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1.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(11): e2100674, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1615945

ABSTRACT

Chemical investigation on a Streptomyces sp. strain MS180069 isolated from a sediment sample collected from the South China Sea, yielded the new benzo[f]isoindole-dione alkaloid, bhimamycin J (1). The structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D, 2D NMR, and X-ray diffraction techniques. A molecular docking study revealed 1 as a new molecular motif that binds with human angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE2), recently described as the cell surface receptor responsible for uptake of 2019-CoV-2. Using enzyme assays we confirm that 1 inhibits human ACE2 79.7 % at 25 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Isoindoles/chemistry , Streptomyces/chemistry , Alkaloids/metabolism , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Isoindoles/isolation & purification , Isoindoles/metabolism , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Streptomyces/metabolism
2.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(24)2021 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572494

ABSTRACT

Low density polyethylene (LDPE) films covered with active coatings containing mixtures of rosemary, raspberry, and pomegranate CO2 extracts were found to be active against selected bacterial strains that may extend the shelf life of food products. The coatings also offer antiviral activity, due to their influence on the activity of Φ6 bacteriophage, selected as a surrogate for SARS-CoV-2 particles. The mixture of these extracts could be incorporated into a polymer matrix to obtain a foil with antibacterial and antiviral properties. The initial goal of this work was to obtain active LDPE films containing a mixture of CO2 extracts of the aforementioned plants, incorporated into an LDPE matrix via an extrusion process. The second aim of this study was to demonstrate the antibacterial properties of the active films against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and to determine the antiviral effect of the modified material on Φ6 bacteriophage. In addition, an analysis was made on the influence of the active mixture on the polymer physicochemical features, e.g., mechanical and thermal properties, as well as its color and transparency. The results of this research indicated that the LDPE film containing a mixture of raspberry, rosemary, and pomegranate CO2 extracts incorporated into an LDPE matrix inhibited the growth of Staphylococcus aureus. This film was also found to be active against Bacillus subtilis. This modified film did not inhibit the growth of Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas syringae cells; however, their number decreased significantly. The LDPE active film was also found to be active against Φ6 particles, meaning that the film had antiviral properties. The incorporation of the mixture of CO2 extracts into the polymer matrix affected its mechanical properties. It was observed that parameters describing mechanical properties decreased, although did not affect the transition of LDPE significantly. Additionally, the modified film exhibited barrier properties towards UV radiation. Modified PE/CO2 extracts films could be applied as a functional food packaging material with antibacterial and antiviral properties.


Subject(s)
Food Packaging/methods , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Polyethylene/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophage phi 6/drug effects , Biofilms , Chitosan/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyethylene/pharmacology , Polymers/chemistry , Pomegranate , Rosmarinus/chemistry , Rubus , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Chem Biodivers ; 18(11): e2100674, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504819

ABSTRACT

Chemical investigation on a Streptomyces sp. strain MS180069 isolated from a sediment sample collected from the South China Sea, yielded the new benzo[f]isoindole-dione alkaloid, bhimamycin J (1). The structure was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis, including HRMS, 1D, 2D NMR, and X-ray diffraction techniques. A molecular docking study revealed 1 as a new molecular motif that binds with human angiotensin converting enzyme2 (ACE2), recently described as the cell surface receptor responsible for uptake of 2019-CoV-2. Using enzyme assays we confirm that 1 inhibits human ACE2 79.7 % at 25 µg/mL.


Subject(s)
Alkaloids/chemistry , Geologic Sediments/microbiology , Isoindoles/chemistry , Streptomyces/chemistry , Alkaloids/metabolism , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Alkaloids/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/antagonists & inhibitors , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Isoindoles/isolation & purification , Isoindoles/metabolism , Isoindoles/pharmacology , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Molecular Conformation , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Streptomyces/isolation & purification , Streptomyces/metabolism
4.
Ann Clin Microbiol Antimicrob ; 20(1): 64, 2021 Sep 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398863

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Bacterial superinfections associated with COVID-19 are common in ventilated ICU patients and impact morbidity and lethality. However, the contribution of antimicrobial resistance to the manifestation of bacterial infections in these patients has yet to be elucidated. METHODS: We collected 70 Gram-negative bacterial strains, isolated from the lower respiratory tract of ventilated COVID-19 patients in Zurich, Switzerland between March and May 2020. Species identification was performed using MALDI-TOF; antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined by EUCAST disk diffusion and CLSI broth microdilution assays. Selected Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates were analyzed by whole-genome sequencing. RESULTS: Pseudomonas aeruginosa (46%) and Enterobacterales (36%) comprised the two largest etiologic groups. Drug resistance in P. aeruginosa isolates was high for piperacillin/tazobactam (65.6%), cefepime (56.3%), ceftazidime (46.9%) and meropenem (50.0%). Enterobacterales isolates showed slightly lower levels of resistance to piperacillin/tazobactam (32%), ceftriaxone (32%), and ceftazidime (36%). All P. aeruginosa isolates and 96% of Enterobacterales isolates were susceptible to aminoglycosides, with apramycin found to provide best-in-class coverage. Genotypic analysis of consecutive P. aeruginosa isolates in one patient revealed a frameshift mutation in the transcriptional regulator nalC that coincided with a phenotypic shift in susceptibility to ß-lactams and quinolones. CONCLUSIONS: Considerable levels of antimicrobial resistance may have contributed to the manifestation of bacterial superinfections in ventilated COVID-19 patients, and may in some cases mandate consecutive adaptation of antibiotic therapy. High susceptibility to amikacin and apramycin suggests that aminoglycosides may remain an effective second-line treatment of ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia, provided efficacious drug exposure in lungs can be achieved.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Respiratory System/microbiology , COVID-19/complications , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated/microbiology , Prospective Studies , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/genetics , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Switzerland
5.
BMC Pulm Med ; 20(1): 233, 2020 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1257932

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Lower respiratory tract infection (LRIs) is very common both in terms of community-acquired infection and hospital-acquired infection. Sputum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) are the most important specimens obtained from patients with LRI. The choice of antibiotic with which to treat LRI usually depends on the antimicrobial sensitivity of bacteria isolated from sputum and BALF. However, differences in the antimicrobial sensitivity of pathogens isolated from sputum and BALF have not been evaluated. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted to analyze the differences between sputum and BALF samples in terms of pathogen isolation and antimicrobial sensitivity in hospitalized patients with LRI. RESULTS: Between 2013 and 2015, quality evaluation of sputum samples was not conducted before performing sputum culture; however, between 2016 and 2018, quality evaluation of sputum samples was conducted first, and only quality-assured samples were cultured. The numbers of sputum and BALF in 2013-2015 were 15,549 and 1671, while those in 2016-2018 were 12,055 and 3735, respectively. The results of pathogen culture showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumannii, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Hemophilus influenzae, Escherichia coli, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, and Streptococcus pneumoniae were in the top ten pathogens isolated from sputum and BALF. An antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that the susceptibility of BALF isolates to most antibiotics was higher compared with the susceptibility of sputum isolates, especially after quality control of sputum samples (2016-2018). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that caution is needed in making therapeutic choices for patients with LRI when using antimicrobial sensitivity results from sputum isolates as opposed to BALF isolates.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Respiratory System/microbiology , Sputum/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Female , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Hospitals, Teaching , Humans , Male , Retrospective Studies , Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12410, 2021 06 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1268005

ABSTRACT

In situ generation of antibacterial and antiviral agents by harnessing the catalytic activity of enzymes on surfaces provides an effective eco-friendly approach for disinfection. The perhydrolase (AcT) from Mycobacterium smegmatis catalyzes the perhydrolysis of acetate esters to generate the potent disinfectant, peracetic acid (PAA). In the presence of AcT and its two substrates, propylene glycol diacetate and H2O2, sufficient and continuous PAA is generated over an extended time to kill a wide range of bacteria with the enzyme dissolved in aqueous buffer. For extended self-disinfection, however, active and stable AcT bound onto or incorporated into a surface coating is necessary. In the current study, an active, stable and reusable AcT-based coating was developed by incorporating AcT into a polydopamine (PDA) matrix in a single step, thereby forming a biocatalytic composite onto a variety of surfaces. The resulting AcT-PDA composite coatings on glass, metal and epoxy surfaces yielded up to 7-log reduction of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria when in contact with the biocatalytic coating. This composite coating also possessed potent antiviral activity, and dramatically reduced the infectivity of a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus within minutes. The single-step approach enables rapid and facile fabrication of enzyme-based disinfectant composite coatings with high activity and stability, which enables reuse following surface washing. As a result, this enzyme-polymer composite technique may serve as a general strategy for preparing antibacterial and antiviral surfaces for applications in health care and common infrastructure safety, such as in schools, the workplace, transportation, etc.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Hydrolases/chemistry , Indoles/chemistry , Polymers/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/metabolism , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/chemistry , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/metabolism , Coated Materials, Biocompatible/pharmacology , Drug Stability , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Hydrolases/genetics , Hydrolases/metabolism , Kinetics , Mycobacterium smegmatis/enzymology , Peracetic Acid/metabolism , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234665

ABSTRACT

Cm-p5 is a snail-derived antimicrobial peptide, which demonstrated antifungal activity against the pathogenic strains of Candida albicans. Previously we synthetized a cyclic monomer as well as a parallel and an antiparallel dimer of Cm-p5 with improved antifungal activity. Considering the alarming increase of microbial resistance to conventional antibiotics, here we evaluated the antimicrobial activity of these derivatives against multiresistant and problematic bacteria and against important viral agents. The three peptides showed a moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae Extended Spectrum ß-Lactamase (ESBL), and Streptococcus agalactiae, with MIC values > 100 µg/mL. They exerted a considerable activity with MIC values between 25-50 µg/mL against Acinetobacter baumanii and Enterococcus faecium. In addition, the two dimers showed a moderate activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14. The three Cm-p5 derivatives inhibited a virulent extracellular strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, they inhibited Herpes Simplex Virus 2 (HSV-2) infection in a concentration-dependent manner, but had no effect on infection by the Zika Virus (ZIKV) or pseudoparticles of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Corona Virus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). At concentrations of >100 µg/mL, the three new Cm-p5 derivatives showed toxicity on different eukaryotic cells tested. Considering a certain cell toxicity but a potential interesting activity against the multiresistant strains of bacteria and HSV-2, our compounds require future structural optimization.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial/drug effects , Herpesvirus 2, Human/drug effects , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Candida albicans/drug effects , Cell Line , Cell Survival/drug effects , Dimerization , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Z Naturforsch C J Biosci ; 76(11-12): 467-480, 2021 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1202282

ABSTRACT

A series of ethyl 2-(2-(arylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylates (2a-r) was synthesized in two steps from thiosemicarbazones (1a-r), which were cyclized with ethyl bromopyruvate to ethyl 2-(2-(arylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylates (2a-r). The structures of compounds (2a-r) were established by FT-IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR. The structure of compound 2a was confirmed by HRMS. The compounds (2a-r) were then evaluated for their antimicrobial and antioxidant assays. The antioxidant studies revealed, ethyl 2-(2-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (2g) and ethyl 2-(2-(1-phenylethylidene)hydrazinyl)thiazole-4-carboxylate (2h) as promising antioxidant agents with %FRSA: 84.46 ± 0.13 and 74.50 ± 0.37, TAC: 269.08 ± 0.92 and 269.11 ± 0.61 and TRP: 272.34 ± 0.87 and 231.11 ± 0.67 µg AAE/mg dry weight of compound. Beside bioactivities, density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to study the electronic structure and properties of synthesized compounds (2a-m). The potential of synthesized compounds for possible antiviral targets is also predicted through molecular docking methods. The compounds 2e and 2h showed good binding affinities and inhibition constants to be considered as therapeutic target for Mpro protein of SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19). The present in-depth analysis of synthesized compounds will put them under the spot light for practical applications as antioxidants and the modification in structural motif may open the way for COVID-19 drug.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Antioxidants/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Thiazoles/chemistry , Viral Matrix Proteins/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/chemical synthesis , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Density Functional Theory , Fusarium/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/enzymology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Structure-Activity Relationship , Thiazoles/metabolism , Viral Matrix Proteins/metabolism
10.
Bioorg Chem ; 112: 104925, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198631

ABSTRACT

Antibiotic resistance and emerging viral pandemics have posed an urgent need for new anti-infective drugs. By screening our microbial extract library against the main protease of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and the notorious ESKAPE pathogens, an active fraction was identified and purified, leading to an initial isolation of adipostatins A (1) and B (2). In order to diversify the chemical structures of adipostatins toward enhanced biological activities, a type III polyketide synthase was identified from the native producer, Streptomyces davawensis DSM101723, and was subsequently expressed in an E. coli host, resulting in the isolation of nine additional adipostatins 3-11, including two new analogs (9 and 11). The structures of 1-11 were established by HRMS, NMR, and chemical derivatization, including using a microgram-scale meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid epoxidation-MS/MS analysis to unambiguously determine the double bond position in the alkyl chain. The present study discovered SARS-CoV-2 main protease inhibitory activity for the class of adipostatins for the first time. Several of the adipostatins isolated also exhibited antimicrobial activity against selected ESKAPE pathogens.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Resorcinols/chemistry , Acyltransferases/antagonists & inhibitors , Acyltransferases/classification , Acyltransferases/genetics , Anti-Infective Agents/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Bacterial Proteins/classification , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/antagonists & inhibitors , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Molecular Conformation , Phylogeny , Recombinant Proteins/biosynthesis , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/isolation & purification , Resorcinols/isolation & purification , Resorcinols/metabolism , Resorcinols/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Streptomyces/enzymology , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
11.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 181: 990-1002, 2021 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188608

ABSTRACT

Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). We succeeded in preparing disinfectant cellulose-based wipes treated with antimicrobial and antiviral silver nanoparticles to be used for prevention of contamination and transmission of several pathogenic viruses and microbes to human in critical areas such as hospitals and healthcare centers especially coronavirus. In this work, the antimicrobial and antiviral activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) prepared with four different techniques were investigated for the utilization as a disinfectant for cellulose-based wipes. These four methods are namely; 1) trisodium citrate with cotton yarn as a reducing agent, 2) preparing AgNP's using aqueous solution of PVA in the presence of glucose, 3) trisodium citrate with cotton fabric as a reducing agent, and 4) photochemical reaction of polyacrylic acid and silver nitrate solution. Polyester/viscose blended spunlace nonwoven fabrics as cellulose based fabrics were treated with the prepared silver nanoparticles to be used as surfaces disinfection wipes. The properties of the nonwoven fabrics were examined including thickness, tensile strength in dry and wet conditions in both machine direction (MD) and cross-machine direction (CMD), bursting strength, air permeability, water permeability and surface wettability. Characterization of the AgNPs was carried out in terms of UV-VIS spectroscopy, TEM, SEM, and Zeta potential analysis. The assessment of AgNPs active solutions for antimicrobial and antiviral activities was evaluated. The results obtained from the analyses of the AgNPs samples prepared with different techniques showed good uniformity and stability of the particles, as well uniform coating of the AgNPs on the fibers. Additionally, there is a significant effect of the AgNPs preparation method on their disinfectant performance that proved its effectiveness against coronavirus (MERS-CoV), S. aureus and B. subtilis as Gram-positive bacteria, E. coli and P. mirabilis as Gram-negative bacteria, A. niger and C. albicans fungi.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cellulose/chemistry , Coronavirus/drug effects , Disinfectants/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Silver/chemistry , Acrylic Resins/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Citrates/chemistry , Cotton Fiber , Fungi/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Green Chemistry Technology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Silver Nitrate/chemistry
12.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(5): 106318, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Piperacillin/tazobactam has long been a broad-spectrum 'workhorse' antibiotic; however, it is compromised by resistance. One response is to re-partner tazobactam with cefepime, which is easier to protect, being less ß-lactamase labile, and to use a high-dose and prolonged infusion. On this basis, Wockhardt are developing cefepime/tazobactam (WCK 4282) as a 2+2 g q8h combination with a 90-min infusion. METHODS: The activity of cc cefepime/tazobactam was assessed, with other tazobactam combinations as comparators, against 1632 Enterobacterales, 745 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 450 other non-fermenters, as submitted to the UK National Reference Laboratory. These were categorised by carbapenemase-gene detection and interpretive reading of phenotypes, with MICs determined by British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy agar dilution. RESULTS: Although higher breakpoints may be justifiable, based on the pharmacodynamics, the results were reviewed against current cefepime criteria. On this basis, cefepime/tazobactam was broadly active against Enterobacterales with AmpC enzymes and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs), even when they had ertapenem resistance, suggesting porin loss. At 8+8 mg/L, activity extended to > 90% of Enterobacterales with OXA-48 and KPC carbapenemases, although the MICs for KPC producers belonging to the international Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 lineage were higher; metallo-ß-lactamase producers remained resistant. Cefepime/tazobactam was less active than ceftolozane/tazobactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with AmpC de-repression or high-level efflux but achieved wider antipseudomonal coverage than piperacillin/tazobactam. Activity against other non-fermenters was species-specific. CONCLUSION: Overall, cefepime/tazobactam had a spectrum exceeding those of piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam and resembling or exceeding that of carbapenems. Used as a 'new-combination of old-agents' it has genuine potential to be 'carbapenem-sparing'.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefepime/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/pharmacology , Tazobactam/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/metabolism
13.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(4)2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082973

ABSTRACT

The purpose of the study was to obtain an external coating based on nanoparticles of ZnO, carvacrol, and geraniol that could be active against viruses such as SARS-Co-V2. Additionally, the synergistic effect of the chosen substances in coatings was analyzed. The goal of the study was to measure the possible antibacterial activity of the coatings obtained. Testing antiviral activity with human pathogen viruses, such as SARS-Co-V2, requires immense safety measures. Bacteriophages such as phi 6 phage represent good surrogates for the study of airborne viruses. The results of the study indicated that the ZC1 and ZG1 coatings containing an increased amount of geraniol or carvacrol and a very small amount of nanoZnO were found to be active against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It is also important that a synergistic effect between these active substances was noted. This explains why polyethylene (PE) films covered with the ZC1 or ZG1 coatings (as internal coatings) were found to be the best packaging materials to extend the quality and freshness of food products. The same coatings may be used as the external coatings with antiviral properties. The ZC1 and ZG1 coatings showed moderate activity against the phi 6 phage that has been selected as a surrogate for viruses such as coronaviruses. It can be assumed that coatings ZG1 and ZC1 will also be active against SARS-CoV-2 that is transmitted via respiratory droplets.


Subject(s)
Acyclic Monoterpenes/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cymenes/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacteriophages/drug effects , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1234-1237, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1076431
15.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(4): 5678-5690, 2021 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065790

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has clearly shown the importance of developments in fabrication of advanced protective equipment. This study investigates the potential of using multifunctional electrospun poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) nanofibers decorated with ZnO nanorods and Ag nanoparticles (PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs) in protective mats. Herein, the PMMA/ZnO-Ag NFs with an average diameter of 450 nm were simply prepared on a nonwoven fabric by directly electrospinning from solutions containing PMMA, ZnO nanorods, and Ag nanoparticles. The novel material showed high performance with four functionalities (i) antibacterial agent for killing of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, (ii) antiviral agent for inhibition of corona and influenza viruses, (iii) photocatalyst for degradation of organic pollutants, enabling a self-cleaning protective mat, and (iv) reusable surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrate for quantitative analysis of trace pollutants on the nanofiber. This multi-functional material has high potential for use in protective clothing applications by providing passive and active protection pathways together with sensing capabilities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Silver/chemistry , Zinc Oxide/chemistry , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Nanofibers/chemistry , Nanotubes/chemistry , Polymethyl Methacrylate/chemistry , Spectrum Analysis, Raman
17.
Euro Surveill ; 25(34)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874412

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) changes over time and continuous monitoring provides insight on trends to inform both empirical treatment and public health action.AimsTo survey trends in relative isolation frequency (RIF) and AMR among key bloodstream pathogens using data from the Greek Electronic System for the Surveillance of AMR (WHONET-Greece).MethodsThis observational study looked into routine susceptibility data of 50,488 blood culture isolates from hospitalised patients in 25 tertiary hospitals, participating in the WHONET-Greece for trends over time between January 2010 and December 2017. Only the first isolate per species from each patient was included. Hospital wards and intensive care units (ICUs) were analysed separately.ResultsDuring the study, the RIF of Acinetobacter baumannii increased in wards, as did the proportion of A. baumannii isolates, which were non-susceptibleto most antibiotics in both wards and ICUs. Coincidently, Klebsiella pneumoniae RIF declined while the respective rates of non-susceptible isolates to carbapenems and gentamicin increased. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RIF remained stable but decreasing proportions of non-susceptible isolates to all studied antibiotics, except imipenem were observed. Escherichia coli RIF increased as did the proportion of isolates non-susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Concerning Staphylococcus aureus, a decline in the percentage of meticillin resistant isolates in ICUs was found, while the percentages of Enterococcus faecium isolates with non-susceptibility to vancomycin stayed stable.ConclusionsRecognising these trends over time is important, since the epidemiology of AMR is complex, involving different 'bug and drug' combinations. This should be taken into consideration to control AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/trends , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Greece , Hospitals, General , Humans , Sentinel Surveillance
18.
Bioorg Chem ; 105: 104354, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-838154

ABSTRACT

Three series of nanosized-formazan analogues were synthesized from the reaction of dithiazone with various types of α-haloketones (ester and acetyl substituted hydrazonoyl chlorides and phenacyl bromides) in sodium ethoxide solution. The structure and the crystal size of the new synthesized derivatives were assured based on the spectral analyses, XRD and SEM data. The antibacterial and antifungal activities were evaluated by agar diffusion technique. The results showed mild to moderate antibacterial activities and moderate to potent antifungal activities. Significant antifungal activities were observed for four derivatives 3a, 3d, 5a and 5g on the pathogenic fungal strains; Aspergillus flavus and Candida albicans with inhibition zone ranging from 16 to 20 mm. Molecular docking simulations of the synthesized compounds into leucyl-tRNA synthetase editing domain of Candida albicans suggested that most formazan analogues can fit deeply forming stable complexes in the active site. Furthermore, we utilized the docking approach to examine the potential of these compounds to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 3CLpro. The results were very promising verifying these formazan analogues as a hopeful antiviral agents.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemical synthesis , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Formazans/chemistry , Molecular Docking Simulation , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/metabolism , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Aspergillus flavus/drug effects , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Candida albicans/drug effects , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Formazans/metabolism , Formazans/pharmacology , Fungal Proteins/chemistry , Fungal Proteins/metabolism , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Humans , Leucine-tRNA Ligase/chemistry , Leucine-tRNA Ligase/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
19.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 153, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acquired secondary bacterial infections (SBIs). The etiology and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were reported and used to provide a theoretical basis for appropriate infection therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed electronic medical records of all the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Wuhan Union Hospital between January 27 and March 17, 2020. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients who acquired SBIs were enrolled. Demographic, clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance data of the SBIs were collected. Outcomes were also compared between patients who were classified as severe and critical on admission. RESULTS: Among 1495 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 102 (6.8%) patients had acquired SBIs, and almost half of them (49.0%, 50/102) died during hospitalization. Compared with severe patients, critical patients had a higher chance of SBIs. Among the 159 strains of bacteria isolated from the SBIs, 136 strains (85.5%) were Gram-negative bacteria. The top three bacteria of SBIs were A. baumannii (35.8%, 57/159), K. pneumoniae (30.8%, 49/159), and S. maltophilia (6.3%, 10/159). The isolation rates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were 91.2 and 75.5%, respectively. Meticillin resistance was present in 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative staphylococci, and vancomycin resistance was not found. CONCLUSIONS: SBIs may occur in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to high mortality. The incidence of SBIs was associated with the severity of illness on admission. Gram-negative bacteria, especially A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, were the main bacteria, and the resistance rates of the major isolated bacteria were generally high. This was a single-center study; thus, our results should be externally examined when applied in other institutions.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy
20.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 13875, 2020 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720847

ABSTRACT

Respiratory protection is key in infection prevention of airborne diseases, as highlighted by the COVID-19 pandemic for instance. Conventional technologies have several drawbacks (i.e., cross-infection risk, filtration efficiency improvements limited by difficulty in breathing, and no safe reusability), which have yet to be addressed in a single device. Here, we report the development of a filter overcoming the major technical challenges of respiratory protective devices. Large-pore membranes, offering high breathability but low bacteria capture, were functionalized to have a uniform salt layer on the fibers. The salt-functionalized membranes achieved high filtration efficiency as opposed to the bare membrane, with differences of up to 48%, while maintaining high breathability (> 60% increase compared to commercial surgical masks even for the thickest salt filters tested). The salt-functionalized filters quickly killed Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria aerosols in vitro, with CFU reductions observed as early as within 5 min, and in vivo by causing structural damage due to salt recrystallization. The salt coatings retained the pathogen inactivation capability at harsh environmental conditions (37 °C and a relative humidity of 70%, 80% and 90%). Combination of these properties in one filter will lead to the production of an effective device, comprehensibly mitigating infection transmission globally.


Subject(s)
Air Filters/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Masks/microbiology , Membranes, Artificial , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Respiratory Protective Devices/microbiology , Sodium Chloride/chemistry , Aerosols , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Crystallization , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Positive Bacteria/drug effects , Hot Temperature , Humans , Humidity , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium Chloride/pharmacology
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