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1.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503647

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
2.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
3.
mBio ; 12(3): e0150221, 2021 06 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1286720

ABSTRACT

Previously, we documented that Stenotrophomonas maltophilia encodes a type IV secretion system (T4SS) that allows the organism to kill, in contact-dependent fashion, heterologous bacteria, including wild-type Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Bioinformatic screens based largely on the presence of both a C-terminal consensus sequence and an adjacent gene encoding a cognate immunity protein identified 13 potential antibacterial effectors, most of which were highly conserved among sequenced strains of S. maltophilia. The immunity proteins of two of these proved especially capable of protecting P. aeruginosa and Escherichia coli against attack from the Stenotrophomonas T4SS. In turn, S. maltophilia mutants lacking the putative effectors RS14245 and RS14255 were impaired for killing not only laboratory E. coli but clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, including ones isolated from the lungs of cystic fibrosis patients. That complemented mutants behaved as wild type did confirmed that RS14245 and RS14255 are required for the bactericidal activity of the S. maltophilia T4SS. Moreover, a mutant lacking both of these proteins was as impaired as a mutant lacking the T4SS apparatus, indicating that RS14245 and RS14255 account for (nearly) all of the bactericidal effects seen. Utilizing an interbacterial protein translocation assay, we determined that RS14245 and RS14255 are bona fide substrates of the T4SS, a result confirmed by examination of mutants lacking both the T4SS and the individual effectors. Delivery of the cloned 14245 protein (alone) into the periplasm resulted in the killing of target bacteria, indicating that this effector, a putative lipase, is both necessary and sufficient for bactericidal activity. IMPORTANCE S. maltophilia is an increasingly important opportunistic pathogen. Inherently resistant to many antibiotics, S. maltophilia is often associated with lung infection, being, among other things, a complicating factor in cystic fibrosis patients. Moreover, it is a common form of coinfection in COVID-19 patients. In these various clinical settings and in natural habitats, S. maltophilia coexists with other pathogens, including P. aeruginosa. Previously, we documented that S. maltophilia possesses a T4SS that kills other bacteria, a notable observation given that most prior work on interbacterial competition has highlighted bactericidal effects of type VI secretion systems. By utilizing approaches ranging from bioinformatics to mutant analysis to protein translocation assays, we have now identified two substrates of the Stenotrophomonas T4SS that largely mediate the killing of pathogenic P. aeruginosa. These results represent a major advance in understanding S. maltophilia, the roles of T4SSs, concepts regarding clinically relevant, interbacterial competition, and activities of bactericidal effectors.


Subject(s)
Antibiosis/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/metabolism , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/genetics , Type IV Secretion Systems/metabolism , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/metabolism , Type IV Secretion Systems/genetics
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12703, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275958

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections are a potentially fatal complication of influenza infection. We aimed to define the impact of secondary bacterial infections on the clinical course and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by comparison with influenza patients. COVID-19 (n = 642) and influenza (n = 742) patients, admitted to a large tertiary center in Israel and for whom blood or sputum culture had been taken were selected for this study. Bacterial culture results, clinical parameters, and death rates were compared. COVID-19 patients had higher rates of bacterial infections than influenza patients (12.6% vs. 8.7%). Notably, the time from admission to bacterial growth was longer in COVID-19 compared to influenza patients (4 (1-8) vs. 1 (1-3) days). Late infections (> 48 h after admission) with gram-positive bacteria were more common in COVID-19 patients (28% vs. 9.5%). Secondary infection was associated with a higher risk of death in both patient groups 2.7-fold (1.22-5.83) for COVID-19, and 3.09-fold (1.11-7.38) for Influenza). The association with death remained significant upon adjustment to age and clinical parameters in COVID-19 but not in influenza infection. Secondary bacterial infection is a notable complication associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 than influenza patients. Careful surveillance and prompt antibiotic treatment may benefit selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies
5.
Retina ; 41(8): 1709-1714, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1140026

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To describe endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 pneumonia. METHODS: Patients recovering from COVID-19 pneumonia who presented to our department with any or all of the following complaints: pain, watering, redness, and decreased vision were identified. All relevant data were collected for analysis. RESULTS: Three patients with endogenous endophthalmitis were identified. All patients had been treated for COVID-19 pneumonia and therefore had received remdesivir and systemic steroids; 2 of the 3 patients received tocilizumab. All patients received vitreous biopsy, vitrectomy, and intraocular antibiotic injection. Patient 1 demonstrated Klebsiella pneumoniae in blood culture, K. pneumoniae and Escherichia coli in urine culture, and K. pneumoniae in vitreous fluid, whereas Patients 2 and 3 demonstrated Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the blood and nasopharyngeal culture, respectively. Correspondingly, the same organism was cultured from vitreous in Patients 2 and 3. The visual acuity at the last follow-up in Patients 1 to 3 was 20/100, 20/80, and 20/40, respectively. The probable source of infection was identified in each as renal calculi, dental caries, and the pharynx, respectively. Real-time polymerase chain reaction demonstrated the presence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 in the vitreous fluid of Patient 1. CONCLUSION: We report good outcomes of early intervention for endogenous endophthalmitis in the setting of COVID-19 infection. We also document the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in vitreous.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endophthalmitis/microbiology , Eye Infections, Bacterial/microbiology , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Stenotrophomonas maltophilia/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Endophthalmitis/diagnosis , Endophthalmitis/drug therapy , Eye Infections, Bacterial/diagnosis , Eye Infections, Bacterial/drug therapy , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Klebsiella Infections/diagnosis , Klebsiella Infections/drug therapy , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Male , Middle Aged , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Vitrectomy , Vitreous Body/microbiology , Vitreous Body/virology
6.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; 57(5): 106318, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1131354

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Piperacillin/tazobactam has long been a broad-spectrum 'workhorse' antibiotic; however, it is compromised by resistance. One response is to re-partner tazobactam with cefepime, which is easier to protect, being less ß-lactamase labile, and to use a high-dose and prolonged infusion. On this basis, Wockhardt are developing cefepime/tazobactam (WCK 4282) as a 2+2 g q8h combination with a 90-min infusion. METHODS: The activity of cc cefepime/tazobactam was assessed, with other tazobactam combinations as comparators, against 1632 Enterobacterales, 745 Pseudomonas aeruginosa and 450 other non-fermenters, as submitted to the UK National Reference Laboratory. These were categorised by carbapenemase-gene detection and interpretive reading of phenotypes, with MICs determined by British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy agar dilution. RESULTS: Although higher breakpoints may be justifiable, based on the pharmacodynamics, the results were reviewed against current cefepime criteria. On this basis, cefepime/tazobactam was broadly active against Enterobacterales with AmpC enzymes and extended-spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs), even when they had ertapenem resistance, suggesting porin loss. At 8+8 mg/L, activity extended to > 90% of Enterobacterales with OXA-48 and KPC carbapenemases, although the MICs for KPC producers belonging to the international Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 lineage were higher; metallo-ß-lactamase producers remained resistant. Cefepime/tazobactam was less active than ceftolozane/tazobactam against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with AmpC de-repression or high-level efflux but achieved wider antipseudomonal coverage than piperacillin/tazobactam. Activity against other non-fermenters was species-specific. CONCLUSION: Overall, cefepime/tazobactam had a spectrum exceeding those of piperacillin/tazobactam and ceftolozane/tazobactam and resembling or exceeding that of carbapenems. Used as a 'new-combination of old-agents' it has genuine potential to be 'carbapenem-sparing'.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cefepime/pharmacology , Cephalosporins/pharmacology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Piperacillin, Tazobactam Drug Combination/pharmacology , Tazobactam/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/metabolism , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacteriaceae/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , beta-Lactamases/metabolism
7.
PLoS One ; 15(11): e0236849, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-921029

ABSTRACT

Due to the large number of negative tests, individually screening large populations for rare pathogens can be wasteful and expensive. Sample pooling methods improve the efficiency of large-scale pathogen screening campaigns by reducing the number of tests and reagents required to accurately categorize positive and negative individuals. Such methods rely on group testing theory which mainly focuses on minimizing the total number of tests; however, many other practical concerns and tradeoffs must be considered when choosing an appropriate method for a given set of circumstances. Here we use computational simulations to determine how several theoretical approaches compare in terms of (a) the number of tests, to minimize costs and save reagents, (b) the number of sequential steps, to reduce the time it takes to complete the assay, (c) the number of samples per pool, to avoid the limits of detection, (d) simplicity, to reduce the risk of human error, and (e) robustness, to poor estimates of the number of positive samples. We found that established methods often perform very well in one area but very poorly in others. Therefore, we introduce and validate a new method which performs fairly well across each of the above criteria making it a good general use approach.


Subject(s)
Coxiella/isolation & purification , Diagnostic Tests, Routine/methods , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Mass Screening/methods , Specimen Handling/methods , Computer Simulation , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans
9.
Euro Surveill ; 25(34)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874412

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) changes over time and continuous monitoring provides insight on trends to inform both empirical treatment and public health action.AimsTo survey trends in relative isolation frequency (RIF) and AMR among key bloodstream pathogens using data from the Greek Electronic System for the Surveillance of AMR (WHONET-Greece).MethodsThis observational study looked into routine susceptibility data of 50,488 blood culture isolates from hospitalised patients in 25 tertiary hospitals, participating in the WHONET-Greece for trends over time between January 2010 and December 2017. Only the first isolate per species from each patient was included. Hospital wards and intensive care units (ICUs) were analysed separately.ResultsDuring the study, the RIF of Acinetobacter baumannii increased in wards, as did the proportion of A. baumannii isolates, which were non-susceptibleto most antibiotics in both wards and ICUs. Coincidently, Klebsiella pneumoniae RIF declined while the respective rates of non-susceptible isolates to carbapenems and gentamicin increased. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RIF remained stable but decreasing proportions of non-susceptible isolates to all studied antibiotics, except imipenem were observed. Escherichia coli RIF increased as did the proportion of isolates non-susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Concerning Staphylococcus aureus, a decline in the percentage of meticillin resistant isolates in ICUs was found, while the percentages of Enterococcus faecium isolates with non-susceptibility to vancomycin stayed stable.ConclusionsRecognising these trends over time is important, since the epidemiology of AMR is complex, involving different 'bug and drug' combinations. This should be taken into consideration to control AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/trends , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Greece , Hospitals, General , Humans , Sentinel Surveillance
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