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2.
Acta Microbiol Immunol Hung ; 70(2): 142-146, 2023 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326089

ABSTRACT

Many studies report an increase in antimicrobial resistance of Gram - negative bacteria during the COVID-19 pandemic. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological relationship between carbapenem-resistant (CR) Enterobacteriaceae isolates from patients in COVID-19 wards and to investigate the main mechanisms of carbapenem resistance in these isolates during the period April 2020-July 2021. A total of 45 isolates were studied: Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 37), Klebsiella oxytoca (n = 2), Enterobacter cloacae complex (n = 4) and Escherichia coli (n = 2). Multiplex PCR was used for detection of genes encoding carbapenemases from different classes (blaKPC, blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaOXA-48). For epidemiological typing and analysis, ERIC PCR was performed. Two clinical isolates of E. cloacae, previously identified as representatives of two dominant hospital clones from the period 2014-2017, were included in the study for comparison. In the CR K. pneumoniae group, 23 (62.2%) carried blaKPC, 13 (35.1%) blaNDM, 10 (27.0%) blaVIM, and 9 (24.3%) were positive for both blaKPC and blaVIM. The blaKPC was identified also in the two isolates of K. oxytoca and blaVIM in all E. cloacae complex isolates. The two CR isolates of E. coli possessed blaKPC and blaOXA-48 genes. Epidemiological typing identified 18 ERIC profiles among K. pneumoniae, some presented as clusters of identical and/or closely related isolates. The carbapenem resistance in the studied collection of isolates is mediated mainly by blaKPC. During the COVID-19 pandemic intrahospital dissemination of CR K. pneumoniae, producing carbapenemases of different molecular classes, as well as continuing circulation of dominant hospital clones of multidrug-resistant E. cloacae complex was documented.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae , Humans , Carbapenem-Resistant Enterobacteriaceae/genetics , Molecular Epidemiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bulgaria , Pandemics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , COVID-19/epidemiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Hospitals, University , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Carbapenems/pharmacology
3.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(8): 1184-1192, 2023 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314019

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological data regarding the incidence of secondary multidrug-resistant (MDR) Gram-negative infection in patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Brazil are still ambiguous. Thus, a case-control study was designed to determine factors associated with the acquisition of MDR Gram-negative bacteria (GNB) in patients with and without COVID-19 and describe the mortality rates and clinical features associated with unfavorable outcomes. In total, we assessed 280 patients admitted to Brazilian intensive care units from March/2020 to December/2021. During the study, 926 GNB were isolated. Out of those, 504 were MDR-GNB, representing 54.4% of the resistance rate. In addition, out of 871 patients positive for COVID-19, 73 had secondary MDR-GNB infection, which represented 8.38% of documented community-acquired GNB-MDR infections. The factors associated with patients COVID-19-MDR-GNB infections were obesity, heart failure, use of mechanical ventilation, urinary catheter, and previous use of ß-lactams. Several factors associated with mortality were identified among patients with COVID-19 infected with MDR-GNB, including the use of a urinary catheter; renal failure; and the origin of bacterial cultures such as tracheal secretion, exposure to carbapenem antibiotics, and polymyxin. Mortality was significantly higher in patients with COVID-19-MDR-GNB (68.6%) compared to control groups, where COVID-19 was 35.7%, MDR-GNB was 50%, and GNB was 21.4%. Our findings demonstrate that MDR-GNB infection associated with COVID-19 has an expressive impact on increasing the case fatality rate, reinforcing the importance of minimizing the use of invasive devices and prior exposure to antimicrobials to control the bacterial spread in healthcare environments to improve the prognosis among critical patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Humans , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Case-Control Studies , Risk Factors , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
4.
J Trop Pediatr ; 69(1)2022 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2299766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality with a higher burden from the low- and middle-income countries. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid 19) pandemic has impacted healthcare in various ways including healthcare-associated infections (HAI). The objective of the present study was to determine changes in organism profile and incidence rates of HAI in neonates admitted to the index hospital during the pandemic and compared it with the data from the pre-pandemic period. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study design was a retrospective, observational analysis of data from neonates with culture-positive sepsis, in a tertiary care children's hospital, between January 2018 and December 2021. Pre-Covid (January 2018 to December 2019) and Covid period data (January 2020 to December 2021) were analyzed for the significance of change. RESULTS: The prevalence of culture-positive sepsis, in pre-Covid and Covid periods, was 19.55% [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 17.13-21.52)] and 18.36% (CI 16.05-20.74), respectively. HAI rates/1000 patient days increased slightly during the Covid pandemic [7.2% (95% CI 6.98-10.08) to 9.8% (95% CI 9.78-13.67)] mainly due to an increase in fungal HAI (26% pre- vs. 41.5% Covid period). However, the proportion of Gram-negative (GN) infections fell significantly (70.5% vs. 48.6%) during the same period. In the pre-Covid period, Klebsiella followed by Burkholderia cepacia, Acinetobacter spp and Pseudomonas, were the major HAI isolates. During the Covid period, there was a decline in these isolates and Burkholderia spp was not detected. All fungal isolates were Candida species. The case fatality ratio (CFR) from HAI decreased significantly from 38% to 15.45%, mainly due to a decrease in GN HAI. CONCLUSION: During Covid pandemic, there was a significant decline in GN HAI and CFR from HAI, due to improved compliance with infection control measures in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). At the same time, there was a rise in the fungal HAI, possibly because of a higher proportion of premature, and sick neonates with longer hospital stay and more invasive procedures. Consolidations of gains in infection control and restriction of invasive procedures could help to minimize HAI in NICUs.


Blood stream infections in children less than 4 weeks old are known as neonatal sepsis. Several predisposing factors can make a neonate (less than 4 weeks) more prone to sepsis, such as prematurity, male gender, cultural practices, presence of underlying medical or surgical conditions, hospitalization, antibiotic use and invasive treatment. Neonatal sepsis in a hospitalized child can be either­pre-harbored infection (PHI), which means infection acquired prior to hospital admission or it could be healthcare-associated infection (HAI), where the infection is acquired during the hospital stay. Organisms causing neonatal sepsis in hospitalized neonates include bacteria and fungi. The coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid 19) pandemic impacted all aspects of life including healthcare. The investigators conducted the present study to look into the changes in the incidence rate as well as in the type of organisms causing healthcare-associated blood stream infections in neonates in the pre-Covid and during the Covid period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Neonatal Sepsis , Sepsis , Child , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , India/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Neonatal Sepsis/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology , Sepsis/drug therapy
5.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0297222, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2303928

ABSTRACT

The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has had a devastating effect, globally. We describe, for the first time, the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria colonizing SARS-CoV-2 patients who developed hospital-associated infections with carbapenemase-producing, Gram-negative bacteria at some isolation centers of SARS-CoV-2 in the eastern part of Libya. In total, at first, 109 samples were collected from 43 patients, with the samples being recovered from oral (n = 35), nasal (n = 45), and rectal (n = 29) cavities. Strain identification was performed via matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight (MALDI-TOF). Antibiotic susceptibility testing was carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar, using the standard disk diffusion method. MIC determination was confirmed via E-TEST and microdilution standard methods. A molecular study was carried out to characterize the carbapenem and colistin resistance in Gram-negative bacterial strains. All of the positive results were confirmed via sequencing. Klebsiella pneumoniae (n = 32), Citrobacter freundii (n = 21), Escherichia coli (n = 7), and Acinetobacter baumannii (n = 21) were the predominant isolated bacteria. Gram-negative isolates were multidrug-resistant and carried different carbapenem resistance-associated genes, including NDM-1 (56/119; 47.05%), OXA-48 (15/119; 12.60%), OXA-23 (19/119; 15.96%), VIM (10/119; 8.40%), and the colistin resistance mobile gene mcr-1 (4/119; 3.36%). The overuse of antimicrobials, particularly carbapenem antibiotics, during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, mainly K. pneumoniae, A. baumannii, and colistin-resistant E. coli strains. Increased surveillance as well as the rational use of carbapenem antibiotics and, recently, colistin are required to reduce the propagation of multidrug-resistant strains and to optimally maintain the efficacy of these antibiotics. IMPORTANCE In this work, we describe, for the first time, the occurrence of carbapenem-resistant bacteria colonizing COVID-19 patients who developed hospital-associated infections with carbapenemase-producing, Gram-negative bacteria at some isolation centers of COVID-19 in the eastern part of Libya. Our results confirmed that the overuse of antimicrobials, such as carbapenem antibiotics, during the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacteria, mainly K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii, as well as colistin resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colistin , Humans , Colistin/pharmacology , Carbapenems/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , Escherichia coli , Pandemics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Hospitals , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
6.
Clin Drug Investig ; 43(4): 307-314, 2023 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2302059

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Resistance to antibacterial substances is a huge and still emerging issue, especially with regard to Gram-negative bacteria and in critically ill patients. We report a study in six patients infected with extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in a limited outbreak who were successfully managed with a quasi-continuous infusion of cefiderocol. METHODS: Patients were initially treated with prolonged infusions of cefiderocol over 3 h every 8 h, and the application mode was then switched to a quasi-continuous infusion of 2 g over 8 h, i.e. 6 g in 24 h. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) was established using an in-house liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method. RESULTS: Determined trough plasma concentrations were a median of 50.00 mg/L [95% confidence interval (CI) 27.20, 74.60] and steady-state plasma concentrations were a median of 90.96 mg/L [95% CI 37.80, 124]. No significant differences were detected with respect to acute kidney injury/continuous renal replacement therapy. Plasma concentrations determined from different modes of storage were almost equal when frozen or cooled, but markedly reduced when stored at room temperature. CONCLUSIONS: (Quasi) continuous application of cefiderocol 6 g/24 h in conjunction with TDM is a feasible mode of application; the sample for TDM should either be immediately analyzed, cooled, or frozen prior to analysis.


Subject(s)
Drug Monitoring , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Humans , Chromatography, Liquid , Feasibility Studies , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria
8.
PeerJ ; 11: e15007, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2248861

ABSTRACT

Bloodstream infections due to bacteria are a highly consequential nosocomial occurrences and the organisms responsible for them are usually multidrug-resistant. The aims of this study were to describe the incidence of bacteremia caused by Gram-negative ESKAPE bacilli during the COVID-19 pandemic and characterize the clinical and microbiological findings including antimicrobial resistance. A total of 115 Gram-negative ESKAPE isolates were collected from patients with nosocomial bacteremia (18% of the total bacteremias) in a tertiary care center in Mexico City from February 2020 to January 2021. These isolates were more frequently derived from the Respiratory Diseases Ward (27), followed by the Neurosurgery (12), Intensive Care Unit (11), Internal Medicine (11), and Infectious Diseases Unit (7). The most frequently isolated bacteria were Acinetobacter baumannii (34%), followed by Klebsiella pneumoniae (28%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (23%) and Enterobacter spp (16%). A. baumannii showed the highest levels of multidrug-resistance (100%), followed by K. pneumoniae (87%), Enterobacter spp (34%) and P. aeruginosa (20%). The bla CTX-M-15 and bla TEM-1 genes were identified in all beta-lactam-resistant K. pneumoniae (27), while bla TEM-1 was found in 84.6% (33/39) of A. baumannii isolates. The carbapenemase gene bla OXA-398 was predominant among carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii (74%, 29/39) and bla OXA-24was detected in four isolates. One P. aeruginosa isolate was bla VIM-2 gene carrier, while two K. pneumoniae and one Enterobacter spp were bla NDM gene carriers. Among colistin-resistant isolates mcr-1 gene was not detected. Clonal diversity was observed in K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa and Enterobacter spp. Two outbreaks caused by A. baumannii ST208 and ST369 were detected, both belonging to the clonal complex CC92 and IC2. A. baumannii was associated with a death rate of 72% (28/32), most of them (86%, 24/28) extensively drug-resistant or pandrug-resistant isolates, mainly in patients with COVID-19 (86%, 24/28) in the Respiratory Diseases Ward. A. baumannii isolates had a higher mortality rate (72%), which was higher in patients with COVID-19. There was no statistically significant association between the multidrug-resistant profile in Gram-negative ESKAPE bacilli and COVID-19 disease. The results point to the important role of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative ESKAPE bacteria causing bacteremia in nosocomial settings before and during the COVID-19 epidemic. Additionally, we were unable to identify a local impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial resistance rates, at least in the short term.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , Bacteremia , COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Sepsis , Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Enterobacter , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Sepsis/epidemiology
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 107(2-3): 623-638, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268536

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 patients have often required prolonged endotracheal intubation, increasing the risk of developing ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). A preventive strategy is proposed based on an endotracheal tube (ETT) modified by the in situ deposition of eucalyptus-mediated synthesized silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). The surfaces of the modified ETT were embedded with AgNPs of approximately 28 nm and presented a nanoscale roughness. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirmed the presence of silver on and inside the coated ETT, which exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and fungi, including multidrug-resistant clinical isolates. Inhibition of planktonic growth and microbial adhesion ranged from 99 to 99.999% without cytotoxic effects on mammalian cells. Kinetic studies showed that microbial adhesion to the coated surface was inhibited within 2 h. Cell viability in biofilms supplemented with human tracheal mucus was reduced by up to 95%. In a porcine VAP model, the AgNPs-coated ETT prevented adhesion of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and completely inhibited bacterial invasion of lung tissue. The potential antimicrobial efficacy and safety of the coated ETT were established in a randomized control trial involving 47 veterinary patients. The microbial burden was significantly lower on the surface of the AgNPs-coated ETT than on the uncoated ETT (p < 0.05). KEY POINTS: • Endotracheal tube surfaces were modified by coating with green-synthesized AgNPs • P. aeruginosa burden of endotracheal tube and lung was reduced in a porcine model • Effective antimicrobial activity and safety was demonstrated in a clinical trial.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Metal Nanoparticles , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated , Humans , Animals , Swine , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Silver/pharmacology , Hospitals, Animal , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Kinetics , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Biofilms , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Mammals
10.
Molecules ; 28(6)2023 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256807

ABSTRACT

Lysozyme (E.C. 3.2.1.17), an about 14 kDa protein and pI 11, widely spread in nature, is present in humans mainly in milk, saliva, and intestinal mucus as a part of innate defense mechanisms. It is endowed with antimicrobial activity due to its action as an N-acetylmuramidase, cleaving the 1-4ß glycosidic linkage in the peptidoglycan layer of Gram-positive bacteria. This antimicrobial activity is exerted only against a limited number of Gram-negative bacteria. Different action mechanisms are proposed to explain its activity against Gram-negative bacteria, viruses, and fungi. The antiviral activity prompted the study of a possible application of lysozyme in the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections. Among the different sources of lysozyme, the chicken egg albumen was chosen, being the richest source of this protein (c-type lysozyme, 129 amino acids). Interestingly, the activity of lysozyme hydrochloride against SARS-CoV-2 was related to the heating (to about 100 °C) of this molecule. A chemical-physical characterization was required to investigate the possible modifications of native lysozyme hydrochloride by heat treatment. The FTIR analysis of the two preparations of lysozyme hydrochloride showed appreciable differences in the secondary structure of the two protein chains. HPLC and NMR analyses, as well as the enzymatic activity determination, did not show significant modifications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Muramidase , Humans , Muramidase/chemistry , Hot Temperature , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Gram-Negative Bacteria/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology
11.
PLoS One ; 18(2): e0281813, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2256141

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Bacterial infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in cirrhotic patients. Our aim was to assess the incidence of bacterial infections, in particular due to multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) before and after the introduction of the antimicrobial stewardship program, "Stewardship Antimicrobial in VErona" (SAVE). In addition, we also analysed the liver complications and the crude mortality during the whole follow up. METHODS: We analysed 229 cirrhotic subjects without previous hospitalization for infections enrolled at the University Verona Hospital from 2017 to 2019 and followed up until December 2021 (mean follow-up 42.7 months). RESULTS: 101 infections were recorded and 31.7% were recurrent. The most frequent were sepsis (24.7%), pneumonia (19.8%), spontaneous bacterial peritonitis (17.8%). 14.9% of infections were sustained by MDROs. Liver complications occurred more frequently in infected patients, and in case of MDROs infections with a significantly higher MELD and Child-Pugh score. In Cox regression analysis, mortality was associated with age, diabetes and bacterial infections episodes (OR 3.30, CI 95%: (1.63-6.70). Despite an increase in total infections over the past three years, a decrease in the incidence rate in MDROs infections was documented concurrently with the introduction of SAVE (IRD 28.6; 95% CI: 4.6-52.5, p = 0.02). CONCLUSIONS: Our study confirms the burden of bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients, especially MDROs, and the strong interconnection with liver complications. The introduction of SAVE decreased MDROs infections. Cirrhotic patients require a closer clinical surveillance to identify colonized patients and avoid the horizontal spread of MDROs in this setting.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Bacterial Infections , Humans , Cohort Studies , Bacterial Infections/complications , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Enterococcus , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Liver Cirrhosis/complications , Liver Cirrhosis/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(4)2023 Feb 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240452

ABSTRACT

Antimicrobial hand gels have become extremely popular in recent years due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Frequent use of hand sanitising gel can lead to dryness and irritation of the skin. This work focuses on the preparation of antimicrobial acrylic acid (Carbomer)-based gels enhanced by non-traditional compounds-mandelic acid and essential oils-as a substitute for irritating ethanol. Physicochemical properties (pH and viscosity), stability and sensory attributes of the prepared gels were investigated. Antimicrobial activity against representative Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and yeasts was determined. The prepared gels with mandelic acid and essential oil (cinnamon, clove, lemon, and thyme) proved to have antimicrobial activity and even better organoleptic properties than commercial ethanol-based antimicrobial gel. Further, results confirmed that the addition of mandelic acid had a desirable effect on gel properties (antimicrobial, consistency, stability). It has been shown that the essential oil/mandelic acid combination can be a dermatologically beneficial hand sanitiser compared to commercial products. Thus, the produced gels can be used as a natural alternative to alcohol-based daily hand hygiene sanitisers.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Hand Sanitizers , Oils, Volatile , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pandemics , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Ethanol , Gels , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240245

ABSTRACT

As a result of the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as other outbreaks, such as SARS and Ebola, bats are recognized as a critical species for mediating zoonotic infectious disease spillover events. While there is a growing concern of increased antimicrobial resistance (AMR) globally during this pandemic, knowledge of AMR circulating between bats and humans is limited. In this paper, we have reviewed the evidence of AMR in bats and discussed the planetary health aspect of AMR to elucidate how this is associated with the emergence, spread, and persistence of AMR at the human-animal interface. The presence of clinically significant resistant bacteria in bats and wildlife has important implications for zoonotic pandemic surveillance, disease transmission, and treatment modalities. We searched MEDLINE through PubMed and Google Scholar to retrieve relevant studies (n = 38) that provided data on resistant bacteria in bats prior to 30 September 2022. There is substantial variability in the results from studies measuring the prevalence of AMR based on geographic location, bat types, and time. We found all major groups of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in bats, which are resistant to commonly used antibiotics. The most alarming issue is that recent studies have increasingly identified clinically significant multi-drug resistant bacteria such as Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), ESBL producing, and Colistin resistant Enterobacterales in samples from bats. This evidence of superbugs abundant in both humans and wild mammals, such as bats, could facilitate a greater understanding of which specific pathways of exposure should be targeted. We believe that these data will also facilitate future pandemic preparedness as well as global AMR containment during pandemic events and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chiroptera , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Animals , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Zoonoses/epidemiology , Bacteria
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 16(3): 320-331, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2238307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is paucity of data describing the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial resistance. This review evaluated the changes in the rate of multidrug resistant gram negative and gram positive bacteria during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A search was conducted in PubMed, Science Direct, and Google Scholar databases to identify eligible studies. Studies that reported the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (CRAB), carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE), extended-spectrum beta-lactamase inhibitor (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and carbapenem-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (CPE) were selected. Studies published in English language from the start of COVID-19 pandemic to July 2022 were considered for inclusion. RESULTS: Thirty eligible studies were selected and most of them were from Italy (n = 8), Turkey (n = 3) and Brazil (n = 3). The results indicated changes in the rate of multidrug resistant bacteria, and the changes varied between the studies. Most studies (54.5%) reported increase in MRSA infection/colonization during the pandemic, and the increase ranged from 4.6 to 170.6%. Five studies (55.6%) reported a 6.8-65.1% increase in VRE infection/colonization during the pandemic. A 2.4-58.2% decrease in ESBL E. coli and a 1.8-13.3% reduction in ESBL Klebsiella pneumoniae was observed during the pandemic. For CRAB, most studies (58.3%) reported 1.5-621.6% increase in infection/colonization during the pandemic. Overall, studies showed increase in the rate of CRE infection/colonization during the pandemic. There was a reduction in carbapenem-resistant E. coli during COVID-19 pandemic, and an increase in carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae. Most studies (55.6%) showed 10.4 - 40.9% reduction in the rate of CRPA infection during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: There is an increase in the rate of multidrug resistant gram positive and gram negative bacteria during the COVID-19 pandemic. However, the rate of ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae and CRPA has decrease during the pandemic. Both infection prevention and control strategies and antimicrobial stewardship should be strengthen to address the increasing rate of multidrug resistant gram positive and gram negative bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Pandemics , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Escherichia coli , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Enterobacteriaceae , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Carbapenems , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
15.
J Antimicrob Chemother ; 78(4): 1000-1008, 2023 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Greece is among the countries characterized by high rates of antimicrobial resistance and high consumption of antibiotics, including carbapenems. OBJECTIVES: To measure the impact of a carbapenem-focused antimicrobial stewardship programme (ASP) on the antibiotic consumption and patient outcomes in a Greek tertiary hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A quasi-experimental, before-after study, comparing a 12 month pre-intervention period with a 12 month intervention period in which a carbapenem-focused ASP was implemented. RESULTS: A total of 1268 patients were enrolled. The proportion of admitted patients who received carbapenems decreased from 4.1% (842 of 20 629) to 2.3% (426 of 18 245) (-1.8%; P < 0.001). A decrease of -4.9 DDD/100 patient-days (PD) (95% CI -7.3 to -2.6; P = 0.007) in carbapenem use and an increase in the use of piperacillin/tazobactam [+2.1 DDD/100 PD (95% CI 1.0-3.3; P = 0.010)] were observed. Thirty-day mortality following initiation of carbapenem treatment and all-cause in-hospital mortality remained unaltered after ASP implementation. In contrast, length of hospital stay increased (median 17.0 versus 19.0 days; P < 0.001), while the risk of infection-related readmission within 30 days of hospital discharge decreased (24.6% versus 16.8%; P = 0.007). In the post-implementation period, acceptance of the ASP intervention was associated with lower daily hazard of in-hospital death [cause-specific HR (csHR) 0.49; 95% CI 0.30-0.80], lower odds of 30 day mortality (OR 0.36; 95% CI 0.18-0.70) and higher rate of treatment success (csHR 2.45; 95% CI 1.59-3.77). CONCLUSIONS: Implementing and maintaining a carbapenem-focused ASP is feasible, effective and safe in settings with high rates of antimicrobial resistance, even during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Humans , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Hospital Mortality , Pandemics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(9): 1135-1141, 2022 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) colonizing the healthcare environment have been shown to contribute to risk for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs), with adverse effects on patient morbidity and mortality. We sought to determine how bacterial contamination and persistent MDRO colonization of the healthcare environment are related to the position of patients and wastewater sites. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study, enrolling 51 hospital rooms at the time of admitting a patient with an eligible MDRO in the prior 30 days. We performed systematic sampling and MDRO culture of rooms, as well as 16S rRNA sequencing to define the environmental microbiome in a subset of samples. RESULTS: The probability of detecting resistant gram-negative organisms, including Enterobacterales, Acinetobacter spp, and Pseudomonas spp, increased with distance from the patient. In contrast, Clostridioides difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus were more likely to be detected close to the patient. Resistant Pseudomonas spp and S. aureus were enriched in these hot spots despite broad deposition of 16S rRNA gene sequences assigned to the same genera, suggesting modifiable factors that permit the persistence of these MDROs. CONCLUSIONS: MDRO hot spots can be defined by distance from the patient and from wastewater reservoirs. Evaluating how MDROs are enriched relative to bacterial DNA deposition helps to identify healthcare micro-environments and suggests how targeted environmental cleaning or design approaches could prevent MDRO persistence and reduce infection risk.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/prevention & control , DNA, Bacterial , Delivery of Health Care , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterococcus , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Humans , Prospective Studies , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Staphylococcus aureus , Wastewater
17.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1048633, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198718

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Novel last resort beta-lactam antibiotics are now available for management of infections due to New-Delhi Metallo-Beta-Lactamase (NDM) producing Enterobacterales and non-fermenters with Difficult-to-Treat Resistance. However, data regarding the use of imipenem-cilastatin-relebactam (IMI-REL), cefiderocol (CFD) and ceftazidime-avibactam plus aztreonam (CAZ-AVI-ATM) are scarce in real-life settings. This study aimed to describe the use of last resort beta-lactam antibiotics, the microbiology and the outcome, in patients hospitalized in a tertiary hospital. Methods: We conducted a monocentric observational cohort study from 2020/01/01, to 2022/08/31. We screened all patients admitted to Nimes University Hospital who have received ≥ 1 dose of last resort beta-lactam antibiotics during the study period, using the Pharmacy database. We included patients treated with IMI-REL, CFD and CAZ-AVI-ATM. The primary endpoint was the infection-free survival rate. We also calculated rates of microbiological and clinical cure, recurrent infection, death and adverse events. Results: Twenty-seven patients were included in the study and 30 treatment courses were analyzed: CFD (N=24; 80%), CAZ-AVI-ATM (N=3; 10%) and IMI-REL (N=3; 10%). Antibiotics were used in 21 males (70%) and 9 females (30%) with a median age at 65-year-old [50-73.5] and a median Charlson index at 1 [0-2]. Almost all the patients had ≥ 1 risk factor for carbapenem resistant bacteria, a half of them was hospitalized for severe COVID-19, and most of antibiotic courses (N=26; 87%) were associated with ICU admission. In the study population, the probability of infection-free survival at day-90 after last resort beta-lactam therapy initiation was 48.4% CI95% [33.2-70.5]. Clinical failure rate was at 30%, microbiological failure rate at 33% and mortality rate at 23%. Adverse events were documented in 5 antibiotic courses (17%). In details, P. aeruginosa were mainly treated with CFD and IMI-REL, S. maltophilia with CFD and CAZ-AVI-ATM, A. baumannii with CFD, and NDM producing-K. pneumoniae with CAZ-AVI-ATM and CFD. After a treatment course with CFD, CAZ-AVI-ATM and IMI-REL, the probability of infection-free survival was 48% CI95% [10.4-73.5], 33.3% CI95% [6.7-100], 66.7% CI95% [30-100], respectively. Discussion/conclusion: Use of last resort beta-lactam antimicrobials in real-life settings was a safe and efficient therapeutic option for severe infections related to Gram-negative bacteria with Difficult-to-Treat Resistance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Male , Female , Humans , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , beta-Lactamases , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Drug Combinations , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
18.
Microb Drug Resist ; 29(6): 239-248, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188111

ABSTRACT

In this study, we report the carbapenemase-encoding genes and colistin resistance in Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical isolates included carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae, carbapenem-resistant E. coli, carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa. Carbapenemase-encoding genes were detected by PCR. Carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistant E. coli isolates were analyzed using the Rapid Polymyxin NP assay. mcr genes were screened by PCR. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and whole-genome sequencing were performed on representative isolates. A total of 80 carbapenem-resistant E. coli, 103 carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae, 284 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, and 129 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa isolates were recovered. All carbapenem-resistant E. coli and carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates were included for further analysis. A selection of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa strains was further analyzed (86 carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and 82 carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa). Among carbapenem-resistant K. pneumoniae and carbapenem-resistant E. coli isolates, the most frequent gene was blaNDM (86/103 [83.5%] and 72/80 [90%], respectively). For carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, the most frequently detected gene was blaOXA-40 (52/86, 60.5%), and for carbapenem-resistant P. aeruginosa, was blaVIM (19/82, 23.2%). For carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii, five indistinguishable pulsotypes were detected. Circulation of K. pneumoniae New Delhi metallo-ß-lactamase (NDM) and E. coli NDM was detected in Mexico. High virulence sequence types (STs), such as K. pneumoniae ST307, E. coli ST167, P. aeruginosa ST111, and A. baumannii ST2, were detected. Among K. pneumoniae isolates, 18/101 (17.8%) were positive for the Polymyxin NP test (two, 11.0% positive for the mcr-1 gene, and one, 5.6% with disruption of the mgrB gene). All E. coli isolates were negative for the Polymyxin NP test. In conclusion, K. pneumoniae NDM and E. coli NDM were detected in Mexico, with the circulation of highly virulent STs. These results are relevant in clinical practice to guide antibiotic therapies considering the molecular mechanisms of resistance to carbapenems.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Colistin , Humans , Colistin/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Mexico/epidemiology , Pandemics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , COVID-19/epidemiology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Carbapenems/pharmacology , Carbapenems/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics
19.
Chem Biol Interact ; 373: 110349, 2023 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2177051

ABSTRACT

A series of pendant-armed mixed-ligand copper(II) complexes of the type [CuL1-3(diimine)] (1-6) have been synthesized by the reaction of pendant-armed ligands N,N-bis(2-(((E)-2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzylidene)amino)ethyl)benzamide (H2L1), N,N-bis(2-(((E)-2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzylidene)amino)ethyl)-4-nitrobenzamide (H2L2) and N,N-bis(2-(((E)-2-hydroxy-5-methylbenzylidene)amino)ethyl)-3,5-dinitrobenzamide (H2L3) with diimine = 2,2'-bipyridyl (bpy) or 1,10-phenanthroline (phen) in the presence of copper(II) chloride and analyzed using various spectroscopic methods. All the spectroscopic results support that the complexes adopt a pentagonal-bipyramidal shape around the copper ion. Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were used to test all the complexes for antibacterial activity and all the complexes had greater potency against gram-negative pathogens. DNA-binding experiments of complexes with calf thymus DNA revealed a major-groove binding pattern, further supported by molecular docking studies. Complexes have significantly interacted with SARS-CoV-2 receptor via π-π, π-σ, π-alkyl, π-anion, π-cation, alkyl, hydrogen bond, van der Waals, and electrostatic interactions. The estimated binding energy and inhibition constant of these complexes are higher than standard drugs, chloroquine, and molnupiravir.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coordination Complexes , Humans , Copper/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Coordination Complexes/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/metabolism , Gram-Positive Bacteria/metabolism , DNA/metabolism , Ligands
20.
ACS Biomater Sci Eng ; 9(1): 329-339, 2023 01 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2160144

ABSTRACT

Bacteria and viruses can adhere onto diverse surfaces and be transmitted in multiple ways. A bifunctional coating that integrates both antibacterial and antiviral activities is a promising approach to mitigate bacterial and viral infections arising from a contaminated surface. However, current coating approaches encounter a slow reaction, limited activity against diverse bacteria or viruses, short-term activity, difficulty in scaling-up, and poor adaptation to diverse material surfaces. Here, we report a new one-step strategy for the development of a polydopamine-based nonfouling antibacterial and antiviral coating by the codeposition of various components. The in situ formed nanosilver in the presence of polydopamine was incorporated into the coating and served as both antibacterial and antiviral agents. In addition, the coassembly of polydopamine and a nonfouling hydrophilic polymer was constructed to prevent the adhesion of bacteria and viruses on the coating. The coating was prepared on model surfaces and thoroughly characterized using various surface analytical techniques. The coating exhibited strong antifouling properties with a reduction of nonspecific protein adsorption up to 90%. The coating was tested against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and showed long-term antibacterial effectiveness, which correlated with the composition of the coating. The antiviral activity of the coating was evaluated against human coronavirus 229E. A possible mechanism of action of the coating was proposed. We anticipate that the optimized coating will have applications in the development of infection prevention devices and surfaces.


Subject(s)
Biofouling , Dopamine , Humans , Dopamine/pharmacology , Biofouling/prevention & control , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Adhesion , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Positive Bacteria , Polymers/pharmacology , Bacteria
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