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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(7): 834-839, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An accurate estimate of the average number of hand hygiene opportunities per patient hour (HHO rate) is required to implement group electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (GEHHMSs). We sought to identify predictors of HHOs to validate and implement a GEHHMS across a network of critical care units. DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study (10 hospitals) followed by quality improvement intervention involving 24 critical care units across 12 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Critical care patient beds were randomized to receive 1 hour of continuous direct observation to determine the HHO rate. A Poisson regression model determined unit-level predictors of HHOs. Estimates of average HHO rates across different types of critical care units were derived and used to implement and evaluate use of GEHHMS. RESULTS: During 2,812 hours of observation, we identified 25,417 HHOs. There was significant variability in HHO rate across critical care units. Time of day, day of the week, unit acuity, patient acuity, patient population and use of transmission-based precautions were significantly associated with HHO rate. Using unit-specific estimates of average HHO rate, aggregate HH adherence was 30.0% (1,084,329 of 3,614,908) at baseline with GEHHMS and improved to 38.5% (740,660 of 1,921,656) within 2 months of continuous feedback to units (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Unit-specific estimates based on known predictors of HHO rate enabled broad implementation of GEHHMS. Further longitudinal quality improvement efforts using this system are required to assess the impact of GEHHMS on both HH adherence and clinical outcomes within critically ill patient populations.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Critical Care , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Electronics , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Ontario
2.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25762, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health campaigns aimed at curbing the spread of COVID-19 are important in reducing disease transmission, but traditional information-based campaigns have received unexpectedly extreme backlash. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether customizing of public service announcements (PSAs) providing health guidelines to match individuals' identities increases their compliance. METHODS: We conducted a within- and between-subjects, randomized controlled cross-sectional, web-based study in July 2020. Participants viewed two PSAs: one advocating wearing a mask in public settings and one advocating staying at home. The control PSA only provided information, and the treatment PSAs were designed to appeal to the identities held by individuals; that is, either a Christian identity or an economically motivated identity. Participants were asked about their identity and then provided a control PSA and treatment PSA matching their identity, in random order. The PSAs were of approximately 100 words. RESULTS: We recruited 300 social media users from Amazon Mechanical Turk in accordance with usual protocols to ensure data quality. In total, 8 failed the data quality checks, and the remaining 292 were included in the analysis. In the identity-based PSA, the source of the PSA was changed, and a phrase of approximately 12 words relevant to the individual's identity was inserted. A PSA tailored for Christians, when matched with a Christian identity, increased the likelihood of compliance by 12 percentage points. A PSA that focused on economic values, when shown to individuals who identified as economically motivated, increased the likelihood of compliance by 6 points. CONCLUSIONS: Using social media to deliver COVID-19 public health announcements customized to individuals' identities is a promising measure to increase compliance with public health guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry 22331899; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22331899.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Persuasive Communication , Public Service Announcements as Topic , Social Identification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Social Media , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110064

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hand hygiene interventions on the overall hand hygiene (HH) status of teaching instruction of hand hygiene in kindergartens, given the vulnerability of kindergarten children and their high risk due to infectious diseases and the current COVID-19 epidemic. We investigated the HH status of teachers from two kindergartens in the same community. The participants were recruited from 28 classes in both kindergartens. After completing the baseline survey, the intervention program consisted of three components: lectures on infectious diseases, lectures on HH, and seven-step hand washing techniques conducted in two kindergartens. The intervention program effectively increased teachers' perceived disease susceptibility (p < 0.05), reduced the total bacterial colonization of children's hands (p < 0.001), and improved the HH environment (p < 0.01). We recommend that health authorities or kindergartens adopt this HH intervention program to effectively improve the HH status in kindergartens and allow for preventive responses to the COVID-19 epidemic or other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Schools
4.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e13, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096600

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the consequences of conspiracy theories and the COVID-19 pandemic raised this interest to another level. In this article, I will outline what we know about the consequences of conspiracy theories for individuals, groups, and society, arguing that they are certainly not harmless. In particular, research suggests that conspiracy theories are associated with political apathy, support for non-normative political action, climate denial, vaccine refusal, prejudice, crime, violence, disengagement in the workplace, and reluctance to adhere to COVID-19 recommendations. In this article, I will also discuss the challenges of dealing with the negative consequences of conspiracy theories, which present some opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Politics , Prejudice , Vaccination Refusal , Apathy , Attitude , Climate Change , Crime , Culture , Denial, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Personnel Loyalty , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 968231, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022995

ABSTRACT

Background: The practice of hand washing is an effective way to prevent contamination and disease transmission. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, hand washing has become increasingly important. Therefore, this qualitative study aimed to understand barriers to hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: Twenty-five healthcare workers from intensive care units were sampled using purposive sampling in a qualitative content analysis study. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field notes. Based on the Lundman and Graneheim approach, the data were analyzed. COREQ checklist was used to report the research. Results: According to the findings, there are three main categories of barriers to hand hygiene practice: barriers related to individuals (including two subcategories of lack of knowledge of healthcare workers and healthcare workers' improper attitude), barriers related to management (including two subcategories of wrong behavioral patterns and unsuitable training and planning), and barriers related to organizations (including four subcategories of heavy workloads, improperly designed wards, a lack of equipment, and lack of quality equipment). Conclusions: This research indicates that hand washing practice increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, some barriers persist, resulting in a decline in hand washing compliance among health care workers. This finding can help managers and policymakers remove barriers to hand washing compliance and improve healthcare workers' adherence to hand washing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics
7.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(4): 496-500, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015460

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The ongoing COVID-19 crisis has drastically changed the practice of biomedical waste (BMW) generation and management. Studies venturing into the facility level preparedness at various levels of healthcare delivery during pandemic situation is the need of the hour. Hence, we did this study to assess the BMW disposal practices amongst secondary and tertiary health facilities during COVID-19 pandemic in Tamil Nadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst doctors, nurses and allied healthcare staffs across various departments in 18 public health facilities across six districts of Tamil Nadu. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done based on the random-intercept model to assess the determinants of BMW disposal practices. The effect size was reported as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: In total, 2593 BMW disposal observations were made. During nearly three-fourth of the observations (73%), the BMW was disposed of appropriately. Nurses (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.54; 95%CI: 1.06-2.23) and doctors (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.60; 95%CI: 1.05-2.45), healthcare workers in Paediatrics department (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.77; 95%CI: 1.13-2.76), healthcare workers in inpatient department (aOR â€‹= â€‹2.77; 95%CI: 1.95-3.94) and injection outpatient department (aOR â€‹= â€‹2.69; 95%CI: 1.59-4.47) had significantly better odds of having appropriate BMW disposal practices. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that nearly during three-fourth of the observations, healthcare workers performed appropriate BMW disposal practices. However, measures should be taken to achieve 100% compliance by healthcare workers especially the target groups identified in our study by allocating appropriate resources and periodically monitor the BMW disposal practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Hazardous Waste , Health Personnel , Medical Waste Disposal , Secondary Care Centers , Tertiary Care Centers , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Odds Ratio
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 100, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An effective use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) appears essential to prevent the development of infections linked to surgery while inappropriate and excessive prescriptions of prophylactic antibiotics increase the risk of adverse effects, bacterial resistance and Clostridium difficile infections. In this study, we aimed to analyze SAP practices in an acute secondary hospital in Belgium during the years 2016-2021 in order to evaluate the impacts of combined stewardship interventions, implemented thanks to a physician-pharmacist collaboration. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study on SAP practices was conducted during 5 years (2016-2021) in a Belgian University Hospital. We first performed a retrospective observational transversal study on a baseline group (2016.1-2016.4). Then, we constituted a group of patients (2017.1-2017.4) to test a combined intervention strategy of stewardship which integrated the central role of a pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship team and in the pre-operative delivery of nominative kits of antibiotics adapted to patient factors. After this test, we collected patient data (2018.1-2018.4) to evaluate the sustained effects of stewardship interventions. Furthermore, we evaluated SAP practices (2019.1-2019.4) after the diffusion of a computerized decision support system. Finally, we analyzed SAP practices in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020.1-2020.4 and 2021.1-2021.4). The groups were compared from year to year in terms of compliance to institutional guidelines, as evaluated from seven criteria (χ2 test). RESULTS: In total, 760 surgical interventions were recorded. The observational study within the baseline group showed that true penicillin allergy, certain types of surgery and certain practitioners were associated with non-compliance (p < 0.05). Compared with the baseline group, the compliance was significantly increased in the test group for all seven criteria assessed (p < 0.05). However, the effects were not fully sustained after discontinuation of the active interventions. Following the diffusion of the computerized decision support system, the compliance to guidelines was not significantly improved. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic did not appear to affect the practices in terms of compliance to guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that optimization of SAP practices is achievable within a proactive multidisciplinary approach including real-time pharmaceutical interventions in the operating area and in the care units practicing SAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Physicians , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies
9.
10.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263936, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The updated Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines recommend a 1-hour window for completion of a sepsis care bundle; however, the effectiveness of the hour-1 bundle has not been fully evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of hour-1 bundle completion on clinical outcomes in sepsis patients. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study conducted in 17 intensive care units in tertiary hospitals in Japan. We included all adult patients who were diagnosed as having sepsis by Sepsis-3 and admitted to intensive care units from July 2019 to August 2020. Impacts of hour-1 bundle adherence and delay of adherence on risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality were estimated by multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The final study cohort included 178 patients with sepsis. Among them, 89 received bundle-adherent care. Completion rates of each component (measure lactate level, obtain blood cultures, administer broad-spectrum antibiotics, administer crystalloid, apply vasopressors) within 1 hour were 98.9%, 86.2%, 51.1%, 94.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. Completion rate of all components within 1 hour was 50%. In-hospital mortality was 18.0% in the patients with and 30.3% in the patients without bundle-adherent care (p = 0.054). The adjusted odds ratio of non-bundle-adherent versus bundle-adherent care for in-hospital mortality was 2.32 (95% CI 1.09-4.95) using propensity scoring. Non-adherence to obtaining blood cultures and administering broad-spectrum antibiotics within 1 hour was related to in-hospital mortality (2.65 [95% CI 1.25-5.62] and 4.81 [95% CI 1.38-16.72], respectively). The adjusted odds ratio for 1-hour delay in achieving hour-1 bundle components for in-hospital mortality was 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.57) by logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Completion of the hour-1 bundle was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. Obtaining blood cultures and administering antibiotics within 1 hour may have been the components most contributing to decreased in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality/trends , Patient Care Bundles/methods , Sepsis/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Japan , Logistic Models , Male , Prospective Studies , Sepsis/mortality , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(6): e054837, 2022 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891820

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess healthcare workers' (HCWs) compliance with the infection prevention and control (IPC) practices and identify the factors influencing this compliance using the Health Belief Model as the theoretical framework. DESIGN: Quantitative data from an explanatory sequential mixed-methods study were employed in this research. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTINGS: From 17 May to 30 August 2020, 604 physicians and nurses working at six randomly selected tertiary care facilities in Dhaka City in Bangladesh took part in this study. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Compliance with the WHO's guidance on IPC measures, as well as the associated factors, was the primary outcome. RESULTS: A mean compliance score of 0.49 (±0.25) was observed on a 0-1 scale. HCWs were most compliant with the medical mask wearing guidelines (81%) and were least compliant with the high-touch surface decontamination regulations (23%). Compliance with the IPC guidance was significantly associated with increasing age, female sex, working as a nurse, having non-communicable diseases and history of exposure to patients with COVID-19. Perceived benefits (B=0.039, 95% CI 0.001 to 0.076), self-efficacy (B=0.101, 95% CI 0.060 to 0.142) and cues to action (B=0.045, 95% CI 0.002 to 0.088) were positively associated with compliance. Compliance with IPC guidance was 0.061 times greater among participants who reported low perceived barriers compared with those with high perceived barriers. CONCLUSION: Overall, compliance with IPC guidance among HCWs was unsatisfactory. As self-efficacy exerted the greatest contribution to compliance, it should be emphasised in any endeavour to improve HCWs' IPC adherence. Such interventions should also focus on perceived barriers, including unreliability of the information sources, unsafe working places and unavailability of protective equipment and cues to action, including trust in the administration and availability of adequate IPC guidance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Bangladesh , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Inquiry ; 59: 469580221100348, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865220

ABSTRACT

Due to the Irretrievable impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on society, this study aimed to analyze the barriers and reasons for the Iranian people's implementation of public health measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in 2021. The study explores the barriers and reasons for non-compliance by Iranian people in following and maintaining the health guidelines to combat the spread of the coronavirus in 2021. This research is qualitative and recorded participants' feedback from the Ardabil province of Iran. The study used a purposeful sampling method and lasted from April to May 2021 to collect the data through semi-structured interviews with 45 participants based on their gender, education, employment status, and marital status. The researchers analyzed the qualitative content until the required data-target through interviews implementation. This study incorporated MAXQDA version 10 to analyze the data and followed Goba and Lincoln's criteria to ensure quality research results. After analyzing the data, two main categories (internal and external barriers) and seven subcategories were obtained. The internal barriers exhibited further classified subcategories, such as mental, belief, and awareness barriers. The results indicated that external barriers included social, political, managerial, and economic barriers. The study results designated that a set of internal and external factors might cause individuals' non-compliance with health guidelines and standard SOPs in the advent of the pandemic COVID-19. Recognition of such factors, identified following the social, cultural, and political context and individuals' characteristics during the COVID-19 outbreak, can be used effectively to plan educational and management programs. As a result, elimination and eradication of obstacles and the relevant dimensions may facilitate disease control. Moreover, the high prevalence and spread of the disease can be managed by reducing the influence of factors preventing proper health behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , Qualitative Research , SARS-CoV-2
15.
BMJ ; 377: o1260, 2022 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861614
16.
Nurs Stand ; 35(5): 45-50, 2020 04 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1835710

ABSTRACT

Decontamination using hand hygiene remains one of the most important and effective methods for reducing healthcare-associated infections and cross-infection between patients. In 1860, Florence Nightingale wrote that nurses should wash their hands frequently throughout the day, demonstrating an early awareness of the effectiveness of this simple procedure. The COVID-19 pandemic has demonstrated that effectively applied hand hygiene is a vital intervention that can be used to prevent the spread of disease. This article details the correct procedure required for effective hand hygiene and emphasises the need for nurses to keep up to date with evidence-based guidelines. The article also outlines the differences between hand decontamination using alcohol-based hand gels and soap and water, and the complex factors that can interfere with effective hand hygiene compliance.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection , Guideline Adherence , Hand Hygiene , Infection Control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Int Emerg Nurs ; 62: 101171, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1804222

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We know that ambulance staff may have sparse knowledge on how to comply with care approaches that ensure appropriate hygiene in the ambulance, but we do not know if and how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected ambulance staff's perceived compliance with hygiene routines. AIM: To investigate ambulance staff's self-reported hand hygiene (HH) perceptions and compliance; and to explore if and how the COVID-19 pandemic has affected ambulance staff's perceived compliance with hygiene routines. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design using the WHO-validated Perception Survey for Healthcare Workers regarding hygiene. Thematic analysis and descriptive statistics were used for analysis. RESULTS: 204 surveys were analysed, 92% of participants stated that their hygiene routine compliance had improved during the COVID-19 pandemic, and some participants also described that their colleagues' practice had improved. These improvements were reportedly driven by the need to acquire new knowledge to deal with the pandemic and sometimes with fear. CONCLUSIONS: Experience acquired during the pandemic needs to be sustainable if we are to increase HH and hygiene routine compliance in ambulance services. Interventions aimed at changing ambulance staff's perceived behaviour are warranted, and stakeholders should try and identify the personal motivations that lead these staff to seek self-betterment regarding HH and hygiene routine compliance. Otherwise, the risk of patients suffering from healthcare-associated infection may not decrease as wished.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Ambulances , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics
18.
Am J Health Syst Pharm ; 79(15): 1266-1272, 2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778883

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate and compare antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) guideline adherence (primary outcome) as well as length of stay, 30-day all-cause mortality, clinical cure, antimicrobial consumption, and incidence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens (secondary outcomes) between an infectious diseases (ID) pharmacist-led intervention group and a standard ASP group. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study was performed at Thammasat University Hospital between August 2019 and April 2020. Data including baseline characteristics and primary and secondary outcomes were collected from the electronic medical record by the ID pharmacist. RESULTS: The ASP guideline adherence in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group was significantly higher than in the standard ASP group (79% vs 56.6%; P < 0.001), especially with regard to appropriate indication (P < 0.001), dosage regimen (P = 0.005), and duration (P = 0.001). The acceptance rate of ID pharmacist recommendations was 81.8% (44/54). The most common key barriers to following recommendations were physician resistance (11/20; 55%) and high severity of disease in the patient (6/20; 30%). Compared to the standard ASP group, there was a trend toward clinical cure in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group (63.6% vs 56.1%; P = 0.127), while 30-day all-cause mortality (15.9% vs 1.5%; P = 0.344) and median length of stay (20 vs 18 days; P = 0.085) were similar in the 2 groups. Carbapenem (P = 0.042) and fosfomycin (P = 0.014) consumption declined in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group. A marginally significant decrease in the overall incidence of MDR pathogens was also observed in the ID pharmacist-led intervention group (coefficient, -5.93; P = 0.049). CONCLUSION: Our study demonstrates that an ID pharmacist-led intervention can improve ASP guideline adherence and may reduce carbapenem consumption.


Subject(s)
Antimicrobial Stewardship , Communicable Diseases , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Carbapenems , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence , Hospitals , Humans , Pharmacists , Thailand/epidemiology
19.
J Affect Disord ; 308: 27-30, 2022 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778240

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Suicide rates have been increasing for decades, and the challenges of a global pandemic seem to have worsened suicide risk factors. The relationship between suicidality, COVID-19 risk perceptions, and guideline adherence was examined to inform potential barriers to the implementation of behavioral interventions aimed at preventing future pandemics. METHODS: A national sample of 159 MTurk participants (Mage = 37.64 years, SD = 11.92; 48.4% female) completed an online survey containing the following: demographics, Suicidal Ideation Attributes Scale, Broadly Applicable Measure of Risk Perception of COVID-19, and Adherence to COVID-19 Guidelines and Perceived Risk Scale. RESULTS: Multiple linear regressions assessed how suicidality related to perceived risk subscales and each adherence indicator while controlling for biological sex, age, and essential worker status. Over 25% of participants reported suicidality over the past month, and 19% were at high risk of suicidal behavior. Greater suicidality was associated with lower general COVID-19 risk perceptions (ß = -0.326, p < .001), decreased handwashing (ß = -0.423, p < .001), lower likelihood of planning to self-quarantine if infected with COVID-19 (ß = -0.400, p < .001), less social distancing (ß = -0.457, p < .001), and increased attendance of large gatherings (ß = 0.405, p < .001). LIMITATIONS: Temporal relationships were unable to be assessed due to the cross-sectional nature of the data used. The low internal reliability of the risk probability subscale precluded its inclusion in analyses. CONCLUSION: Given suicidality's associations with decreased risk perceptions and low adherence, it may present as a barrier to the sustained behavior change that will be necessary in preventing the occurrence of future pandemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Suicide , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Male , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Suicidal Ideation , Suicide/prevention & control
20.
Front Public Health ; 10: 841345, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776048

ABSTRACT

Background: Although positive safety leadership has attracted increasingly academic and practical attention due to its critical effects on followers' safety compliance behavior, far fewer steps have been taken to study the safety impact of laissez-faire leadership. Objective: This study examines the relationships between safety-specific leader reward and punishment omission (laissez-faire leadership) and followers' safety compliance, and the mediations of safety-specific distributive justice and role ambiguity. Methods: On a two-wave online survey of 307 workers from high-risk enterprises in China, these relationships were tested by structural equations modeling and bootstrapping procedures. Results: Findings show that safety-specific leader reward omission was negatively associated with followers' safety compliance through the mediating effects of safety-specific distributive justice and role ambiguity. Safety-specific leader punishment omission was also negatively associated with followers' safety compliance through the mediating effect of safety-specific role ambiguity, while safety-specific distributive justice was an insignificant mediator. Originality: The study addresses and closes more gaps by explaining how two contextualized laissez-faire leadership measures relate to followers' safety behaviors, following the contextualization and matching principles between predictors, mediators and criteria, and by revealing two mechanisms behind the detrimental effects of laissez-faire leadership on safety outcomes.


Subject(s)
Leadership , Punishment , Reward , Safety , China , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Social Justice
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