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1.
Am J Transplant ; 22(7): 1884-1892, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956680

ABSTRACT

The development of donor-specific antibodies (DSA) after lung transplantation is common and results in adverse outcomes. In kidney transplantation, Belatacept has been associated with a lower incidence of DSA, but experience with Belatacept in lung transplantation is limited. We conducted a two-center pilot randomized controlled trial of de novo immunosuppression with Belatacept after lung transplantation to assess the feasibility of conducting a pivotal trial. Twenty-seven participants were randomized to Control (Tacrolimus, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 14) or Belatacept-based immunosuppression (Tacrolimus, Belatacept, and prednisone until day 89 followed by Belatacept, Mycophenolate Mofetil, and prednisone, n = 13). All participants were treated with rabbit anti-thymocyte globulin for induction immunosuppression. We permanently stopped randomization and treatment with Belatacept after three participants in the Belatacept arm died compared to none in the Control arm. Subsequently, two additional participants in the Belatacept arm died for a total of five deaths compared to none in the Control arm (log rank p = .016). We did not detect a significant difference in DSA development, acute cellular rejection, or infection between the two groups. We conclude that the investigational regimen used in this study is associated with increased mortality after lung transplantation.


Subject(s)
Lung Transplantation , Tacrolimus , Abatacept/therapeutic use , Antilymphocyte Serum/therapeutic use , Graft Rejection/drug therapy , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/prevention & control , Graft Survival , Humans , Immunosuppression Therapy , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Lung Transplantation/adverse effects , Mycophenolic Acid/therapeutic use , Pilot Projects , Prednisone
2.
Am J Transplant ; 22(7): 1852-1860, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1937907

ABSTRACT

Despite the benefits of abdominal normothermic regional perfusion (A-NRP) for abdominal grafts in controlled donation after circulatory death (cDCD), there is limited information on the effect of A-NRP on the quality of the cDCD lungs. We aimed to study the effect of A-NRP in lungs obtained from cDCD and its impact on recipients´ outcomes. This is a study comparing outcomes of lung transplants (LT) from cDCD donors (September 2014 to December 2021) obtained using A-NRP as the abdominal preservation method. As controls, all lung recipients transplanted from donors after brain death (DBD) were considered. The primary outcomes were lung recipient 3-month, 1-year, and 5-year survival. A total of 269 LT were performed (60 cDCD and 209 DBD). There was no difference in survival at 3 months (98.3% cDCD vs. 93.7% DBD), 1 year (90.9% vs. 87.2%), and 5 years (68.7% vs. 69%). LT from the cDCD group had a higher rate of primary graft dysfunction grade 3 at 72 h (10% vs. 3.4%; p <  .001). This is the largest experience ever reported with the use of A-NRP combined with lung retrieval in cDCD donors. This combined method is safe for lung grafts presenting short-term survival outcomes equivalent to those transplanted through DBD.


Subject(s)
Liver Transplantation , Lung Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Brain Death , Death , Graft Survival , Humans , Liver Transplantation/methods , Organ Preservation/methods , Perfusion/methods , Retrospective Studies , Tissue Donors
3.
Clin Nephrol ; 98(1): 54-61, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1918020

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Transplanting kidneys from donors with a recent history of severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia is uncommon due to concerns about the risk of viral transmission and the quality of kidneys from these donors. To date, there are no conclusive data on viral transmission from extrapulmonary solid organ transplants. Given the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections in potential donors, shortage of kidneys available for transplantation, and low risk of viral transmission, we developed a clinical protocol for accepting kidneys from donors with recent severe SARS-CoV-2 pneumonia who demonstrate preserved kidney function. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We collected data on early outcomes of 5 kidney transplant recipients from 4 deceased donors hospitalized for severe SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Donor creatinine ranged from 0.51 to 0.60 mg/dL and kidney donor profile index (KDPI) from 14 to 52%. Three of the five kidneys were from donation after circulatory death. All recipients were fully vaccinated, and 4/5 received post-exposure prophylactic monoclonal antibody treatment. While 3 recipients had delayed graft function, all had excellent graft function at 3 or 4 weeks post-operatively. None of the recipients displayed signs or symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infection post-transplant. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that kidney grafts from donors with a recent history of severe SARS-CoV-2 infection but with preserved kidney function can be safely used and have good early outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Tissue and Organ Procurement , COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Kidney Transplantation/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , Transplant Recipients
4.
HLA ; 100(1): 52-58, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1816658

ABSTRACT

The effects of COVID-19 vaccination on alloimmunization and clinical impact in transplant candidates remain largely unknown. In a 61-year-old man who had no donor-specific antibodies (DSA) and was planned to undergo ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation (ABOi KT), DSAs (anti-A24, anti-B51, and anti-Cw14) developed after COVID-19 vaccination. After desensitization therapy, antibody level was further increased, leading to flow cytometric crossmatch-positive status. Donor-specific T cell immunity using interferon-gamma ELISPOT was continuously negative, whereas SARS-CoV-2 specific T cell immunity was intact. After confirming the C1q-negative status of DSA, the patient received ABOi KT. The patient had stable graft function and suppressed alloimmunity up to 2 months after KT. COVID-19 vaccination might relate to alloimmunization in transplant candidates, and desensitization through immune monitoring can help guide transplantation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Alleles , Antibodies , COVID-19 Vaccines , Flow Cytometry , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , HLA Antigens , Humans , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Cir Cir ; 90(2): 172-179, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1766285

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In the past decade, advances in immunological therapy have increased the survival of kidney recipients and their grafts. However, it has not achieved the desired level of improvement. This study aims to reveal the mortality among kidney recipients. METHODS: Medical data of the patients, who had undergone kidney transplantation (KT) between November 2010 and December 2020, were retrospectively reviewed. Inclusion criteria were adult kidney recipients, who had died. Exclusion criteria were pediatric recipients, recipients of en bloc and dual KT, recipients with missing data, and recipients with a primary non-functioning graft. The recipients were grouped according to their donor type; Group 1 (from a living donor) and Group 2 (from a deceased donor). Subgroup analyses were done for mortality by time-period post-transplant and for infectious causes of mortality. RESULTS: Of 314 recipients, 35 (11.14%) died. Twenty-nine recipients were included in the study (Group 1: 17 and Group 2: 12). The most common cause of mortality was infection (58.6%), and the second was cardiovascular disease (CVD) (24.1%). Sepsis developed in 29.4% of infection-related deaths, while COVID-19 constituted 23.5% of infection-related deaths. CONCLUSION: Early diagnosis and treatment of infectious and CVD are important to improve survival in kidney recipients.


OBJETIVOS: En la última década, los avances en la terapia inmunológica han aumentado la supervivencia de los receptores de riñón y sus injertos. Sin embargo, no se pudo lograr el nivel de mejora deseado. Este estudio tiene como objetivo revelar la mortalidad entre los receptores de riñón. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS: Se revisaron retrospectivamente los datos médicos de los pacientes, que se habían sometido a un trasplante de riñón entre Noviembre de 2010 y Diciembre de 2020. Los criterios de inclusión fueron los receptores de riñón adultos, que habían fallecido. Los criterios de exclusión fueron los receptores pediátricos, los receptores de trasplantes de riñón dual y en bloque, los receptores con datos faltantes y los receptores con un injerto primario no funcionante. Los receptores se agruparon según su tipo de donante; Grupo 1 (de un donante vivo) y Grupo 2 (de un donante fallecido). Se realizaron análisis de subgrupos para la mortalidad por período de tiempo posterior al trasplante y para las causas infecciosas de mortalidad. RESULTADOS: De 314 beneficiarios, 35 (11,14%) fallecieron. Se incluyeron 29 receptores en el estudio (Grupo 1:17; Grupo 2:12). La causa más común de mortalidad fue la infección (58,6%) y la segunda fue la enfermedad cardiovascular (24,1%). La sepsis se desarrolló en el 29,4% de las muertes relacionadas con la infección, mientras que el COVID-19 constituyó el 23,5% de las muertes relacionadas con la infección. CONCLUSIÓN: El diagnóstico y tratamiento tempranos de enfermedades infecciosas y cardiovasculares es importante para mejorar la supervivencia de los receptores de riñón.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , Adult , Child , Graft Survival , Humans , Living Donors , Retrospective Studies
9.
J Clin Apher ; 36(4): 628-633, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1748739

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Criteria for selection of FFP blood type has not been clearly established and use of group AB plasma is preferred by numerous transplantation protocols. AIMS: This study assesses the safety and efficacy of alternative group A or B plasma in ABO incompatible solid organ transplantation. MATERIALS & METHODS: Alternative use of group A or B plasma (incompatible plasma) was inevitable during the shortage of group AB plasma. Experience from select number of patients during the period of extreme group AB plasma shortage is described. RESULTS: The result of alternative use of group A or B plasma was within expectation, showing effective reduction of isoagglutinin titers for pre-operative desensitization and efficacy for treatment of post-operative patients. No immediate hemolytic transfusion reaction was reported. DISCUSSION: While validation in a larger cohort of patients is necessary, our limited experience have shown satisfactory clinical outcomes without adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Use of incompatible group A or B plasma is a viable option when group AB plasma is limited.


Subject(s)
ABO Blood-Group System , Blood Group Incompatibility/therapy , Plasma Exchange/methods , Transplantation/methods , Agglutinins/chemistry , Blood Banks/supply & distribution , Graft Survival , Hemolysis , Humans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Patient Safety , Plasma/immunology , Plasmapheresis , Transfusion Reaction , Treatment Outcome
10.
Am J Transplant ; 22 Suppl 2: 438-518, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735852

ABSTRACT

For the first time in a decade, both the number of candidates added to the waiting list and the number of lung transplants performed decreased from the year prior; the number of lung donors also declined. This slowing of transplant activities in 2020 was associated with a modest increase in waitlist mortality. The year 2020 was notable for the global outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, which undoubtedly influenced all trends noted in lung transplantation. Time to transplant continued to decrease, with a median time to transplant of 1.4 months across all waitlist candidates. Posttransplant survival remained stable, with 89.4% of transplant recipients surviving to 1 year, 74.8% to 3 years, and 61.2% to 5 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue and Organ Procurement , COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Survival , Humans , Lung , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
11.
Am J Transplant ; 22 Suppl 2: 21-136, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735851

ABSTRACT

The year 2020 presented significant challenges to the field of kidney transplantation. After increasing each year since 2015 and reaching the highest annual count to date in 2019, the total number of kidney trans- plants decreased slightly, to 23642, in 2020. The decrease in total kidney transplants was due to a decrease in living donor transplants; the number of deceased donor transplants rose in 2020. The number of patients waiting for a kidney transplant in the United States declined slightly in 2020, driven by a slight drop in the number of new candidates added in 2020 and an increase in patients removed from the waiting list owing to death-important patterns that correlated with the COVID-19 pandemic. The complexities of the pandemic were accompanied by other ongoing challenges. Nationwide, only about a quarter of waitlisted patients receive a deceased donor kidney transplant within 5 years, a proportion that varies dramatically by donation service area, from 14.8% to 73.0%. The nonutilization (discard) rate of recovered organs rose to its highest value, at 21.3%, despite a dramatic decline in the discard of organs from hepatitis C-positive donors. Nonutilization rates remain particularly high for Kidney Donor Profile Index ≥85% kidneys and kidneys from which a biopsy specimen was obtained. Due to pandemic-related disruption of living donation in spring 2020, the number of living donor transplants in 2020 declined below annual counts over the last decade. In this context, only a small proportion of the waiting list receives living donor transplants each year, and racial disparities in living donor transplant access persist. As both graft and patient survival continue to improve incrementally, the total number of living kidney transplant recipients with a functioning graft exceeded 250,000 in 2020. Pediatric transplant numbers seem to have been impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The total number of pediatric kidney transplants performed decreased to 715 in 2020, from a peak of 872 in 2009. Despite numerous efforts, living donor kidney transplant remains low among pediatric recipients, with continued racial disparities among recipients. Of concern, the rate of deceased donor transplant among pediatric waitlisted candidates continued to decrease, reaching its lowest point in 2020. While this may be partly explained by the COVID-19 pandemic, close attention to this trend is critically important. Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract remain the leading cause of kidney disease in the pediatric population. While most pediatric de- ceased donor recipients receive a kidney from a donor with KDPI less than 35%, most pediatric deceased donor recipients had four or more HLA mis- matches. Graft survival continues to improve, with superior survival for living donor recipients versus deceased donor recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue and Organ Procurement , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Graft Survival , Humans , Kidney , Living Donors , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
13.
Am J Transplant ; 22 Suppl 2: 204-309, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735849

ABSTRACT

This year was marked by the COVID-19 pandemic, which altered transplant program activity and affected waitlist and transplant outcomes. Still, 8906 liver transplants were performed, an all-time high, across 142 centers in the United States, and pretransplant as well as graft and patient survival metrics, continued to improve. Living donation activity decreased after several years of growth. As of June 30, 2020, 98989 liver transplant recipients were alive with a functioning graft, and in the context of increasing liver transplant volume, the size of both the adult and pediatric liver transplant waitlists have decreased. On February 4, 2020, shortly before the pandemic began, a new liver distribution policy based on acuity circles was implemented, replacing donor service area- and region-based boundaries. A policy change to direct pediatric livers to pediatric recipients led to an increase in deceased donor transplant rates and a decrease in pretransplant mortality rate among children, although the absolute number of pediatric transplants did not increase in 2020. Among adults, alcohol-associated liver disease became the predominant indication for liver transplant in 2020. After implementation of the National Liver Review Board and lower waitlist priority for most exception cases in 2019, fewer liver transplants were being performed via exception points, and the transplant rate between those with and without hepatocellular carcinoma has equalized. Women continue to experience higher pretransplant mortality and lower rates of liver transplant than men.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Female , Graft Survival , Humans , Liver , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
14.
Am J Transplant ; 22 Suppl 2: 350-437, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1735848

ABSTRACT

As we enter the third year of the new adult heart allocation policy, we are faced with the new challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic. In 2020, new listings (adult and pediatric) decreased slightly, with 4000 new listings in 2020, compared with 4087 in 2019; however, the number of adult heart transplants performed continued to increase, to 3715 in 2020. The number of pediatric heart transplants declined from 509 in 2019 to 465 in 2020. One-year and six-month posttransplant mortality rates in adult recipients have increased slightly since 2015 but have not significantly changed over the past decade. Overall, posttransplant mortality rates for adult recipients were 7.4% at six months and 9.4% at one year for transplants in 2019, 14.0% at three years for transplants in 2017, and 19.1% at five years for transplants in 2015. Although shorter-term posttransplant mortality rates have slightly increased, there has been a steady downward trend in longer-term mortality. Mortality rates for pediatric recipients were 5.7% at six months and 8.1% at one year for transplants in 2019, 11.6% at three years for transplants in 2017, and 15.2% at five years for transplants in 2015.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Tissue and Organ Procurement , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Graft Survival , Humans , Pandemics , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , Tissue Donors , United States/epidemiology , Waiting Lists
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(4)2022 02 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1686765

ABSTRACT

The outcomes of kidney transplantation depend on numerous factors and vary between transplant centers. The aim of this study is to assess the relationship between selected organizational factors, comorbidities, and patient and graft survival. This is a retrospective analysis of 438 renal transplant recipients (RTR) followed for 5 years. Patient and graft survival were evaluated in relation to hospitalization length, distance from the patient's residence to the transplant center, the frequency of outpatient transplant visits, and the number and type of comorbidities. Five-year patient and graft survival rates were 93% and 90%, respectively. We found significant associations of patient survival with the prevalence of pre-transplant diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, malignancies, the number of comorbidities, and the first post-transplant hospitalization length. The incidence of infections, cardiovascular diseases, and transplanted kidney diseases was 60%, 40%, and 33%, respectively. As many as 41% of RTR had unknown etiology of primary kidney disease. In conclusion, the organization of post-transplant care needs to be adapted to the multi-morbidity of contemporary RTR and include multi-specialist care, especially in the context of current problems related to the COVID-19pandemic. The high proportion of patients with undetermined etiology of their primary renal disease carry the risk for additional complications during their long-term follow-up.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Kidney Transplantation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Graft Rejection , Graft Survival , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Transplant Recipients
16.
N Engl J Med ; 386(5): 497-498, 2022 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1671704
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1650418

ABSTRACT

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome is the most common cause of respiratory failure among critically ill patients, and its importance has been heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. Even with the best supportive care, the mortality rate in the most severe cases is 40-50%, and the only pharmacological agent shown to be of possible benefit has been steroids. Mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) have been tested in several pre-clinical models of lung injury and been found to have significant therapeutic benefit related to: (a) potent immunomodulation; (b) secretion of epithelial and endothelial growth factors; and (c) augmentation of host defense to infection. Initial translational efforts have shown signs of promise, but the results have not yielded the anticipated outcomes. One potential reason is the relatively low survival of MSCs in inflammatory conditions as shown in several studies. Therefore, strategies to boost the survival of MSCs are needed to enhance their therapeutic effect. Protease-activated receptors (PARs) may represent one such possibility as they are G-protein coupled receptors expressed by MSCs and control several facets of cell behavior. This review summarizes some of the existing literature about PARs and MSCs and presents possible future areas of investigation in order to develop potential, PAR-modified MSCs with enhanced therapeutic efficiency.


Subject(s)
Graft Survival/genetics , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated/physiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cell Survival/genetics , Critical Illness/therapy , Humans , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/physiology , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated/genetics , Receptors, Proteinase-Activated/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/genetics , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/metabolism , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Signal Transduction/physiology , Transfection , Treatment Outcome
19.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(2): 479-494, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496663

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Binding of donor-specific antibodies (DSAs) to kidney allograft endothelial cells that does not activate the classic complement cascade can trigger the recruitment of innate immune effectors, including NK cells. Activated NK cells contribute to microvascular inflammation leading to chronic antibody-mediated rejection (AMR). Recipient NK cells can also trigger antibody-independent microvascular inflammation by sensing the absence of self HLA class I molecules ("missing self") on allograft endothelial cells. This translational study investigated whether the condition of missing self amplifies DSA-dependent NK cell activation to worsen chronic AMR. METHODS AND RESULTS: Among 1682 kidney transplant recipients who underwent an allograft biopsy at Lyon University Hospital between 2004 and 2017, 135 fulfilled the diagnostic criteria for AMR and were enrolled in the study. Patients with complement-fixing DSAs identified by a positive C3d binding assay (n=73, 54%) had a higher risk of transplant failure (P=0.002). Among the remaining patients with complement-independent chronic AMR (n=62, 46%), those in whom missing self was identified through donor and recipient genotyping exhibited worse allograft survival (P=0.02). In multivariable analysis, only proteinuria (HR: 7.24; P=0.01) and the presence of missing self (HR: 3.57; P=0.04) were independent predictors for transplant failure following diagnosis of chronic AMR. Cocultures of human NK cells and endothelial cells confirmed that addition of missing self to DSA-induced NK cell activation increased endothelial damage. CONCLUSIONS: The assessment of missing self at the time of diagnosis of chronic AMR identifies patients at higher risk for kidney transplant failure.


Subject(s)
Allografts/pathology , Complement Activation/physiology , Graft Rejection/etiology , Histocompatibility Antigens Class I/blood , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Killer Cells, Natural/physiology , Adult , Allografts/immunology , Cell Culture Techniques , Complement C3d/metabolism , Endothelial Cells/physiology , Female , Graft Rejection/blood , Graft Rejection/pathology , Graft Survival , Humans , Killer Cells, Natural/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
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