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1.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1994086

ABSTRACT

Non-relapse mortality due to GVHD and infections represents a major source of morbidity and mortality in pediatric HSCT recipients. Post-transplant cyclophosphamide (PTCy) has emerged as an effective and safe GVHD prophylaxis strategy, with improved GVHD and relapse-free survival in matched (related and unrelated) and mismatched haploidentical HSCT adult recipients. However, there are no published data in pediatric patients with acute myeloid leukemia who received matched-donor HSCT with PTCy. We demonstrate, in this case series, that the use of PTCy in this population is potentially safe, effective in preventing acute GVHD, does not impair engraftment, is associated with reduced non-relapse mortality, and does not hinder immune reconstitution post HSCT.


Subject(s)
Graft vs Host Disease , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Adult , Child , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Graft vs Host Disease/drug therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Humans , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Recurrence , Retrospective Studies , Siblings , Unrelated Donors
2.
Bull Exp Biol Med ; 172(2): 250-253, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1544492

ABSTRACT

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are characterized by tolerogenic potential and therefore, are used in the treatment of autoimmune diseases such as graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) reactions after allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation to improve the transplant functions, as well as for the therapy and prevention of cytokine storm in COVID-19 patients and some other conditions. However, MSC can exhibit proinflammatory activity, which causes risks for their clinical use. We studied the cytokine profile of bone marrow MSC culture and demonstrate intensive production of IL-6, IL-8, and chemokine MCP-1, which participate in the pathogenesis of cytokine storm and GVHD. At the same time, no anti-inflammatory IL-4 and IL-10 were detected. To reduce the risks of MSC application in the GVHD therapeutic protocols, further studies of the conditions promoting generation of MSC with tolerogenic potential and approved clinical standards of MSC use are required.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Cytokine Release Syndrome/prevention & control , Cytokines/analysis , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Mesenchymal Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/immunology , Bone Marrow Cells/metabolism , COVID-19/immunology , Cells, Cultured , Chemokine CCL2/analysis , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interleukin-8/analysis , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Transplantation, Homologous/adverse effects
5.
Exp Clin Transplant ; 19(5): 501-507, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1239123

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 is the third zoonotic acute respiratory disease after SARS virus and Middle East respiratory syndrome. Most cases are mild in healthy children. In contrast, the infection is more severe in patients with underlying health conditions. Because there are few posttransplant reports in hematopoietic stem celltransplant patients, here we described COVID19 infection in 4 confirmed cases among pediatric hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients: 3 boys and 1 girl with a median age of 6 years. Three patients presented with symptoms of lower respiratory tract disease, whereas 1 patient presented with extrapulmonary symptoms without fever or pulmonary involvement. All of the patients were on immunosuppressivedrugs, ie, 1patientforgraft-versus-hostdisease prophylaxis and 3 patients for graft-versus-host disease treatment.Thosewhowerediagnosedwith active graftversus-hostdisease requiredmechanical ventilationand intensive care. Two patients died from multiple organ dysfunction and resistant coinfection, and 1 patient developed pulmonary hypertension and mild cardiomegaly and remained at the hospital for more than 2 months, whereas the patient with no graft-versus-host disease was discharged and recovered. Our findings showed that COVID-19 infection among hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients may be more severe and associatedwithlong-termhospitalization and complications. Active graft-versus-hostdisease, coinfections, and long-term use of immunosuppressive agents are risk factors for poor outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Transplant Recipients , Child , Child, Preschool , Fatal Outcome , Female , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Respiration, Artificial , Risk Factors
6.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(10): 928-938, 2021 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1143627

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has upended healthcare systems worldwide and led to an inevitable decrease in liver transplantation (LT) activity. During the first pandemic wave, administrators and clinicians were obliged to make the difficult decision of whether to suspend or continue a life-saving procedure based on the scarce available evidence regarding the risk of transmission and mortality in immunosuppressed patients. Those centers where the activity continued or was heavily restricted were obliged to screen donors and recipients, design COVID-safe clinical pathways, and promote telehealth to prevent nosocomial transmission. Despite the ever-growing literature on COVID-19, the amount of high-quality literature on LT remains limited. This review will provide an updated view of the impact of the pandemic on LT programs worldwide. Donor and recipient screening, strategies for waitlist prioritization, and posttransplant risk of infection and mortality are discussed. Moreover, a particular focus is given to the possibility of donor-to-recipient transmission and immunosuppression management in COVID-positive recipients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Liver Transplantation/trends , Tissue and Organ Procurement/trends , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Health Care Rationing , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Mass Screening , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplants/virology
8.
Transpl Infect Dis ; 23(2): e13470, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781039
9.
Biol Blood Marrow Transplant ; 26(7): 1312-1317, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-208523

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has created significant barriers to timely donor evaluation, cell collection, and graft transport for allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HCT). To ensure availability of donor cells on the scheduled date of infusion, many sites now collect cryopreserved grafts before the start of pretransplantation conditioning. Post-transplantation cyclophosphamide (ptCY) is an increasingly used approach for graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, but the impact of graft cryopreservation on the outcomes of allo-HCT using ptCY is not known. Using the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research (CIBMTR) database, we compared the outcomes of HCT using cryopreserved versus fresh grafts in patients undergoing HCT for hematologic malignancy with ptCY. We analyzed 274 patients with hematologic malignancy undergoing allo-HCT between 2013 and 2018 with cryopreserved grafts and ptCY. Eighteen patients received bone marrow grafts and 256 received peripheral blood stem cell grafts. These patients were matched for age, graft type, disease risk index (DRI), and propensity score with 1080 patients who underwent allo-HCT with fresh grafts. The propensity score, which is an assessment of the likelihood of receiving a fresh graft versus a cryopreserved graft, was calculated using logistic regression to account for the following: disease histology, Karnofsky Performance Score (KPS), HCT Comorbidity Index, conditioning regimen intensity, donor type, and recipient race. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS). Secondary endpoints included acute and chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), non-relapse mortality (NRM), relapse/progression and disease-free survival (DFS). Because of multiple comparisons, only P values <.01 were considered statistically significant. The 2 cohorts (cryopreserved and fresh) were similar in terms of patient age, KPS, diagnosis, DRI, HCT-CI, donor/graft source, and conditioning intensity. One-year probabilities of OS were 71.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 68.3% to 73.8%) with fresh grafts and 70.3% (95% CI, 64.6% to 75.7%) with cryopreserved grafts (P = .81). Corresponding probabilities of OS at 2 years were 60.6% (95% CI, 57.3% to 63.8%) and 58.7% (95% CI, 51.9% to 65.4%) (P = .62). In matched-pair regression analysis, graft cryopreservation was not associated with a significantly higher risk of mortality (hazard ratio [HR] for cryopreserved versus fresh, 1.05; 95% CI, .86 to 1.29; P = .60). Similarly, rates of neutrophil recovery (HR, .91; 95% CI, .80 to 1.02; P = .12), platelet recovery (HR, .88; 95% CI, .78 to 1.00; P = .05), grade III-IV acute GVHD (HR, .78; 95% CI, .50 to 1.22; P = .27), NRM (HR, 1.16; 95% CI, .86 to 1.55; P = .32) and relapse/progression (HR, 1.21; 95% CI, .97 to 1.50; P = .09) were similar with cryopreserved grafts versus fresh grafts. There were somewhat lower rates of chronic GVHD (HR, 78; 95% CI, .61 to .99; P = .04) and DFS (HR for treatment failure, 1.19; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.29; P = .04) with graft cryopreservation that were of marginal statistical significance after adjusting for multiple comparisons. Overall, our data indicate that graft cryopreservation does not significantly delay hematopoietic recovery, increase the risk of acute GVHD or NRM, or decrease OS after allo-HCT using ptCY.


Subject(s)
Bone Marrow Transplantation/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cryopreservation/methods , Graft vs Host Disease/prevention & control , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation/methods , Leukemia/therapy , Lymphoma/therapy , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Cyclophosphamide/therapeutic use , Female , Graft vs Host Disease/immunology , Graft vs Host Disease/mortality , Graft vs Host Disease/pathology , Histocompatibility Testing , Humans , Leukemia/immunology , Leukemia/mortality , Leukemia/pathology , Lymphoma/immunology , Lymphoma/mortality , Lymphoma/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/immunology , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/mortality , Myelodysplastic Syndromes/pathology , Pandemics , Siblings , Survival Analysis , Transplantation Conditioning/methods , Transplantation, Homologous , United States/epidemiology , Unrelated Donors/supply & distribution
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