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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 14(1): 191-200, 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616941

ABSTRACT

At present, the most powerful new drugs for COVID-19 are antibody proteins. In addition, there are some star small molecule drugs. However, there are few studies on nanomaterials. Here, we study the intact graphene (IG), defective graphene (DG), and graphene oxide (GO) interacting with COVID-19 protein. We find that they show progressive inhibition of COVID-19 protein. By using molecular dynamics simulations, we study the interactions between SARS-CoV-2 3CL Mpro and graphene-related materials (GRMs): IG, DG, and GO. The results show that Mpro can be absorbed onto the surfaces of investigated materials. DG and GO interacted with Mpro more intensely, causing the decisive part of Mpro to become more flexible. Further analysis shows that compared to IG and GO, DG can inactivate Mpro and inhibit its expression effectively by destroying the active pocket of Mpro. Our work not only provides detailed and reliable theoretical guidance for the application of GRMs in treating with SARS-CoV-2 but also helps in developing new graphene-based anti-COVID-19 materials.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 3C Proteases/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Adsorption , Binding Sites , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Catalytic Domain , Coronavirus 3C Proteases/metabolism , Graphite/metabolism , Humans , Ligands , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
2.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(43): 17891-17909, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483091

ABSTRACT

The emergence of multi-drug-resistant pathogens threatens the healthcare systems world-wide. Recent advances in phototherapy (PT) approaches mediated by photo-antimicrobials (PAMs) provide new opportunities for the current serious antibiotic resistance. During the PT treatment, reactive oxygen species or heat produced by PAMs would react with the cell membrane, consequently leaking cytoplasm components and effectively eradicating different pathogens like bacteria, fungi, viruses, and even parasites. This Perspective will concentrate on the development of different organic photo-antimicrobials (OPAMs) and their application as practical therapeutic agents into therapy for local infections, wound dressings, and removal of biofilms from medical devices. We also discuss how to design highly efficient OPAMs by modifying the chemical structure or conjugating with a targeting component. Moreover, this Perspective provides a discussion of the general challenges and direction for OPAMs and what further needs to be done. It is hoped that through this overview, OPAMs can prosper and will be more widely used for microbial infections in the future, especially at a time when the global COVID-19 epidemic is getting more serious.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Drug Design , Phototherapy/methods , Animals , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Bacteria/drug effects , Biofilms/drug effects , Biofilms/radiation effects , Coloring Agents/chemistry , Coloring Agents/pharmacology , Equipment and Supplies/microbiology , Equipment and Supplies/virology , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/physiology , Eye Diseases/drug therapy , Eye Diseases/pathology , Fungi/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Light , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Photosensitizing Agents/chemistry , Photosensitizing Agents/pharmacology , Photosensitizing Agents/therapeutic use , Quantum Theory , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Viruses/drug effects
3.
J Am Chem Soc ; 143(41): 17004-17014, 2021 10 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1461966

ABSTRACT

Rapid screening of infected individuals from a large population is an effective means in epidemiology, especially to contain outbreaks such as COVID-19. The gold standard assays for COVID-19 diagnostics are mainly based on the reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, which mismatches the requirements for wide-population screening due to time-consuming nucleic acid extraction and amplification procedures. Here, we report a direct nucleic acid assay by using a graphene field-effect transistor (g-FET) with Y-shaped DNA dual probes (Y-dual probes). The assay relies on Y-dual probes modified on g-FET simultaneously targeting ORF1ab and N genes of SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid, enabling high a recognition ratio and a limit of detection (0.03 copy µL-1) 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than existing nucleic acid assays. The assay realizes the fastest nucleic acid testing (∼1 min) and achieves direct 5-in-1 pooled testing for the first time. Owing to its rapid, ultrasensitive, easily operated features as well as capability in pooled testing, it holds great promise as a comprehensive tool for population-wide screening of COVID-19 and other epidemics.


Subject(s)
DNA Probes , DNA, Viral/analysis , Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection
4.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(36): 43696-43707, 2021 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392772

ABSTRACT

Graphene is a two-dimensional semiconducting material whose application for diagnostics has been a real game-changer in terms of sensitivity and response time, variables of paramount importance to stop the COVID-19 spreading. Nevertheless, strategies for the modification of docking recognition and antifouling elements to obtain covalent-like stability without the disruption of the graphene band structure are still needed. In this work, we conducted surface engineering of graphene through heterofunctional supramolecular-covalent scaffolds based on vinylsulfonated-polyamines (PA-VS). In these scaffolds, one side binds graphene through multivalent π-π interactions with pyrene groups, and the other side presents vinylsulfonated pending groups that can be used for covalent binding. The construction of PA-VS scaffolds was demonstrated by spectroscopic ellipsometry, Raman spectroscopy, and contact angle measurements. The covalent binding of -SH, -NH2, or -OH groups was confirmed, and it evidenced great chemical versatility. After field-effect studies, we found that the PA-VS-based scaffolds do not disrupt the semiconducting properties of graphene. Moreover, the scaffolds were covalently modified with poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG), which improved the resistance to nonspecific proteins by almost 7-fold compared to the widely used PEG-monopyrene approach. The attachment of recognition elements to PA-VS was optimized for concanavalin A (ConA), a model lectin with a high affinity to glycans. Lastly, the platform was implemented for the rapid, sensitive, and regenerable recognition of SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ferritin in lab-made samples. Those two are the target molecules of major importance for the rapid detection and monitoring of COVID-19-positive patients. For that purpose, monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were bound to the scaffolds, resulting in a surface coverage of 436 ± 30 ng/cm2. KD affinity constants of 48.4 and 2.54 nM were obtained by surface plasmon resonance (SPR) spectroscopy for SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and human ferritin binding on these supramolecular scaffolds, respectively.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Graphite/chemistry , Immunoassay/methods , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Antibodies, Monoclonal/chemistry , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Ethylenes/chemistry , Ferritins/immunology , Ferritins/metabolism , Humans , Point-of-Care Systems , Polyamines/chemistry , Polyethylene Glycols/chemistry , Pyrenes/chemistry , Quantum Theory , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Semiconductors , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Sulfonic Acids/chemistry , Surface Plasmon Resonance
5.
Adv Mater ; 33(40): e2102528, 2021 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358054

ABSTRACT

Dendritic cell (DC) vaccines are used for cancer and infectious diseases, albeit with limited efficacy. Modulating the formation of DC-T-cell synapses may greatly increase their efficacy. The effects of graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets on DCs and DC-T-cell synapse formation are evaluated. In particular, size-dependent interactions are observed between GO nanosheets and DCs. GOs with diameters of >1 µm (L-GOs) demonstrate strong adherence to the DC surface, inducing cytoskeletal reorganization via the RhoA-ROCK-MLC pathway, while relatively small GOs (≈500 nm) are predominantly internalized by DCs. Furthermore, L-GO treatment enhances DC-T-cell synapse formation via cytoskeleton-dependent membrane positioning of integrin ICAM-1. L-GO acts as a "nanozipper," facilitating the aggregation of DC-T-cell clusters to produce a stable microenvironment for T cell activation. Importantly, L-GO-adjuvanted DCs promote robust cytotoxic T cell immune responses against SARS-CoV-2 spike 1, leading to >99.7% viral RNA clearance in mice infected with a clinically isolated SARS-CoV-2 strain. These findings highlight the potential value of nanomaterials as DC vaccine adjuvants for modulating DC-T-cell synapse formation and provide a basis for the development of effective COVID-19 vaccines.


Subject(s)
Adjuvants, Immunologic/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Graphite/therapeutic use , Nanostructures/therapeutic use , Adjuvants, Immunologic/chemistry , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Dendritic Cells/drug effects , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Mice , Nanostructures/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , T-Lymphocytes/immunology
6.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 13(26): 30295-30305, 2021 Jul 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1337092

ABSTRACT

As viruses have been threatening global public health, fast diagnosis has been critical to effective disease management and control. Reverse-transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is now widely used as the gold standard for detecting viruses. Although a multiplex assay is essential for identifying virus types and subtypes, the poor multiplicity of RT-qPCR makes it laborious and time-consuming. In this paper, we describe the development of a multiplex RT-qPCR platform with hydrogel microparticles acting as independent reactors in a single reaction. To build target-specific particles, target-specific primers and probes are integrated into the particles in the form of noncovalent composites with boron nitride nanotubes (BNNTs) and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). The thermal release characteristics of DNA, primer, and probe from the composites of primer-BNNT and probe-CNT allow primer and probe to be stored in particles during particle production and to be delivered into the reaction. In addition, BNNT did not absorb but preserved the fluorescent signal, while CNT protected the fluorophore of the probe from the free radicals present during particle production. Bicompartmental primer-incorporated network (bcPIN) particles were designed to harness the distinctive properties of two nanomaterials. The bcPIN particles showed a high RT-qPCR efficiency of over 90% and effective suppression of non-specific reactions. 16-plex RT-qPCR has been achieved simply by recruiting differently coded bcPIN particles for each target. As a proof of concept, multiplex one-step RT-qPCR was successfully demonstrated with a simple reaction protocol.


Subject(s)
Hydrogels/chemistry , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Nanotubes, Carbon/chemistry , RNA, Viral/analysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Boron Compounds/chemistry , Coronavirus/chemistry , DNA Primers/chemistry , DNA, Single-Stranded/chemistry , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Influenza A virus/chemistry , Newcastle disease virus/chemistry , Proof of Concept Study , RNA, Viral/chemistry , Virus Diseases/diagnosis
7.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304656

ABSTRACT

The monolayer character of two-dimensional materials predestines them for application as active layers of sensors. However, their inherent high sensitivity is always accompanied by a low selectivity. Chemical functionalization of two-dimensional materials has emerged as a promising way to overcome the selectivity issues. Here, we demonstrate efficient graphene functionalization with carbohydrate ligands-chitooligomers, which bind proteins of the lectin family with high selectivity. Successful grafting of a chitooligomer library was thoroughly characterized, and glycan binding to wheat germ agglutinin was studied by a series of methods. The results demonstrate that the protein quaternary structure remains intact after binding to the functionalized graphene, and that the lectin can be liberated from the surface by the addition of a binding competitor. The chemoenzymatic assay with a horseradish peroxidase conjugate also confirmed the intact catalytic properties of the enzyme. The present approach thus paves the way towards graphene-based sensors for carbohydrate-lectin binding.


Subject(s)
Graphite/chemistry , Lectins/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Horseradish Peroxidase , Lectins/analysis , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Quaternary
8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(30)2021 07 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1303827

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 has led to over 3.47 million deaths worldwide and continues to devastate primarily middle- and low-income countries. High-frequency testing has been proposed as a potential solution to prevent outbreaks. However, current tests are not sufficiently low-cost, rapid, or scalable to enable broad COVID-19 testing. Here, we describe LEAD (Low-cost Electrochemical Advanced Diagnostic), a diagnostic test that detects severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) within 6.5 min and costs $1.50 per unit to produce using easily accessible and commercially available materials. LEAD is highly sensitive toward SARS-CoV-2 spike protein (limit of detection = 229 fg⋅mL-1) and displays an excellent performance profile using clinical saliva (100.0% sensitivity, 100.0% specificity, and 100.0% accuracy) and nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal (88.7% sensitivity, 86.0% specificity, and 87.4% accuracy) samples. No cross-reactivity was detected with other coronavirus or influenza strains. Importantly, LEAD also successfully diagnosed the highly contagious SARS-CoV-2 B.1.1.7 UK variant. The device presents high reproducibility under all conditions tested and preserves its original sensitivity for 5 d when stored at 4 °C in phosphate-buffered saline. Our low-cost and do-it-yourself technology opens new avenues to facilitate high-frequency testing and access to much-needed diagnostic tests in resource-limited settings and low-income communities.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 , Graphite/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/metabolism , Electrodes , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity
9.
Carbohydr Polym ; 269: 118345, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1271581

ABSTRACT

This work reports novel chitosan functionalized graphene oxide (GO) nanocomposites combined fluorescence imaging and therapeutic functions in one agent, which can serve as a promising alternative to alleviate related diseases caused hyperinflammation. Briefly, GO was designed to be conjugated with chitosan, fluorescein-labeled peptide, toll-like receptor 4 antibody and hydroxycamptothecin/aloe emodin. We have demonstrated that such nanocomposites could effectively achieve active targeted delivery of pro-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory drugs into inflammatory cells and cause cells apoptosis by acid-responsive drug release. Moreover, confocal fluorescence imaging confirms that the drug-induced inflammatory cells apoptosis could be visualized the light-up fluorescence of fluorescein activated by caspase-3. Meanwhile, inflammatory-related biomarkers have down-regulated after the nanocomposites' treatment in both vitro and vivo experiments consistent with the results in histological sections. In summary, the bifunctional nanocomposites that possess anti-inflammation and fluorescence imaging could serve as a promising therapeutic agent for reducing hyperinflammation caused by numerous diseases.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Apoptosis/physiology , Drug Carriers/chemistry , Inflammation/drug therapy , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/chemistry , Antibodies/immunology , Camptothecin/analogs & derivatives , Camptothecin/chemistry , Camptothecin/therapeutic use , Cattle , Cell Line , Chitosan/chemistry , Drug Liberation , Emodin/chemistry , Emodin/therapeutic use , Fluorescent Dyes/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides , Mammary Glands, Human/drug effects , Mammary Glands, Human/pathology , Mastitis/chemically induced , Mastitis/drug therapy , Mastitis/pathology , Mice , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology
10.
Inorg Chem ; 60(9): 6585-6599, 2021 May 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195597

ABSTRACT

Silver vanadate nanorods (ß-AgVO3) with silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) decorated on the surface of the rods were synthesized by using simple hydrothermal technique and later anchored onto nitrogen-doped reduced graphene oxide (N-rGO) to make a novel nanocomposite. Experimental analyses were carried out to identify the electronic configuration by X-ray diffraction analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis, which revealed monoclinic patterns of the C12/m1 space group with Wulff construction forming beta silver vanadate (ß-AgVO3) crystals with optical density and phase transformations. Ag nucleation showed consistent results with metallic formation and electronic changes occurring in [AgO5] and [AgO3] clusters. Transmission electron microscopy and field-emission scanning electron microscopy with elemental mapping and EDX analysis of the morphology reveals the nanorod structure for ß-AgVO3 with AgNPs on the surface and sheets for N-rGO. Additionally, a novel electrochemical sensor is constructed by using Ag/AgVO3/N-rGO on screen-printed carbon paste electrodes for the detection of antiviral drug levofloxacin (LEV) which is used as a primary antibiotic in controlling COVID-19. Using differential pulse voltammetry, LEV is determined with a low detection limit of 0.00792 nm for a linear range of 0.09-671 µM with an ultrahigh sensitivity of 152.19 µA µM-1 cm-2. Furthermore, modified electrode performance is tested by real-time monitoring using biological and river samples.


Subject(s)
Dielectric Spectroscopy/instrumentation , Dielectric Spectroscopy/methods , Levofloxacin/analysis , Nanocomposites/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/analysis , Antiviral Agents/blood , Antiviral Agents/urine , Carbon/chemistry , Electrodes , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Levofloxacin/blood , Levofloxacin/urine , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission , Nanotubes/chemistry , Photoelectron Spectroscopy , Silver/chemistry , Silver Compounds/chemistry , Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared , Spectrum Analysis, Raman , Tablets , Vanadates/chemistry , X-Ray Diffraction
11.
Adv Mater ; 33(16): e2100218, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1121010

ABSTRACT

From typical electrical appliances to thriving intelligent robots, the exchange of information between humans and machines has mainly relied on the contact sensor medium. However, this kind of contact interaction can cause severe problems, such as inevitable mechanical wear and cross-infection of bacteria or viruses between the users, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Therefore, revolutionary noncontact human-machine interaction (HMI) is highly desired in remote online detection and noncontact control systems. In this study, a flexible high-sensitivity humidity sensor and array are presented, fabricated by anchoring multilayer graphene (MG) into electrospun polyamide (PA) 66. The sensor works in noncontact mode for asthma detection, via monitoring the respiration rate in real time, and remote alarm systems and provides touchless interfaces in medicine delivery for bedridden patients. The physical structure of the large specific surface area and the chemical structure of the abundant water-absorbing functional groups of the PA66 nanofiber networks contribute to the high performance synergistically. This work can lead to a new era of noncontact HMI without the risk of contagiousness and provide a general and effective strategy for the development of smart electronics that require noncontact interaction.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electronics , Asthma/diagnosis , Biocompatible Materials/chemistry , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , Electrodes , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Humidity , Internet of Things , Mobile Applications , Nanofibers/chemistry , Respiratory Rate , Wearable Electronic Devices
12.
Adv Mater ; 33(10): e2007847, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1062095

ABSTRACT

The graphene revolution, which has taken place during the last 15 years, has represented a paradigm shift for science. The extraordinary properties possessed by this unique material have paved the road to a number of applications in materials science, optoelectronics, energy, and sensing. Graphene-related materials (GRMs) are now produced in large scale and have found niche applications also in the biomedical technologies, defining new standards for drug delivery and biosensing. Such advances position GRMs as novel tools to fight against the current COVID-19 and future pandemics. In this regard, GRMs can play a major role in sensing, as an active component in antiviral surfaces or in virucidal formulations. Herein, the most promising strategies reported in the literature on the use of GRM-based materials against the COVID-19 pandemic and other types of viruses are showcased, with a strong focus on the impact of functionalization, deposition techniques, and integration into devices and surface coatings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Graphite/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/chemistry , Antibodies, Immobilized/immunology , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Biosensing Techniques/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Electrochemical Techniques , Electrodes , Humans , Limit of Detection , Nanostructures/toxicity , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Surface Properties , Viral Proteins/analysis , Viral Proteins/immunology
13.
Small ; 17(11): e2007091, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060956

ABSTRACT

Search of new strategies for the inhibition of respiratory viruses is one of the urgent health challenges worldwide, as most of the current therapeutic agents and treatments are inefficient. Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic and has taken lives of approximately two million people to date. Even though various vaccines are currently under development, virus, and especially its spike glycoprotein can mutate, which highlights a need for a broad-spectrum inhibitor. In this work, inhibition of SARS-CoV-2 by graphene platforms with precise dual sulfate/alkyl functionalities is investigated. A series of graphene derivatives with different lengths of aliphatic chains is synthesized and is investigated for their ability to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 and feline coronavirus. Graphene derivatives with long alkyl chains (>C9) inhibit coronavirus replication by virtue of disrupting viral envelope. The ability of these graphene platforms to rupture viruses is visualized by atomic force microscopy and cryogenic electron microscopy. A large concentration window (10 to 100-fold) where graphene platforms display strongly antiviral activity against native SARS-CoV-2 without significant toxicity against human cells is found. In this concentration range, the synthesized graphene platforms inhibit the infection of enveloped viruses efficiently, opening new therapeutic and metaphylactic avenues against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Graphite/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Microscopy, Atomic Force , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
14.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl ; 112: 110924, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1017020

ABSTRACT

Research on highly effective antiviral drugs is essential for preventing the spread of infections and reducing losses. Recently, many functional nanoparticles have been shown to possess remarkable antiviral ability, such as quantum dots, gold and silver nanoparticles, nanoclusters, carbon dots, graphene oxide, silicon materials, polymers and dendrimers. Despite their difference in antiviral mechanism and inhibition efficacy, these functional nanoparticles-based structures have unique features as potential antiviral candidates. In this topical review, we highlight the antiviral efficacy and mechanism of these nanoparticles. Specifically, we introduce various methods for analyzing the viricidal activity of functional nanoparticles and the latest advances in antiviral functional nanoparticles. Furthermore, we systematically describe the advantages and disadvantages of these functional nanoparticles in viricidal applications. Finally, we discuss the challenges and prospects of antiviral nanostructures. This topic review covers 132 papers and will enrich our knowledge about the antiviral efficacy and mechanism of various functional nanoparticles.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Nanoparticles/chemistry , Animals , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , DNA Viruses/drug effects , DNA Viruses/physiology , Graphite/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/toxicity , Nanoparticles/therapeutic use , Nanoparticles/toxicity , Polymers/chemistry , Quantum Dots/chemistry , Quantum Dots/therapeutic use , Quantum Dots/toxicity , Zika Virus/drug effects , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy , Zika Virus Infection/veterinary
15.
Adv Mater ; 33(7): e2006647, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-985908

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnosis is critical for the treatment and prevention of diseases. An advanced nanomaterial-based biosensing platform that detects COVID-19 antibodies within seconds is reported. The biosensing platform is created by 3D nanoprinting of three-dimensional electrodes, coating the electrodes by nanoflakes of reduced-graphene-oxide (rGO), and immobilizing specific viral antigens on the rGO nanoflakes. The electrode is then integrated with a microfluidic device and used in a standard electrochemical cell. When antibodies are introduced on the electrode surface, they selectively bind with the antigens, changing the impedance of the electrical circuit which is detected via impedance spectroscopy. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 spike S1 protein and its receptor-binding-domain (RBD) are detected at a limit-of-detection of 2.8 × 10-15 and 16.9 × 10-15 m, respectively, and read by a smartphone-based user interface. The sensor can be regenerated within a minute by introducing a low-pH chemistry that elutes the antibodies from the antigens, allowing successive sensing of test samples using the same sensor. Sensing of S1 and RBD antibodies is specific, which cross-reacts neither with other antibodies such as RBD, S1, and nucleocapsid antibody nor with proteins such as interleukin-6. The proposed sensing platform could also be useful to detect biomarkers for other infectious agents such as Ebola, HIV, and Zika.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Electrodes , Graphite/chemistry , Nanotechnology/methods , Aerosols , Antigens, Viral/immunology , Biosensing Techniques , Dielectric Spectroscopy , Electrochemical Techniques , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Nanostructures , Printing, Three-Dimensional , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
16.
Biointerphases ; 15(5): 051008, 2020 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-892297

ABSTRACT

A prominent feature of coronaviruses is the presence of a large glycoprotein spike protruding from a lipidic membrane. This glycoprotein spike determines the interaction of coronaviruses with the environment and the host. In this paper, we perform all atomic molecular dynamics simulations of the interaction between the SARS-CoV-2 trimeric glycoprotein spike and surfaces of materials. We considered a material with high hydrogen bonding capacity (cellulose) and a material capable of strong hydrophobic interactions (graphite). Initially, the spike adsorbs to both surfaces through essentially the same residues belonging to the receptor binding subunit of its three monomers. Adsorption onto cellulose stabilizes in this configuration, with the help of a large number of hydrogen bonds developed between cellulose and the three receptor-binding domains of the glycoprotein spike. In the case of adsorption onto graphite, the initial adsorption configuration is not stable and the surface induces a substantial deformation of the glycoprotein spike with a large number of adsorbed residues not pertaining to the binding subunits of the spike monomers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Adsorption , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Binding Sites , COVID-19 , Cellulose/chemistry , Cellulose/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Graphite/chemistry , Graphite/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Bonding , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Surface Properties
17.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112731, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-866448

ABSTRACT

Rapid person-to-person transfer of viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and their occasional mutations owing to the human activity and climate/ecological changes by the mankind led to creation of wrecking worldwide challenges. Such fast transferable pathogens requiring practical diagnostic setups to control their transfer chain and stop sever outbreaks in early stages of their appearance. Herein, we have addressed this urgent demand by designing a rapid electrochemical diagnostic kit composed of fixed/screen printed electrodes that can detect pathogenic viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 and/or animal viruses through the differentiable fingerprint of their viral glycoproteins at different voltage positions. The working electrode of developed sensor is activated upon coating a layer of coupled graphene oxide (GO) with sensitive chemical compounds along with gold nanostars (Au NS) that can detect the trace of viruses in any aquatic biological media (e.g., blood, saliva and oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal swab) through interaction with active functional groups of their glycoproteins. The method do not require any extraction and/or biomarkers for detection of target viruses and can identify trace of different pathogenic viruses in about 1 min. The nanosensor also demonstrated superior limit of detection (LOD) and sensitivity of 1.68 × 10-22 µg mL-1 and 0.0048 µAµg.mL-1. cm-2, respectively, toward detection of SARS-CoV-2 in biological media, while blind clinical evaluations of 100 suspected samples furtherly confirmed the superior sensitivity/specificity of developed nanosystem toward rapid identification of ill people even at incubation and prodromal periods of illness.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Electrochemical Techniques/instrumentation , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/analysis , Animals , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Electrodes , Equipment Design , Gold/chemistry , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Med Hypotheses ; 144: 110253, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-753090

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is a recently discovered infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Graphene is an emerging material due to its extraordinary performance in the field of electronics and antimicrobial textiles. Special attention devoted to graphene oxide-based materials due to its surface to volume ratio is very high which make it easy to attach biomolecules by simple adsorption or by crosslinking between reactive groups and the graphene surface. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, we have summarized the recent developments of graphene and its derivatives with possible virus detection and textile applications. Moreover, graphene strain sensors can be executed on high-performance textiles and high-throughput drug efficacy screening.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/prevention & control , Graphite/chemistry , Textiles , Adsorption , Anti-Infective Agents , Cross-Linking Reagents , Electronics , Humans , Materials Testing , Models, Theoretical , Occupational Exposure , Occupational Health , SARS-CoV-2 , Surface Properties , Wearable Electronic Devices
20.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 166: 112471, 2020 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-670678

ABSTRACT

The infection and spread of pathogens (e.g., COVID-19) pose an enormous threat to the safety of human beings and animals all over the world. The rapid and accurate monitoring and determination of pathogens are of great significance to clinical diagnosis, food safety and environmental evaluation. In recent years, with the evolution of nanotechnology, nano-sized graphene and graphene derivatives have been frequently introduced into the construction of biosensors due to their unique physicochemical properties and biocompatibility. The combination of biomolecules with specific recognition capabilities and graphene materials provides a promising strategy to construct more stable and sensitive biosensors for the detection of pathogens. This review tracks the development of graphene biosensors for the detection of bacterial and viral pathogens, mainly including the preparation of graphene biosensors and their working mechanism. The challenges involved in this field have been discussed, and the perspective for further development has been put forward, aiming to promote the development of pathogens sensing and the contribution to epidemic prevention.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Graphite , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Animals , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Graphite/chemistry , Humans , Molecular Diagnostic Techniques , Nanotechnology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viruses/genetics , Viruses/pathogenicity
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