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1.
Med Res Rev ; 42(3): 1023-1036, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525477

ABSTRACT

Several natural antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), including the novel semisynthetic lipoglycopeptide antibiotics telavancin, dalbavancin, and oritavancin, have been approved for clinical use to address the growing problem of multiple antibiotic-resistant Gram-positive bacterial infections. Nevertheless, the efficacy of these antibiotics has already been compromised. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic led to the increased clinical use of all antibiotics, further promoting the development of bacterial resistance. Therefore, it is critical to gain a deeper understanding of the role of resistance mechanisms to minimize the consequential risks of long-term antibiotic use and misuse. Here, we summarize for the first time the current knowledge of resistance mechanisms that have been shown to cause resistance to clinically used AMPs, with particular focus on membrane proteins that have been reported to interfere with the activity of AMPs by affecting the binding of AMPs to bacteria.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/metabolism , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Membrane Proteins , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Ann Med ; 53(1): 1779-1786, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462157

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unexpected high prevalence of enterococcal bloodstream infection (BSI) has been observed in critically ill patients with COVID-19 in the intensive care unit (ICU). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary objective was to describe the characteristics of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19. A secondary objective was to exploratorily assess the predictors of 30-day mortality in critically ill COVID-19 patients with ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI. RESULTS: During the study period, 223 patients with COVID-19 were admitted to COVID-19-dedicated ICUs in our centre. Overall, 51 episodes of enterococcal BSI, occurring in 43 patients, were registered. 29 (56.9%) and 22 (43.1%) BSI were caused by Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium, respectively. The cumulative incidence of ICU-acquired enterococcal BSI was of 229 episodes per 1000 ICU admissions (95% mid-p confidence interval [CI] 172-298). Most patients received an empirical therapy with at least one agent showing in vitro activity against the blood isolate (38/43, 88%). The crude 30-day mortality was 42% (18/43) and 57% (4/7) in the entire series and in patients with vancomycin-resistant E. faecium BSI, respectively. The sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) score showed an independent association with increased mortality (odds ratio 1.32 per one-point increase, with 95% confidence interval 1.04-1.66, p = .021). CONCLUSIONS: The cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Our results suggest a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.KEY MESSAGESThe cumulative incidence of enterococcal BSI is high in critically ill patients with COVID-19.The crude 30-day mortality of enterococcal BSI in critically ill patients with COVID-19 may be higher than 40%.There could be a crucial role of the severity of the acute clinical conditions, to which both the underlying viral pneumonia and the enterococcal BSI may contribute, in majorly influencing the outcome.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Enterococcus faecalis , Enterococcus faecium , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Mortality , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci , Aged , Bacteremia/microbiology , Critical Illness , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Eur J Clin Invest ; 51(12): e13687, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443255

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: We investigated whether behavioral precautions adopted during Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic also influenced the spreading and multidrug resistance (MDR) of ESKAPEEc (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii [AB], Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter spp and Escherichia Coli, [EC]) among Intensive Care Unit (ICU) patients. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed a single-center retrospective study in adult patients admitted to our COVID-19-free surgical ICU. Only patients staying in ICU for more than 48 hours were included. The ESKAPEEc infections recorded during the COVID-19 period (June 1, 2020 - February 28, 2021) and in the corresponding pre-pandemic period (June 1, 2019 - February 28, 2020) were compared. An interrupted time series analysis was performed to rule out possible confounders. RESULTS: Overall, 173 patients in the COVID-19 period and 132 in the pre-COVID-19 period were investigated. The ESKAPEEc infections were documented in 23 (13.3%) and 35 (26.5%) patients in the pandemic and the pre-pandemic periods, respectively (p = 0.005). Demographics, diagnosis, comorbidities, type of surgery, Simplified Acute Physiology Score II, length of mechanical ventilation, hospital and ICU length of stay, ICU death rate, and 28-day hospital mortality were similar in the two groups. In comparison with the pre-pandemic period, no AB was recorded during COVID-19 period, (p = 0.017), while extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing EC infections significantly decreased (p = 0.017). Overall, the ESKAPEEc isolates during pandemic less frequently exhibited multidrug-resistant (p = 0.014). CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that a robust adherence to hygiene measures together with human contact restrictions in a COVID-19 free ICU might also restrain the transmission of ESKAPEEc pathogens.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Infection Control , Acinetobacter Infections/epidemiology , Acinetobacter Infections/microbiology , Acinetobacter Infections/transmission , Acinetobacter baumannii , Aged , Cross Infection/microbiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Enterobacter , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/epidemiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/microbiology , Enterobacteriaceae Infections/transmission , Enterococcus faecium , Escherichia coli Infections/epidemiology , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/transmission , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Klebsiella Infections/epidemiology , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , Klebsiella Infections/transmission , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Male , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Middle Aged , Organizational Policy , Personal Protective Equipment , Pseudomonas Infections/epidemiology , Pseudomonas Infections/microbiology , Pseudomonas Infections/transmission , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Staphylococcus aureus , Visitors to Patients
4.
Drug Des Devel Ther ; 15: 3349-3378, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1352763

ABSTRACT

Dalbavancin is a novel, long-acting lipoglycopeptide characterized by a long elimination half-life coupled with excellent in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant Gram-positives. Although it is currently approved only for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections, an ever-growing amount of evidence supports the efficacy of dalbavancin as a long-term therapy in osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, endocarditis, and bloodstream infections. This article provides a critical reappraisal of real-world use of dalbavancin for off-label indications. A search strategy using specific keywords (dalbavancin, osteomyelitis, endocarditis, long-term suppressive therapy, bloodstream infection, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic profile) until April 2021 was performed on the PubMed-MEDLINE database. As for other novel antibiotics, a conundrum between approved indications and potential innovative therapeutic uses has emerged for dalbavancin as well. The promising efficacy in challenging scenarios (i.e., osteomyelitis, endocarditis, prosthetic joint infections), coupled with the unique pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic properties, makes dalbavancin a valuable alternative to daily in-hospital intravenous or outpatient antimicrobial regimens in the treatment of long-term Gram-positive infections. This makes dalbavancin valuable in the current COVID-19 scenario, in which hospitalization and territorial medicine empowerment are unavoidable.


Subject(s)
Ambulatory Care , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Off-Label Use , Patient Participation , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Algorithms , Anti-Bacterial Agents/adverse effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacokinetics , Clinical Decision-Making , Decision Support Techniques , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Teicoplanin/adverse effects , Teicoplanin/pharmacokinetics , Teicoplanin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome
5.
Anaerobe ; 70: 102405, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274154

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to report 10 episodes of clinically significant bacteremia caused by species of the genus Anaerococcus isolated between July 2018 and February 2021 from the microbiology laboratory of a tertiary hospital in Granada (Spain). None of the isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF MS, and the definitive species identification was performed by 16 S rRNA gene sequencing. No reference spectra of the Anaerococcus species were present in the MALDI-TOF MS database. Eight isolates were finally identified as A. octavius, one isolate as A. tetradius and the other as A. urinomassiliensis. The majority of these infections were seen in patients aged >70 years. Risk factors for anaerobic infection were observed in eight patients, especially diabetes mellitus, surgery, and the presence of cancer. Fever was present in all patients. Three patients died, but only one death was attributed to the infection. Mean detection time of positive blood cultures was 47.5 h (range 24-92 h). Antimicrobial susceptibility to penicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanate, imipenem, moxifloxacin, clindamycin, metronidazole, and piperacillin-tazobactam was tested using the gradient diffusion technique and EUCAST breakpoints (except for moxifloxacin). No resistance to amoxicillin-clavulanate, metronidazole, imipenem, or piperacillin-tazobactam was detected; however, the majority of isolates were resistant to clindamycin. When MALDI-TOF MS does not provide a correct identification at genus or species level, as in some isolates of Gram-positive anaerobic cocci, microbiologists should perform an additional confirmatory technique, such as gene sequencing analysis, to obtain a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
Bacteremia/diagnosis , Bacteremia/microbiology , Firmicutes/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Bacterial Typing Techniques , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Firmicutes/classification , Firmicutes/drug effects , Firmicutes/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/diagnosis , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Retrospective Studies , Spain
6.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0251727, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE) has alarmed the global community due to its tendency for colonization of the gastrointestinal tract. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) patients are colonized by vancomycin resistant Enterococci than other groups. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci and its associated factors among HIV infected patients on Anti-Retroviral Therapy (ART). METHODS: Institution based cross sectional study was conducted among HIV infected patients on ART at from June 1 to August 30, 2020. Socio-demographic and clinical data were collected by pre-tested structured questionnaire. Stool sample was collected and processed by standard microbiological techniques. Kirby Bauer Disc diffusion method was used to perform antimicrobial susceptibility testing. Data were entered by Epi data version 4.6.0.2 and analyzed by SPSS version 25. Bivariable and multivariable logistic regression model was used to analyze the association between dependent and independent variables. P-values in the multivariable analysis, adjusted odds ratio (AOR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were used to determine the strength of association. P-value ≤0.05 was considered as significant. RESULTS: Enterococci spp was isolated on 123/200 (61.50%) patients. Among these isolates, the incidence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci was 11.4% [95% CI: (6.0-17.0)]. Antimicrobial susceptibility patterns against Enterococci showed highest rate of resistance to ampicillin (69.9%). Multidrug resistances were observed in 49.59% of Enterococci isolates. Study participants who had prior antibioticexposurer more than two weeks [AOR = 7.35; 95% CI: (1.2144.64)] and hospitalization for the last six months [AOR = 5.68; 95% CI: (1.09 29.74)] were significantly associated with vancomycin resistant Enterococci. CONCLUSIONS: In our study high incidence of vancomycin resistant Enterococci was found. Previous exposure to antibiotics for more than two weeks and hospitalization for more than six months were significantly associated with vancomycin resistant Enterococci. The isolated Enterococci had variable degrees of resistance to commonly prescribed antibiotics. Therefore, periodic surveillance on antimicrobial resistance pattern, adhering to rational use of antibiotics and implementing infection prevention protocols may reduce colonization by VRE.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV/isolation & purification , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Vancomycin/pharmacology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 12703, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1275958

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections are a potentially fatal complication of influenza infection. We aimed to define the impact of secondary bacterial infections on the clinical course and mortality in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients by comparison with influenza patients. COVID-19 (n = 642) and influenza (n = 742) patients, admitted to a large tertiary center in Israel and for whom blood or sputum culture had been taken were selected for this study. Bacterial culture results, clinical parameters, and death rates were compared. COVID-19 patients had higher rates of bacterial infections than influenza patients (12.6% vs. 8.7%). Notably, the time from admission to bacterial growth was longer in COVID-19 compared to influenza patients (4 (1-8) vs. 1 (1-3) days). Late infections (> 48 h after admission) with gram-positive bacteria were more common in COVID-19 patients (28% vs. 9.5%). Secondary infection was associated with a higher risk of death in both patient groups 2.7-fold (1.22-5.83) for COVID-19, and 3.09-fold (1.11-7.38) for Influenza). The association with death remained significant upon adjustment to age and clinical parameters in COVID-19 but not in influenza infection. Secondary bacterial infection is a notable complication associated with worse outcomes in COVID-19 than influenza patients. Careful surveillance and prompt antibiotic treatment may benefit selected patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Influenza A virus/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/mortality , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection/microbiology , Female , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Israel/epidemiology , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Retrospective Studies
8.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 19(9): 1125-1134, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122062

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic has dramatically challenged the national health systems worldwide in the last months. Dalbavancin is a novel antibiotic with a long plasmatic half-life and simplified weekly administration regimens, thus representing a promising option for the outpatient treatment of Gram-positive infections and the early discharge of hospitalized patients. Dalbavancin is approved for the treatment of acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Many preliminary data seem to support its use in other indications, such as osteomyelitis, prosthetic joint infections, and infective endocarditis. AREAS COVERED: A search in the literature using validated keywords (dalbavancin, Gram-positive infections, Gram-positive cocci, ABSSSI, intravenous treatment, and long-acting antibiotics) was conducted on biomedical bibliographic databases (PubMed and Embase) from 2004 to 30 September 2020. Results were analyzed during two consensus conferences with the aim to review the current evidence on dalbavancin in Gram-positive infections, mainly ABSSSI, osteomyelitis, and infective endocarditis, highlight the main limitations of available studies and suggest possible advantages of the molecule. EXPERT OPINION: The board identifies some specific subgroups of patients with ABSSSIs who could mostly benefit from a treatment with dalbavancin and agrees that the design of homogenous and robust studies would allow a broader use of dalbavancin even in other clinical settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Teicoplanin/analogs & derivatives , Ambulatory Care/methods , Animals , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Administration Schedule , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/drug therapy , Skin Diseases, Bacterial/microbiology , Teicoplanin/administration & dosage , Teicoplanin/pharmacology
9.
Crit Care Med ; 49(1): e31-e40, 2021 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977413

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We aimed to assess the frequency of ICU-acquired bloodstream infections in coronavirus disease 2019 patients. DESIGN: Retrospective observational study. SETTING: The emergency expansion of an ICU from eight general beds to 30 coronavirus disease 2019 beds. PARTICIPANTS: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 admitted to the ICU of Luigi Sacco Hospital (Milan, Italy) for greater than or equal to 48 hours between February 21, 2020, and April 30, 2020. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The frequency of bloodstream infections per 1,000 days of ICU stay was calculated in 89 coronavirus disease 2019 patients, and the cumulative probability of bloodstream infection was estimated using death and ICU discharge as competing events. Sixty patients (67.4%) experienced at least one of the 93 recorded episodes of bloodstream infection, a frequency of 87 per 1,000 days of ICU stay (95% CI, 67-112).The patients who experienced a bloodstream infection had a higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment score upon ICU admission (9.5; interquartile range, 8-12 vs 8, interquartile range, 5-10; p = 0.042), a longer median ICU stay (15 d; interquartile range, 11-23 vs 8, interquartile range, 5-12; p < 0.001), and more frequently required invasive mechanical ventilation (98.3% vs 82.8%; p = 0.013) than those who did not. The median time from ICU admission to the first bloodstream infection episode was 10 days. Gram-positive bacteria accounted for 74 episodes (79.6%), with Enterococcus species being the most prevalent (53 episodes, 55.8%). Thirty-two isolates (27.3%) showed multidrug resistance. CONCLUSIONS: Coronavirus disease 2019 seemed to increase the frequency of bloodstream infections (particularly Enterococcus-related bloodstream infection) after ICU admission. This may have been due to enteric involvement in patients with severe coronavirus disease 2019 and/or limitations in controlling the patient-to-patient transmission of infectious agents in extremely challenging circumstances.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/microbiology , Enterococcus/isolation & purification , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Sepsis/microbiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Critical Illness , Female , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
10.
Euro Surveill ; 25(34)2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874412

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAntimicrobial resistance (AMR) changes over time and continuous monitoring provides insight on trends to inform both empirical treatment and public health action.AimsTo survey trends in relative isolation frequency (RIF) and AMR among key bloodstream pathogens using data from the Greek Electronic System for the Surveillance of AMR (WHONET-Greece).MethodsThis observational study looked into routine susceptibility data of 50,488 blood culture isolates from hospitalised patients in 25 tertiary hospitals, participating in the WHONET-Greece for trends over time between January 2010 and December 2017. Only the first isolate per species from each patient was included. Hospital wards and intensive care units (ICUs) were analysed separately.ResultsDuring the study, the RIF of Acinetobacter baumannii increased in wards, as did the proportion of A. baumannii isolates, which were non-susceptibleto most antibiotics in both wards and ICUs. Coincidently, Klebsiella pneumoniae RIF declined while the respective rates of non-susceptible isolates to carbapenems and gentamicin increased. Pseudomonas aeruginosa RIF remained stable but decreasing proportions of non-susceptible isolates to all studied antibiotics, except imipenem were observed. Escherichia coli RIF increased as did the proportion of isolates non-susceptible to third-generation cephalosporins, carbapenems and fluoroquinolones. Concerning Staphylococcus aureus, a decline in the percentage of meticillin resistant isolates in ICUs was found, while the percentages of Enterococcus faecium isolates with non-susceptibility to vancomycin stayed stable.ConclusionsRecognising these trends over time is important, since the epidemiology of AMR is complex, involving different 'bug and drug' combinations. This should be taken into consideration to control AMR.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteremia/drug therapy , Gram-Negative Bacteria/drug effects , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/trends , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Gram-Negative Bacteria/classification , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Negative Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Greece , Hospitals, General , Humans , Sentinel Surveillance
11.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 9(1): 154, 2020 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-781536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Currently, hospitals have been forced to divert substantial resources to cope with the ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. It is unclear if this situation will affect long-standing infection prevention practices and impact on healthcare associated infections. Here, we report a nosocomial cluster of vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) that occurred on a COVID-19 dedicated intensive care unit (ICU) despite intensified contact precautions during the current pandemic. Whole genome sequence-based typing (WGS) was used to investigate genetic relatedness of VRE isolates collected from COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients during the outbreak and to compare them to environmental VRE samples. METHODS: Five VRE isolated from patients (three clinical and two screening samples) as well as 11 VRE and six vancomycin susceptible Enterococcus faecium (E. faecium) samples from environmental sites underwent WGS during the outbreak investigation. Isolate relatedness was determined using core genome multilocus sequence typing (cgMLST). RESULTS: WGS revealed two genotypic distinct VRE clusters with genetically closely related patient and environmental isolates. The cluster was terminated by enhanced infection control bundle strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Our results illustrate the importance of continued adherence to infection prevention and control measures during the COVID-19 pandemic to prevent VRE transmission and healthcare associated infections.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/drug effects , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coinfection/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Cross Infection/drug therapy , Cross Infection/microbiology , Disease Outbreaks , Genome, Bacterial/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Humans , Infection Control , Intensive Care Units , Multilocus Sequence Typing , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Primary Prevention , SARS-CoV-2 , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/genetics , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Whole Genome Sequencing
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