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1.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936889, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1954989

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND We aimed to identify the risk factors for Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection in patients with COVID-19. CASE REPORT Case 1. A 52-year-old COVID-19-positive woman with systemic lupus erythematosus was administered remdesivir (RDV) and methylprednisolone (mPSL) 1000 mg/day for 3 days, and subsequently administered baricitinib and ceftriaxone. Following respiratory deterioration, she was transferred to the Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and the antibiotics were switched to meropenem (MEPM). Blood and sputum cultures were positive for S. maltophilia. Administration of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) showed clinical improvement. Case 2. An 80-year-old COVID-19-positive man was treated with RDV, dexamethasone, and baricitinib. Owing to severe hypoxia, he was transferred to the ICU and MEPM was administered. Sputum culture was positive for S. maltophilia. TMP-SMX administration temporarily improved his symptoms; however, he died from COVID-19-associated invasive aspergillosis. Case 3. A 48-year-old COVID-19-positive man who was mechanically intubated was transferred to our hospital and treated with RDV, mPSL, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Sputum culture revealed S. maltophilia; treatment with TMP-SMX improved his respiratory status. Case 4. An 80-year-old COVID-19-positive man was treated with RDV and dexamethasone. Owing to severe hypoxemia, he was transferred to the ICU and the antibiotics were switched to MEPM. Sputum culture revealed S. maltophilia. Administration of TMX-SMX improved his respiratory status. CONCLUSIONS Isolation of S. maltophilia in respiratory specimens of patients with COVID-19 should prompt clinicians to administer treatment for S. maltophilia-associated pneumonia in ICU-admitted patients who have been intubated, have been administered broad-spectrum antibiotics, or have immunocompromised status.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Dexamethasone/therapeutic use , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination/therapeutic use
2.
Microb Drug Resist ; 28(5): 601-610, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1864944

ABSTRACT

This retrospective study aims to describe the etiology and resistance patterns of pathogens causing bacteremia in children with solid tumors in a tertiary pediatric hematology-oncology center in Jerusalem, Israel (2011-2019). Factors associated with multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteremia and mortality were analyzed. A total of 228 pathogens were isolated in 126 patients; 61.0% were gram-negative rods (GNR) and 38.2% were gram-positive cocci (GPC). The most common pathogens were Klebsiella pneumoniae (19.3%), Escherichia coli (17.5%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (16.2%). The proportion of MDR-GNR was 18.2%, while the proportion of MDR-GPC was 55.2%. In logistic regression analysis, breakthrough bacteremia on a penicillin-group antibiotic (odds ratio [OR] 5.69, [95% confidence interval 1.42-22.76], p-value = 0.014) was associated and underlying diagnosis of neuroblastoma was inversely associated (OR 0.17, [0.04-0.81], p-value = 0.026) with MDR-GNR bacteremia; while the previous hospitalizations' duration (OR 1.032/day, [1.01-1.06], p-value = 0.007) and oncologic treatment intensity (OR 2.19, [1.08-4.45, p-value = 0.03) were associated with MDR-GPC bacteremia. Shock, prolonged profound neutropenia, and pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admission were associated with 7-day mortality; and relapsed disease, oncologic treatment intensity, prolonged profound neutropenia, and PICU admission-with 30-day mortality in the univariate analyses. Empirical antibiotic choice should be based on factors associated with MDR infections in this specific population.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Neoplasms , Neutropenia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Child , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Escherichia coli , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Neoplasms/complications , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/pathology , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/drug therapy , Retrospective Studies
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(9)2022 04 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809915

ABSTRACT

Bacterial co-infections may aggravate COVID-19 disease, and therefore being cognizant of other pathogens is imperative. We studied the types, frequency, antibiogram, case fatality rates (CFR), and clinical profiles of co-infecting-pathogens in 301 COVID-19 patients. Co-infection was 36% (n = 109), while CFR was 31.2% compared to 9.9% in non-co-infected patients (z-value = 3.1). Four bacterial species dominated, namely, multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (37%, n = 48), extremely drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii (26%, n = 34), multidrug-resistant Eschericia. coli (18.6%, n = 24), and extremely drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8.5%, n = 11), in addition to other bacterial species (9.3%, n = 12). Increased co-infection of K. pneumoniae and A. baumannii was associated with increased death rates of 29% (n = 14) and 32% (n = 11), respectively. Klebsiella pneumoniae was equally frequent in respiratory and urinary tract infections (UTI), while E. coli mostly caused UTI (67%), and A. baumannii and P. aeruginosa dominated respiratory infections (38% and 45%, respectively). Co-infections correlated with advance in age: seniors ≥ 50 years (71%), young adults 21-49 years (25.6%), and children 0-20 years (3%). These findings have significant clinical implications in the successful COVID-19 therapies, particularly in geriatric management. Future studies would reveal insights into the potential selective mechanism(s) of Gram-negative bacterial co-infection in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Urinary Tract Infections , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Escherichia coli , Female , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Urinary Tract Infections/drug therapy
5.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(1): 46-50, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521052

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an emerging multi-drug resistant pathogen increasingly isolated in India. This study aimed to identify patients from whom Stenotrophomonas maltophilia had been isolated and assess predictors of mortality in this population. METHODS: This was a retrospective cohort study of hospitalized patients with a positive culture for S. maltophilia over a 3-year period. Clinical details and laboratory results were assessed from hospital records. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used to identify risk factors for mortality. RESULTS: One hundred and nineteen patients (mean age 48.6 years) were included in the study. Of these, 111 patients were hospitalized for at least 48 â€‹hours prior to culture and 98 were admitted in the intensive care unit. Bivariate analysis revealed multiple associations with mortality, including a background of renal, cardiac, autoimmune disease, recent carbapenam use and COVID-19 infection and increasing ventilatory requirement, lower PaO2/FiO2 (P/F) ratio, vasopressor use, thrombocytopenia, and hypoalbuminemia at the time of positive isolate. Multivariate analysis showed that autoimmune disease [OR 27.38; 95% CI (1.39-540)], a P/F ratio of less than 300 [OR 7.58; 95% CI (1.52-37.9)], vasopressor requirement [OR 39.50; 95% CI (5.49-284)] and thrombocytopenia [OR 11.5; 95% CI (2.04-65.0)] were statistically significantly associated with increased mortality, while recent surgery and receipt of antibiotics [OR 0.16; 95% CI (0.03-0.8)] targeted against S. maltophilia were associated with decreased mortality. CONCLUSION: Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is primarily isolated in patients in the intensive care unit. In our study the need for vasopressors, autoimmune disease, lower P/F ratios and thrombocytopenia were associated with higher mortality. The association of targeted antibiotics with reduced mortality suggests that the pathogenic role of S. maltophilia should not be underestimated. This finding needs to be confirmed with larger, prospective studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , India/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stenotrophomonas , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
Curr Opin Infect Dis ; 34(6): 718-727, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1506882

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused multiple challenges to ICUs, including an increased rate of secondary infections, mostly caused by Gram-negative micro-organisms. Worrying trends of resistance acquisition complicate this picture. We provide a review of the latest evidence to guide management of patients with septic shock because of Gram-negative bacteria. RECENT FINDINGS: New laboratory techniques to detect pathogens and specific resistance patterns from the initial culture are available. Those may assist decreasing the time to adequate antimicrobial therapy and avoid unnecessary broad-spectrum antibiotic overuse. New antimicrobials, including ß-lactam/ß-lactamase inhibitor combinations, such as ceftolozane-tazobactam, imipenem-relebactam or meropenem-vaborbactam and cephalosporins, such as cefiderocol targeted to specific pathogens and resistance patterns are available for use in the clinical setting. Optimization of antibiotic dosing and delivery should follow pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic principles and wherever available therapeutic drug monitoring. Management of sepsis has brought capillary refill time back to the spotlight along with more reasoned fluid resuscitation and a moderate approach to timing of dialysis initiation. SUMMARY: Novel rapid diagnostic tests and antimicrobials specifically targeted to Gram-negative pathogens are available and should be used within the principles of antimicrobial stewardship including de-escalation and short duration of antimicrobial therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Shock, Septic , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cephalosporins , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Shock, Septic/drug therapy
7.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320438

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of an immunocompetent 75-year-old man with Capnocytophaga canimorsus bacteraemia and meningitis. C. canimorsus is commonly found in the oral flora of dogs with human infection typically occurring following a bite. Unusually, while our patient was a dog owner, there was no history of bite nor scratch mark. Admission blood cultures flagged positive for Gram-negative bacilli, but prolonged molecular analysis was required before C. canimorsus was isolated in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. There is a high mortality rate in invasive infection, and in our patient's case, antibiotic therapy was commenced prior to laboratory confirmation with our patient making a complete recovery. This case highlights the importance of including C. canimorsus in the differential diagnosis of unwell patients who keep dogs, even without a bite. This case occurred amid heightened awareness of COVID-19, which may represent predisposition for zoonoses during social isolation and increased human-pet contact.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia , Bites and Stings , COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Meningitis , Animals , Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bites and Stings/complications , Capnocytophaga , Dogs , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(6)2021 Jun 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276912

ABSTRACT

Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunistic pathogen that most often infects patients requiring mechanical ventilation, indwelling central venous catheters and broad-spectrum antibiotics. The reported incidence of S. maltophilia infection has increased over the past two decades, and many of its risk factors are commonly seen in patients with severe COVID-19 infection. Our case regards a patient with severe COVID-19 pneumonia, who subsequently developed disseminated S. maltophilia infection, refractory to first-line treatment and optimal medical management. This case highlights the high index of suspicion required for diagnosing secondary complications in patients with COVID-19 infection and highlights the difficulty in treating disseminated S. maltophilia infection in critically ill patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Pneumonia , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/complications , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pneumonia/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/immunology
10.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(5): 106318, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Piperacillin/tazobactam has long been a broad-spectrum 'workhorse' antibiotic; however, it is compromised by resistance. One response is to re-partner tazobactam with cefepime, which is easier to protect, being less ß-lactamase labile, and to use a high-dose and prolonged infusion. On this basis, Wockhardt are developing cefepime/tazobactam (WCK 4282) as a 2+2 g q8h combination with a 90-min infusion. METHODS: The activity of cc cefepime/tazobactam was assessed, with other tazobactam combinations as comparators, against 1632 Enterobacterales, 745 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 450 other non-fermenters, as submitted to the UK National Reference Laboratory. These were categorised by carbapenemase-gene detection and interpretive reading of phenotypes, with MICs determined by British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy agar dilution. RESULTS: Although higher breakpoints may be justifiable, based on the pharmacodynamics, the results were reviewed against current cefepime criteria. On this basis, cefepime/tazobactam was broadly active against Enterobacterales with AmpC enzymes and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs), even when they had ertapenem resistance, suggesting porin loss. At 8+8 mg/L, activity extended to > 90% of Enterobacterales with OXA-48 and KPC carbapenemases, although the MICs for KPC producers belonging to the international Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 lineage were higher; metallo-ß-lactamase producers remained resistant. Cefepime/tazobactam was less active than ceftolozane/tazobactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with AmpC de-repression or high-level efflux but achieved wider antipseudomonal coverage than piperacillin/tazobactam. Activity against other non-fermenters was species-specific. CONCLUSION: Overall, cefepime/tazobactam had a spectrum exceeding those of piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam and resembling or exceeding that of carbapenems. Used as a 'new-combination of old-agents' it has genuine potential to be 'carbapenem-sparing'.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefepime/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/pharmacology , Tazobactam/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/metabolism
12.
Infect Disord Drug Targets ; 21(8): e160921191124, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067530

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Immunocompromised patients, especially those hospitalized, are at a higher risk for infection with opportunistic pathogens such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia (S. maltophilia) which is a multidrug-resistant gram-negative bacillus and can cause a challenge in the management of patients with concomitant COVID-19 and S. maltophilia pneumonia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 71-year-old man with Hodgkin's lymphoma presented with severe respiratory symptoms of COVID-19 was intubated upon admission and the initial standard treatment for COVID-19 was started for him. The patient subsequently developed superimposed bacterial pneumonia with S. maltophilia. According to that, the patient's intubation tube was removed and a tracheostomy was performed for him. Also, antibiotic treatment was replaced with Colistin and Co-trimoxazole drugs. Finally, after 31 days of hospitalization in the ICU and the appropriate drug treatment, he was discharged with reduced symptoms and partial recovery. CONCLUSION: It should be noted that the occurrence of co-infection with multidrug-resistant pathogens such as S. maltophilia requires proper management to select appropriate treatment methods and drugs, so that in addition to proper effectiveness, it does not lead to side effects and complications associated with COVID-19 disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Hodgkin Disease , Pneumonia, Bacterial , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/complications , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Hodgkin Disease/complications , Hodgkin Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Iran , Male , Morbidity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Paediatr Int Child Health ; 41(1): 65-75, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-971929

ABSTRACT

Infants, children and adolescents are at risk of life-threatening, antimicrobial-resistant infections. Global burdens of drug-resistant TB, HIV and gram-negative pathogens have a particular impact on paediatric age groups, necessitating a paediatric-focused agenda to address emerging resistance. Dedicated approaches are needed to find, successfully treat and prevent resistant infections in paediatric populations worldwide. Challenges include the diagnosis and identification of resistant infections, limited access to novel antimicrobials or to paediatric-friendly formulations, limited access to research and clinical trials and implementation challenges related to prevention and successful completion of treatment. In this review, the particular complexities of emerging resistance in TB, HIV and gram-negative pathogens in children, with attention to both clinical and public health challenges, are highlighted. Key principles of a paediatric-focused agenda to address antimicrobial resistance are outlined. They include quality of care, increasing equitable access to key diagnostics, expanding antimicrobial stewardship and infection prevention across global settings, and health system strengthening. Increased access to research studies, including clinical trials, is needed. Further study and implementation of care models and strategies for child- or adolescent-centred management of infections such as HIV and TB can critically improve outcome and avoid development of resistance. As the current global pandemic of a novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, threatens to disrupt health systems and services for vulnerable populations, this is a critical time to mitigate against a potential surge in the incidence of resistant infections.


Subject(s)
Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Tuberculosis, Multidrug-Resistant/drug therapy
14.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 42(9): 1115-1117, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965690

ABSTRACT

Interrupted time series segmented regression was conducted to trend antibiotic use and multidrug-resistant gram-negative (MDRGN) acquisition relative to COVID-19 in an academic hospital. Total antibiotic use and antibiotic use related to pneumonia was higher in the period after the onset of COVID-19 compared to the similar calendar period in 2019. Furthermore, MDRGN acquisition increased 3% for every increase in positive COVID-19 tests per week.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Euro Surveill ; 25(34)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874412

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) changes over time and continuous monitoring provides insight on trends to inform both empirical treatment and public health action.AimsTo survey trends in relative isolation frequency (RIF) and AMR among key bloodstream pathogens using data from the Greek Electronic System for the Surveillance of AMR (WHONET-Greece).MethodsThis observational study looked into routine susceptibility data of 50,488 blood culture isolates from hospitalised patients in 25 tertiary hospitals, participating in the WHONET-Greece for trends over time between January 2010 and December 2017. Only the first isolate per species from each patient was included. Hospital wards and intensive care units (ICUs) were analysed separately.ResultsDuring the study, the RIF of Acinetobacter baumannii increased in wards, as did the proportion of A. baumannii isolates, which were non-susceptibleto most antibiotics in both wards and ICUs. Coincidently, Klebsiella pneumoniae RIF declined while the respective rates of non-susceptible isolates to carbapenems and gentamicin increased. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RIF remained stable but decreasing proportions of non-susceptible isolates to all studied antibiotics, except imipenem were observed. Escherichia coli RIF increased as did the proportion of isolates non-susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Concerning Staphylococcus aureus, a decline in the percentage of meticillin resistant isolates in ICUs was found, while the percentages of Enterococcus faecium isolates with non-susceptibility to vancomycin stayed stable.ConclusionsRecognising these trends over time is important, since the epidemiology of AMR is complex, involving different 'bug and drug' combinations. This should be taken into consideration to control AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/trends , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Greece , Hospitals, General , Humans , Sentinel Surveillance
16.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 153, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A considerable proportion of patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) acquired secondary bacterial infections (SBIs). The etiology and antimicrobial resistance of bacteria were reported and used to provide a theoretical basis for appropriate infection therapy. METHODS: This retrospective study reviewed electronic medical records of all the patients hospitalized with COVID-19 in the Wuhan Union Hospital between January 27 and March 17, 2020. According to the inclusion and exclusion criteria, patients who acquired SBIs were enrolled. Demographic, clinical course, etiology, and antimicrobial resistance data of the SBIs were collected. Outcomes were also compared between patients who were classified as severe and critical on admission. RESULTS: Among 1495 patients hospitalized with COVID-19, 102 (6.8%) patients had acquired SBIs, and almost half of them (49.0%, 50/102) died during hospitalization. Compared with severe patients, critical patients had a higher chance of SBIs. Among the 159 strains of bacteria isolated from the SBIs, 136 strains (85.5%) were Gram-negative bacteria. The top three bacteria of SBIs were A. baumannii (35.8%, 57/159), K. pneumoniae (30.8%, 49/159), and S. maltophilia (6.3%, 10/159). The isolation rates of carbapenem-resistant A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae were 91.2 and 75.5%, respectively. Meticillin resistance was present in 100% of Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase negative staphylococci, and vancomycin resistance was not found. CONCLUSIONS: SBIs may occur in patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and lead to high mortality. The incidence of SBIs was associated with the severity of illness on admission. Gram-negative bacteria, especially A. baumannii and K. pneumoniae, were the main bacteria, and the resistance rates of the major isolated bacteria were generally high. This was a single-center study; thus, our results should be externally examined when applied in other institutions.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/physiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy
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