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2.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1205-E1212, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592340

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Breast cancer screening in Ontario, Canada, was deferred during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and a prioritization framework to resume services according to breast cancer risk was developed. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of the pandemic within the Ontario Breast Screening Program (OBSP) by comparing total volumes of screening mammographic examinations and volumes of screening mammographic examinations with abnormal results before and during the pandemic, and to assess backlogs on the basis of adherence to the prioritization framework. METHODS: A descriptive study was conducted among women aged 50 to 74 years at average risk and women aged 30 to 69 years at high risk, who participated in the OBSP. Percentage change was calculated by comparing observed monthly volumes of mammographic examinations from March 2020 to March 2021 with 2019 volumes and proportions by risk group. We plotted estimates of backlog volumes of mammographic examinations by risk group, comparing pandemic with prepandemic screening practices. Volumes of mammographic examinations with abnormal results were plotted by risk group. RESULTS: Volumes of mammographic examinations in the OBSP showed the largest declines in April and May 2020 (> 99% decrease) and returned to prepandemic levels as of March 2021, with an accumulated backlog of 340 876 examinations. As of March 2021, prioritization had reduced the backlog volumes of screens for participants at high risk for breast cancer by 96.5% (186 v. 5469 expected) and annual rescreens for participants at average risk for breast cancer by 13.5% (62 432 v. 72 202 expected); there was a minimal decline for initial screens. Conversely, the backlog increased by 7.6% for biennial rescreens (221 674 v. 206 079 expected). More than half (59.4%) of mammographic examinations with abnormal results were for participants in the higher risk groups. INTERPRETATION: Prioritizing screening for those at higher risk for breast cancer may increase diagnostic yield and redirect resources to minimize potential long-term harms caused by the pandemic. This further supports the clinical utility of risk-stratified cancer screening.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Early Detection of Cancer , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Mammography , Aged , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Early Detection of Cancer/standards , Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Priorities/standards , Health Priorities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Mammography/standards , Mammography/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Ontario/epidemiology , Risk Factors
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572449

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of hand hygiene (HH) on reducing the transmission of contagious diseases is widely known, although its use has been commonly associated with the area of healthcare. During the COVID-19 pandemic, HH was one of the main measures established to contain the transmission of this virus. The identification of the main barriers and facilitators of HH in young adults (aged 18-29 years old) will contribute to the better planning of HH training and its posterior success. A total of 716 young adults participated in the study by completing the ad hoc online questionnaire (#YesWeHand), which analyzed, among other aspects, the age range, gender and field of study that they belonged to. From the total participants, 81.3% indicated knowing how to perform HH correctly, while 49.4% affirmed having received training. The main reason for performing HH was concern for their own safety and that of others (75.8%), while forgetfulness (36.5%) was the main reason for not performing HH. In the group of young adults, being female, aged between 22 and 25 years old, and having studied in the area of Health Sciences, had a positive influence on correct HH. It is deemed necessary to maintain HH beyond the primary education stages, and to adapt it to different fields of education, ages, and genders, in order to maximize its success. Given the overrepresentation of participants from the healthcare field, it would be desirable to conduct more studies to ensure a better representation of the different educational levels and fields of study of the participants, in order to identify, in a more reliable way, the variables that influence HH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Am J Phys Med Rehabil ; 100(11): 1031-1032, 2021 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1537604

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: This brief report summarizes the comparative experience of an inpatient rehabilitation facility dealing with two episodes of COVID-19 infection, one before and one after the availability of vaccination, which was deployed to staff. The experience exemplifies the high rate of infection and potential for asymptomatic presentation of COVID-19 as well as the protective advantage of the vaccine for healthcare workers in this report. With a significant reduction in the rate of infection, from nearly 30% before vaccination to only 2.5% after vaccination. The data presented should serve as an encouragement for vaccination across all populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Infection Control/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Rehabilitation Centers , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Inpatients , Male , Mass Screening , Pennsylvania/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 313-317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535087

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). CONCLUSION: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
6.
Pan Afr Med J ; 40: 63, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513184

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this study were to explore the content of web-based communication on COVID-19 by religious authorities (RAs) in Uganda and to assess the level of integration of the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH) and World Health Organisation (WHO) COVID-19 risk communication guidelines into the statements released by these RAs. A grey literature review was conducted by searching the websites of intra- and inter-religious bodies for the terms "COVID-19" and "coronavirus". Thematic analysis was used to assess the content of RA statements which were also mapped to the items of the MoH and WHO statements. Results indicate that RA communications were centred on COVID-19 description and management; the need to adhere to established guidelines; and the adoption of health-protective behaviours, notably, social distancing and avoidance of misinformation. RAs also discussed the effects of COVID-19 and its control measures on the population and spoke against pandemic-aggravated injustices (gender-based violence and embezzlement). The RA messages incorporated the WHO statement to a greater extent than the MoH statement. In conclusion, RAs played a critical role in delivering public health messages in Uganda during the COVID-19 pandemic, a position we believe should be maximized by public health authorities for effective communication during emergencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communication , Public Health , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Internet , Religion , Uganda
7.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21700, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504478

ABSTRACT

With recurring waves of the Covid-19 pandemic, a dilemma facing public health leadership is whether to provide public advice that is medically optimal (e.g., most protective against infection if followed), but unlikely to be adhered to, or advice that is less protective but is more likely to be followed. To provide insight about this dilemma, we examined and quantified public perceptions about the tradeoff between (a) the stand-alone value of health behavior advice, and (b) the advice's adherence likelihood. In a series of studies about preference for public health leadership advice, we asked 1061 participants to choose between (5) strict advice that is medically optimal if adhered to but which is less likely to be broadly followed, and (2) relaxed advice, which is less medically effective but more likely to gain adherence-given varying infection expectancies. Participants' preference was consistent with risk aversion. Offering an informed choice alternative that shifts volition to advice recipients only strengthened risk aversion, but also demonstrated that informed choice was preferred as much or more than the risk-averse strict advice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Information Dissemination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , Public Policy/trends , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
8.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21675, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504246

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 led to death of millions of people worldwide. To stave off the spread of the virus, the authorities in the US employed different strategies, including the mask mandate order issued by the states' governors. In the current work, we defined a parameter called average death ratio as the monthly average of the number of daily deaths to the monthly average number of daily cases. We utilized survey data to quantify people's abidance by the mask mandate order. Additionally, we implicitly addressed the extent to which people abide by the mask mandate order, which may depend on some parameters such as population, income, and education level. Using different machine learning classification algorithms, we investigated how the decrease or increase in death ratio for the counties in the US West Coast correlates with the input parameters. The results showed that for the majority of counties, the mask mandate order decreased the death ratio, reflecting the effectiveness of such a preventive measure on the West Coast. Additionally, the changes in the death ratio demonstrated a noticeable correlation with the socio-economic condition of each county. Moreover, the results showed a promising classification accuracy score as high as 90%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/trends , California , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy , Humans , Machine Learning , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Oregon , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Washington
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21844, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503889

ABSTRACT

This study assesses attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination and the predictive value of COVID-VAC, a novel scale, among adults in the four largest US metropolitan areas and nationally. A 36-item survey of 6037 Americans was conducted in mid-April 2021. The study reports factors for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among: (1) already vaccinated; (2) unvaccinated but willing to accept a vaccine; and (3) unvaccinated and unwilling to vaccinate. More than 20% were unwilling to vaccinate, expressing concerns about vaccine efficacy and safety and questioning the disease's severity. Poverty, working outside of the home and conservative political views are predictors of unwillingness. Conversely, those who either personally tested positive for COVID-19, or had a family member who did so, were more likely to accept vaccination. Majorities of all respondents supported vaccination mandates for employees and university students. Respondents preferred to receive vaccines in their doctor´s office. Lower income and conservative ideology, but not race, were strongly associated with vaccine unwillingness. The predictive value of COVID-VAC was demonstrated. While vaccination mandates are likely to be accepted, additional effective, targeted interventions to increase vaccine uptake are needed urgently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/trends , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/pharmacology
11.
Int J Prison Health ; ahead-of-print(ahead-of-print)2021 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501269

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aims to examine steps taken by correctional staff to prevent COVID-19 from spreading through correctional facilities and explores strategies used by incarcerated individuals to reduce their own risk of contracting COVID-19 during confinement. DESIGN/METHODOLOGY/APPROACH: Data were drawn from interviews with 327 individuals incarcerated after March 16, 2020, in Midwest1, Midwest2 and Southeast state using a questionnaire developed for this purpose. All study participants were actively involved in a randomized controlled trial of a behavioral health reentry intervention and the human subjects board approved the supplement of this study on COVID-19; interviews were conducted from April 15 to November 19, 2020. FINDINGS: Overall, 9.89% of participants contracted COVID-19. Most (68.50%) individuals learned about COVID-19 from television compared to official correctional facility announcements (32.42%). Participants wore face masks (85.02%), washed hands (84.40%) and practiced physical distancing when possible (66.36%). Participants reported that facilities suspended visitation (89.60%) and volunteers (82.57%), provided face masks (83.18%), sanitized (68.20%), conducted temperature checks (55.35%) and released individuals early (7.34%). SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS: Longitudinal observational study on the implementation and effectiveness of public health guidelines in prisons and jails may identify best practices for containing the infectious disease. Maximizing transparent communications, as well as COVID-19 prevention and mitigation efforts, are critical to achieving universal best practices for virus containment and amplifying public health. ORIGINALITY/VALUE: Data presented indicate the early adoption of many Centers for Disease Control guidelines by individuals and correctional facilities, although broad variation existed. Data support the identification of containment strategies for feasible implementation in a range of correctional spaces.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Correctional Facilities , Guideline Adherence , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Interviews as Topic , Prisoners/psychology , Adult , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , World Health Organization
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258840, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the development and enforcement of preventive guidelines by governments, COVID-19 continues to spread across nations, causing unprecedented economic losses and mortality. Public places remain hotspots for COVID-19 transmission due to large numbers of people present; however preventive measures are poorly enforced. Supermarkets are among the high-risk establishments due to the high interactions involved, which makes compliance with the COVID-19 preventive guidelines of paramount importance. However, until now, there has been limited evidence on compliance with the set COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Therefore, this study aimed to measure compliance with the COVID-19 prevention guidelines among supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among selected supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality in September 2020. A total of 229 supermarkets (195 in Kampala City and 34 in Mukono Municipality) were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected through structured observations on the status of compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, and entered using the KoboCollect software, which was preinstalled on mobile devices (smart phones and tablets). Descriptive statistics were generated to measure compliance to the set COVID-19 Ministry of Health prevention guidelines using Stata 14 software. RESULTS: Only 16.6% (38/229) of the supermarkets complied with the COVID-19 prevention and control guidelines. In line with the specific measures, almost all supermarkets 95.2% (218/229) had hand washing facilities placed at strategic points such as the entrance, and 59.8% (137/229) of the supermarkets surveyed regularly disinfected commonly touched surfaces. Only 40.6% and 30.6% of the supermarkets enforced mandatory hand washing and use of face masks respectively for all customers accessing the premises. Slightly more than half, 52.4% (120/229) of the supermarkets had someone or a team in charge of enforcing compliance to COVID-19 measures and more than half, 55.5% (127/229) of the supermarkets had not provided their staff with job-specific training/mentorship on infection prevention and control for COVID-19. Less than a third, 26.2% (60/229) of the supermarkets had an infrared temperature gun for screening every customer, and only 5.7% (13/229) of the supermarkets captured details of clients accessing the supermarket as a measure to ease follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study revealed low compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, which required mandatory preventive measures such as face masking, regular disinfection, social distancing, and hand hygiene. This study suggests the need for health authorities to strengthen enforcement of these guidelines, and to sensitise the supermarket managers on COVID-19 in order to increase the uptake of the different measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uganda
13.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496511

ABSTRACT

We aimed to apply the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model to increase effectiveness and sustainability of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) hand hygiene (HH) guidelines within healthcare systems. Our cross-sectional, mixed-methods study took place at Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), a tertiary care hospital in Jimma, Ethiopia, between November 2018 and August 2020 and consisted of three phases: baseline assessment, intervention, and follow-up assessment. We conducted questionnaires addressing HH knowledge and attitudes, interviews to identify HH barriers and facilitators within the SEIPS framework, and observations at the WHO's 5 moments of HH amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) at JUMC. We then implemented HH interventions based on WHO guidelines and results from our baseline assessment. Follow-up HH observations were conducted months later during the Covid-19 pandemic. 250 HCWs completed questionnaires with an average knowledge score of 61.4% and attitude scores indicating agreement that HH promotes patient safety. Interview participants cited multiple barriers to HH including shortages and location of HH materials, inadequate training, minimal Infection Prevention Control team presence, and high workload. We found an overall baseline HH compliance rate of 9.4% and a follow-up compliance rate of 72.1%. Drastically higher follow-up compared to baseline compliance rates were likely impacted by our HH interventions and Covid-19. HCWs showed motivation for patient safety despite low HH knowledge. Utilizing the SEIPS model helped identify institution-specific barriers that informed targeted interventions beyond WHO guidelines aimed at increasing effectiveness and sustainability of HH efforts.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
14.
Infect Dis Clin North Am ; 35(4): 1055-1075, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487740

ABSTRACT

Health care-acquired viral respiratory infections are common and cause increased patient morbidity and mortality. Although the threat of viral respiratory infection has been underscored by the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, respiratory viruses have a significant impact in health care settings even under normal circumstances. Studies report decreased nosocomial transmission when aggressive infection control measures are implemented, with more success noted when using a multicomponent approach. Influenza vaccination of health care personnel furthers decrease rates of transmission; thus, mandatory vaccination is becoming more common. This article discusses the epidemiology, transmission, and control of health care-associated respiratory viral infections.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross Infection/virology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Cross Infection/transmission , Guideline Adherence , Health Personnel/standards , Humans , Infection Control/standards , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Vaccination , Viruses/classification , Viruses/pathogenicity
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480761

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Numerous educational interventions have been conducted to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance and effectiveness among nursing students, with mixed results. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of posters as a teaching tool and factors associated with HH quality. (2) Methods: A pre-post experimental intervention study was conducted with a total of 293 nursing students randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control) who, before and after HH, took cell culture samples from their non-dominant hands. Only the experimental group was exposed to the poster. (3) Results: In the experimental group, significant differences were observed among students older than 22 years (p = 0.017; V = 0.188), with a higher percentage of failures (15.7% vs. 3.6%). Poster displaying was associated with passing, other variables being equal, although without statistical significance (ORa = 2.07; 95% CI = 0.81-5.26). Pre-practice hand contamination was weakly associated with lower HH quality (ORa = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.99-0.99). (4) Conclusions: The use of posters as a teaching method shows indications of efficacy. Prior hand contamination slightly affects the quality of HH. Further evaluation of teaching methods is needed to ensure good technical performance of HH to prevent the spread of infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Case-Control Studies , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
16.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(9): 1252-1256, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478143

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic highlights the role of environmental cleaning in controlling infection transmission in hospitals. However, cleaning practice remains inadequate. An important component of effective cleaning is to obtain feedback on actual cleaning practice. This study aimed to evaluate the cleaning process quality from an implementation perspective. METHODOLOGY: An observational study was conducted in a tertiary public hospital in Wuhan, China and 92 cleaning processes of units housing patients with multidrug-resistant organism infections were recorded. The bed unit cleaning quality and floor cleaning quality were measured by six and five process indicators respectively. Descriptive statistics were used to describe the cleaning quality. RESULTS: For bed unit cleaning quality, the appropriate rates of cleaning sequence, adherence to cleaning unit principle, use of cloth, use of cloth bucket, separation of clean and contaminated tools, and disinfectant concentration were 35.9%, 71.7%, 89.7%, 11.5%, 65.4%, and 48.7%, respectively. For floor cleaning quality, the appropriate rates of adherence to cleaning unit principle, use of cloth, use of cloth bucket, separation of clean and contaminated tools, and disinfectant concentration were 13.4%, 50.0%, 35.5%, 11.0%, and 36.7%, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The cleaning staff showed poor environmental cleaning quality, especially the floor cleaning quality. The findings can help reveal deficiencies in cleaning practices, raise awareness of these deficiencies, and inform targeted strategies to improve cleaning quality and hospital safety.


Subject(s)
Disinfection/methods , Infection Control/methods , China , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disinfection/standards , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Public , Hospitals, Teaching , Infection Control/standards , Tertiary Care Centers
17.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0257373, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477524

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to preventive measures of Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was among the means to tackle the transmission of the virus. However, reluctance to implement the recommended preventive measures has been reported to be a major problem everywhere including Oromia Regional State. PURPOSE: This research was aimed to assess the level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures and associated factors in the study area. PARTICIPANTS AND METHODS: Community based cross-sectional study was conducted. Sample of 2751 adults aged ≥ 18 years were used for the quantitative study. Also, 20 FGDs and 30 KIIs were conducted in the qualitative approach. The collected data were entered into Epi info version 7.2.0.1 and analyzed using STATA 15. The qualitative data were entered into NVivo version 12 for its organization. Bivariate and multivariable binary logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine the association between the study variables. Odds Ratio with its 95%CI was calculated and P- Value < 0.05 was used as a cut off points to declare the significance. RESULTS: The level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measure was 8.3. Age [AOR, 4.00; 95% CI: 1.50, 10.45], Illiterate AOR, 0.38; 95% CI: 0.15, 0.93], read and write [AOR, 0.26; 95% CI: 0.10, 0.72], attended primary [AOR, 0.30; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.70], occupation (AOR; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.96] and knowledge [AOR, 0.20; 95% CI: 0.01, 0.11] were factors associated with level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. Political context, unemployment, livelihoods, and social events were mentioned as reasons for the poor adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. CONCLUSIONS: The overall level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures in the study area was low. Age, level of education, occupation, and knowledge were factors associated with level of adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures. Activities to increase the adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures should be implemented by the concerned bodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Literacy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
18.
Hong Kong Med J ; 26(5): 367-369, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468762
20.
Int J Equity Health ; 20(1): 114, 2021 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455972

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Suboptimal breastfeeding rates in South Africa have been attributed to the relatively easy access that women and families have had to infant formula, in part as a result of programs to prevent maternal-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. This policy may have had an undesirable spill-over effect on HIV-negative women as well. Thus, the aims of this scoping review were to: (a) describe EBF practices in South Africa, (b) determine how EBF has been affected by the WHO HIV infant feeding policies followed since 2006, and (c) assess if the renewed interest in The Code has had any impact on breastfeeding practices in South Africa. METHODS: We applied the Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines for scoping reviews and reported our work in compliance with the PRISMA Extension (PRISMA-ScR). Twelve databases and platforms were searched. We included all study designs (no language restrictions) from South Africa published between 2006 and 2020. Eligible participants were women in South Africa who delivered a healthy live newborn who was between birth and 24 months of age at the time of study, and with known infant feeding practices. RESULTS: A total of 5431 citations were retrieved. Duplicates were removed in EndNote and by Covidence. Of the 1588 unique records processed in Covidence, 179 records met the criteria for full-text screening and 83 were included in the review. It was common for HIV-positive women who initiated breastfeeding to stop doing so prior to 6 months after birth (1-3 months). EBF rates rapidly declined after birth. School and work commitments were also reasons for discontinuation of EBF. HIV-positive women expressed fear of HIV MTCT transmission as a reason for not breastfeeding. CONCLUSION: The Review found that while enforcing the most recent WHO HIV infant feeding guidelines and the WHO Code may be necessary to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa, they may not be sufficient because there are additional barriers that impact breastfeeding outcomes. Mixed-methods research, including in-depth interviews with key informants representing different government sectors and civil society is needed to prioritize actions and strategies to improve breastfeeding outcomes in South Africa.


Subject(s)
Breast Feeding , Guideline Adherence , World Health Organization , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Feeding Behavior , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guidelines as Topic , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Infant , Infant Formula/supply & distribution , Infant, Newborn , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Public Policy , South Africa
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