an mHealth-based, pharmacist-led intervention demonstrated an association between the active intervention in the trial and improved tacrolimus IPV. Further prospective studies are required to confirm the mutability of tacrolimus IPV and impact of reducing tacrolimus IPV on long-term clinical outcomes.


Subject(s)
Kidney Transplantation , Telemedicine , Adult , Graft Rejection/epidemiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents , Pharmacists , Tacrolimus
13.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1219-1223, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164556

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in many challenges in patient care, especially among high-risk populations such as heart transplant recipients. Patients with heart transplant experience a significantly higher mortality rate with COVID-19 infection, and management is based on extrapolation from clinical trials done on nontransplant patients and from clinical experience. Here we report 4 cases of patients with heart transplant who presented with COVID-19 infection in late 2020. Patients presented with symptoms similar to those seen in the general population. All 4 patients were admitted to the hospital, and they were all treated with dexamethasone. In addition, 2 patients received remdesivir. Immunosuppressive medications were adjusted to maintain adequate levels of immunosuppression but at the same time allow for an adequate immune response against the infection. All patients were discharged alive from the hospital. We then performed a literature review on studies that included heart transplant patients who developed the infection and developed suggestions for a standardized management approach, which we share in this article.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Heart Transplantation , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Aged , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Heart Failure/complications , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Withholding Treatment
14.
Cir Cir ; 89(2): 269-274, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1158505

ABSTRACT

ANTECEDENTES: En diciembre de 2019 se identificó en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, un nuevo beta coronavirus, el SARS-CoV-2, como agente causal de neumonía grave, conocida como COVID-19, lo cual ha provocado medidas estrictas de aislamiento, cierre de programas de trasplante hepático y la necesidad de modificar los protocolos de tratamiento. OBJETIVO: Documentar la información publicada sobre el impacto de la COVID-19 en la población con antecedente de trasplante hepático y establecer un protocolo de tratamiento. MÉTODO: Se buscaron en PubMed los términos MeSH "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "trasplante hepático" y "tratamiento". RESULTADOS: Hasta el momento se ha demostrado en la población con trasplante hepático una mayor facilidad para adquirir el virus, sin una diferencia en la mortalidad al compararla con la población general. La inmunosupresión debe continuar, sin suspender los inhibidores de la calcineurina. Del tratamiento específico, los esteroides son los que han demostrado el mayor beneficio clínico y una disminución de la mortalidad. CONCLUSIÓN: El trasplante hepático no se asocia de manera independiente a una mayor mortalidad. Otros factores, además del trasplante, deben tomarse en cuenta al momento de establecer la gravedad. BACKGROUND: In December 2019, a new beta coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, was identified in the city of Wuhan, China, as a causative agent of severe pneumonia, known as COVID-19, which has led to strict isolation measures, closure of liver transplantation programs and the need to modify treatment protocols. OBJECTIVE: Document the information published so far on the impact of COVID-19 in the population with a history of liver transplantation and establish a treatment protocol. METHOD: MeSH terms were searched for "SARS-CoV-2", "COVID-19", "liver transplantation" and "treatment". RESULTS: Up to now, a greater ease in acquiring the virus has been shown in the liver transplant population, without a difference in mortality when compared to the general population. Immunosuppression should continue at the minimum tolerated levels, without suspending calcineurin inhibitors. Of the specific treatment, steroids are those that have shown the greatest clinical benefit and decreased mortality. CONCLUSION: Liver transplantation is not independently associated with higher mortality. Factors other than transplantation must be taken into account when considering the risk of severity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation , Pandemics , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Blood Component Transfusion , COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/transmission , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunization, Passive , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Liver Transplantation/mortality , Waiting Lists , Withholding Treatment
15.
Ann Transplant ; 26: e929279, 2021 Mar 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1154830

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) has been an ongoing pandemic since December 2019. Unfortunately, kidney transplant recipients are a high-risk group during the disease course, and scientific data are still limited in this patient group. Beyond the dosage of immunosuppressive drugs, pharmacological immunosuppression may also alter the infection response in the COVID-19 course. The effects of immunosuppressive agents on the development and process of infection should not be decided only by determining how potent they are and how much they suppress the immune system; it is also thought that the direct effect of the virus, increased oxidative stress, and cytokine storm play a role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease. There are data about immunosuppressive drugs like calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitors (mTORi) therapy related to their beneficial effects during any infection course. Limited data suggest that the use of CNI or mTORi may have beneficial effects on the process. In this hypothetical review, the probable impacts of CNI and mTORi on the pathogenesis of the COVID-19 were investigated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Calcineurin Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Postoperative Complications/immunology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Adaptive Immunity/drug effects , COVID-19/diagnosis , Calcineurin Inhibitors/pharmacology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokine Release Syndrome/virology , Graft Rejection/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/immunology , Postoperative Complications/diagnosis , Postoperative Complications/virology , Protein Kinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
16.
Transplant Proc ; 53(4): 1187-1193, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1081930

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Kidney transplant recipients (KTR) are considered high-risk for morbidity and mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, some studies did not show worse outcomes compared to non-transplant patients and there is little data about immunosuppressant drug levels and secondary infections in KTR with COVID-19. Herein, we describe our single-center experience with COVID-19 in KTR. METHODS: We captured KTR diagnosed with COVID-19 between March 1, 2020 and May 18, 2020. After exclusion of KTR on hemodialysis and off immunosuppression, we compared the clinical course of COVID-19 between hospitalized KTR and non-transplant patients, matched by age and sex (controls). RESULTS: Eleven KTR were hospitalized and matched with 44 controls. One KTR and 4 controls died (case fatality rate: 9.1%). There were no significant differences in length of stay or clinical outcomes between KTR and controls. Tacrolimus or sirolimus levels were >10 ng/mL in 6 out of 9 KTR (67%). Bacterial infections were more frequent in KTR (36.3%), compared with controls (6.8%, P = .02). CONCLUSIONS: In our small case series, unlike earlier reports from the pandemic epicenters, the clinical outcomes of KTR with COVID-19 were comparable to those of non-transplant patients. Calcineurin or mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor (mTOR) levels were high. Bacterial infections were more common in KTR, compared with controls.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/complications , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sirolimus/therapeutic use , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/metabolism , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
19.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1020889

ABSTRACT

We present a kidney-pancreas transplant recipient who achieved complete recovery from COVID-19. A 45-year-old patient with T3 paraplegia underwent kidney-pancreas transplantation 18 years ago, followed by a subsequent kidney transplant 9 years ago, and presented with fever, hypoxia and hypotension after exposure to two confirmed cases of COVID-19. History of solid organ transplant, pre-existing renal impairment, asthma and an elevated D-dimer were identified as established risk factors for severe COVID-19. Supportive management was provided, baseline immunosuppression with everolimus was continued, and oral prednisolone was increased. A complete recovery was observed. Given the favourable outcome despite risk factors for severe COVID-19, we identify and review the potential mitigating roles of immunosuppression and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors in this disease. Further investigation is required to establish whether mTOR inhibitors could be used as therapeutic agents to treat COVID-19, or as alternative immunosuppression implemented early in the COVID-19 disease course.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Transplantation , Pancreas Transplantation , Paraplegia/complications , Accidents, Traffic , Asthma/complications , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/complications , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1/surgery , Everolimus/therapeutic use , Fever/physiopathology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/metabolism , Humans , Hypotension/physiopathology , Hypoxia/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , Prednisolone/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , TOR Serine-Threonine Kinases/antagonists & inhibitors
20.
Adv Chronic Kidney Dis ; 27(5): 383-389, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1019900

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, has led to the death of hundreds of thousands of people worldwide. If infected, older individuals and those with diabetes, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and compromised immune systems are at higher risk for unfavorable outcomes. These comorbidities are prevalent in patients with kidney disease, hence the significant burden of COVID-19 on kidney transplant programs. Multiple case series of kidney transplant recipients with COVID-19 have shown increased mortality compared to nontransplant patients. To date, we do not have high-level evidence to inform immunosuppression minimization strategies in infected transplant recipients. Most centers however have adopted early antimetabolite withdrawal in addition to other interventions. This review summarizes the published COVID-19 literature as it relates to outcomes and immunosuppression management in kidney transplant recipients. It also discusses challenges pertaining to pretransplant evaluation and wait-listed patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Kidney Failure, Chronic/surgery , Kidney Transplantation , Telemedicine , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care/methods , Deprescriptions , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , Physical Distancing , Preoperative Care , SARS-CoV-2 , Waiting Lists
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