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2.
Epidemiology ; 34(4): 589-600, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245451

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Guidance on COVID-19 quarantine duration is often based on the maximum observed incubation periods assuming perfect compliance. However, the impact of longer quarantines may be subject to diminishing returns; the largest benefits of quarantine occur over the first few days. Additionally, the financial and psychological burdens of quarantine may motivate increases in noncompliance behavior. METHODS: We use a deterministic transmission model to identify the optimal length of quarantine to minimize transmission. We modeled the relation between noncompliance behavior and disease risk using a time-varying function of leaving quarantine based on studies from the literature. RESULTS: The first few days in quarantine were more crucial to control the spread of COVID-19; even when compliance is high, a 10-day quarantine was as effective in lowering transmission as a 14-day quarantine; under certain noncompliance scenarios a 5-day quarantine may become nearly protective as 14-day quarantine. CONCLUSION: Data to characterize compliance dynamics will help select optimal quarantine strategies that balance the trade-offs between social forces governing behavior and transmission dynamics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Quarantine , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Group Dynamics , Quarantine/psychology , SARS-CoV-2 , Guideline Adherence , Public Policy
3.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285289, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318027

ABSTRACT

Trust in institutions is a key driver to shape population attitudes and behavior, such as compliance of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPI). During the COVID-19 pandemic, this was fundamental and its compliance was supported by governmental and non-governmental institutions. Nevertheless, the situation of political polarization in some countries with decentralized health systems increased the difficulty of such interventions. This study analyzes the association between non-pharmaceutical interventions' compliance and individual perception regarding institutions' performance during the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil. A web survey was conducted in Brazil between November 2020 and February 2021. Bivariate analysis and ordered logit regressions were performed to assess the association between NPIs compliance and perceived institutions' performance. Results suggest a negative association between NPIs' compliance and Federal Government and Ministry of health perceived performance, which may reflect the political positioning of the respondents. Moreover, we find a positive association between NPI compliance and the perceived performance of the remaining institutions (state government, federal supreme court, national congress, WHO, media and SUS). Our contribution goes beyond the study of a relationship between non-pharmaceutical interventions' compliance and institutions' performance, by pointing out the importance of subnational and local governmental spheres in a decentralized health system, as well as highlighting the importance of social communication based on health organizations' information and scientific institutions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Public Health , Guideline Adherence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Local Government
4.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 150: w20416, 2020 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2255095

ABSTRACT

AIMS OF THE STUDY: During the transitional phase between the two pandemic waves of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), infection rates were temporarily rising among younger persons only. However, following a temporal delay infections started to expand to older age groups. A comprehensive understanding of such transmission dynamics will be key for managing the pandemic in the time to come and to anticipate future developments. The present study thus extends the scope of previous SARS-CoV-2-related research in Switzerland by contributing to deeper insight into the potential impact of “social mixing” of different age groups on the spread of SARS-CoV-2 infections. METHODS: The present study examined persons aged 65 years and older with respect to possible SARS-CoV-2 exposure risks using longitudinal panel data from the Swiss COVID-19 Social Monitor. The study used data from two assessments (survey “May” and survey “August”). Survey “May” took place shortly after the release of the lockdown in Switzerland. Survey “August” was conducted in mid-August. To identify at-risk elderly persons, we conducted a combined factor/k-means clustering analysis of the survey data assessed in August in order to examine different patterns of adherence to recommended preventive measures. RESULTS: In summary, 270 (survey “May”) and 256 (survey “August”) persons aged 65 years and older were analysed for the present study. Adherence to established preventive measures was similar across the two surveys, whereas adherence pertaining to social contacts decreased substantially from survey “May” to survey “August”. The combined factor/k-means clustering analysis to identify at-risk elderly individuals yielded four distinct groups with regard to different patterns of adherence to recommended preventive measures: a larger group of individuals with many social contacts but high self-reported adherence to preventive measures (n = 86); a small group with many social contacts and overall lower adherence (n = 26); a group with comparatively few contacts and few social activities (n = 66); and a group which differed from the latter through fewer contacts but more social activities (n = 78). Sociodemographic characteristics and risk perception with regard to SARS-CoV-2 infections among the four groups did not differ in a relevant way across the four groups. CONCLUSIONS: Although many elderly persons continued to follow the recommended preventive measures during the transitional phase between the two pandemic waves, social mixing with younger persons constitutes a way for transmission of infections across age groups. Pandemic containment among all age groups thus remains essential to protect vulnerable populations, including the elderly.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Guideline Adherence , Social Behavior , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Cluster Analysis , Female , Humans , Intergenerational Relations , Male , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Switzerland/epidemiology
5.
J Med Internet Res ; 25: e41177, 2023 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2269029

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical practice guidelines are systematically developed statements intended to optimize patient care. However, a gapless implementation of guideline recommendations requires health care personnel not only to be aware of the recommendations and to support their content but also to recognize every situation in which they are applicable. To not miss situations in which recommendations should be applied, computerized clinical decision support can be provided through a system that allows an automated monitoring of adherence to clinical guideline recommendations in individual patients. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to collect and analyze the requirements for a system that allows the monitoring of adherence to evidence-based clinical guideline recommendations in individual patients and, based on these requirements, to design and implement a software prototype that integrates guideline recommendations with individual patient data, and to demonstrate the prototype's utility in treatment recommendations. METHODS: We performed a work process analysis with experienced intensive care clinicians to develop a conceptual model of how to support guideline adherence monitoring in clinical routine and identified which steps in the model could be supported electronically. We then identified the core requirements of a software system to support recommendation adherence monitoring in a consensus-based requirements analysis within the loosely structured focus group work of key stakeholders (clinicians, guideline developers, health data engineers, and software developers). On the basis of these requirements, we designed and implemented a modular system architecture. To demonstrate its utility, we applied the prototype to monitor adherence to a COVID-19 treatment recommendation using clinical data from a large European university hospital. RESULTS: We designed a system that integrates guideline recommendations with real-time clinical data to evaluate individual guideline recommendation adherence and developed a functional prototype. The needs analysis with clinical staff resulted in a flowchart describing the work process of how adherence to recommendations should be monitored. Four core requirements were identified: the ability to decide whether a recommendation is applicable and implemented for a specific patient, the ability to integrate clinical data from different data formats and data structures, the ability to display raw patient data, and the use of a Fast Healthcare Interoperability Resources-based format for the representation of clinical practice guidelines to provide an interoperable, standards-based guideline recommendation exchange format. CONCLUSIONS: Our system has advantages in terms of individual patient treatment and quality management in hospitals. However, further studies are needed to measure its impact on patient outcomes and evaluate its resource effectiveness in different clinical settings. We specified a modular software architecture that allows experts from different fields to work independently and focus on their area of expertise. We have released the source code of our system under an open-source license and invite for collaborative further development of the system.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Humans , Focus Groups , Guideline Adherence
6.
Clin Infect Dis ; 76(12): 2106-2115, 2023 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2239460

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There are limited US data assessing adherence to surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines, particularly across a large, nationwide sample. Moreover, commonly prescribed inappropriate antimicrobial prophylaxis regimens remain unknown, hindering improvement initiatives. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of adults who underwent elective craniotomy, hip replacement, knee replacement, spinal procedure, or hernia repair in 2019-2020 at hospitals in the PINC AI (Premier) Healthcare Database. We evaluated adherence of prophylaxis regimens, with respect to antimicrobial agents endorsed in the American Society of Health-System Pharmacist guidelines, accounting for patient antibiotic allergy and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus colonization status. We used multivariable logistic regression with random effects by hospital to evaluate associations between patient, procedural, and hospital characteristics and guideline adherence. RESULTS: Across 825 hospitals and 521 091 inpatient elective surgeries, 308 760 (59%) were adherent to prophylaxis guidelines. In adjusted analysis, adherence varied significantly by US Census division (adjusted OR [aOR] range: .61-1.61) and was significantly lower in 2020 compared with 2019 (aOR: .92; 95% CI: .91-.94; P < .001). The most common reason for nonadherence was unnecessary vancomycin use. In a post hoc analysis, controlling for patient age, comorbidities, other nephrotoxic agent use, and patient and procedure characteristics, patients receiving cefazolin plus vancomycin had 19% higher odds of acute kidney injury (AKI) compared with patients receiving cefazolin alone (aOR: 1.19; 95% CI: 1.11-1.27; P < .001). CONCLUSIONS: Adherence to antimicrobial prophylaxis guidelines remains suboptimal, largely driven by unnecessary vancomycin use, which may increase the risk of AKI. Adherence decreased in the first year of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , Anti-Infective Agents , COVID-19 , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Adult , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Cefazolin/therapeutic use , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Antibiotic Prophylaxis/methods , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Surgical Wound Infection/epidemiology , Surgical Wound Infection/prevention & control , Surgical Wound Infection/drug therapy , Anti-Infective Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals , Acute Kidney Injury/drug therapy , Guideline Adherence
7.
Am J Emerg Med ; 64: 150-154, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2229180

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sepsis is a leading cause of death in hospitals requiring prompt recognition and treatment. The sepsis bundle is the cornerstone of sepsis treatment. Studies have evaluated the impact of a sepsis huddle on sepsis bundle compliance but not in sepsis identification. OBJECTIVE: Measure the effect of a multidisciplinary sepsis bedside huddle in the Emergency Department (ED) on sepsis identification and sepsis bundle compliance. METHODS: Retrospective, single-center, cohort study. Pre-huddle patients were identified via Best Practice Advisory (BPA) alert on the electronic medical record from 11/01/2019-3/31/2020. The post-huddle group were patients for whom a sepsis huddle was activated from 11/01/2020-3/31/2021. RESULTS: 116 patients met inclusion criteria and 15 were determined to not have sepsis for a total of 21 pre-huddle and 80 post-huddle patients. Comparing pre-post results, sepsis huddle increased code sepsis activation (10% vs 91%, p < 0.001); sepsis bundle compliance (24% vs 80%, p < 0.001); antibiotics within one hour (33% vs 90%, p < 0.001); culture within one hour (67% vs 95%, p < 0.001), order entry <30 min. (29% vs 86%, p < 0.001); and median order entry time (48 vs. 3 min, p < 0.001). Post-huddle, 80% of order entries were ≤ 20 min. Logistic regression predicting sepsis code found huddle to be the first predictor, (p < 0.0000005). Hour-1 bundle compliance was predicted by physician/physician assistant order ≤30 min (R2 = 0.36, p < 0.0000005). CONCLUSION: Sepsis bedside huddle in the ED improves identification and sepsis bundle compliance. Results suggest increased order entry speed caused bundle improvement.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Humans , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , Sepsis/therapy , Sepsis/drug therapy , Emergency Service, Hospital , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Hospital Mortality , Guideline Adherence
9.
J Pediatr ; 255: 58-64.e6, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2210925

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To address gaps in routine recommended care for children with Down syndrome, through quality improvement during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective chart review of patients with Down syndrome was conducted. Records of visits to the Massachusetts General Hospital Down Syndrome Program were assessed for adherence to 5 components of the 2011 American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Clinical Report, "Health Supervision for Children with Down Syndrome." The impact of 2 major changes was analyzed using statistical process control charts: a planned intervention of integrations to the electronic health record for routine health maintenance with age-based logic based on a diagnosis of Down syndrome, created and implemented in July 2020; and a natural disruption in care due to the COVID-19 pandemic, starting in March 2020. RESULTS: From December 2018 to March 2022, 433 patients with Down syndrome had 940 visits. During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to the audiology component decreased (from 58% to 45%, P < .001); composite adherence decreased but later improved. Ophthalmology evaluation remained stable. Improvement in adherence to 3 components (thyroid-stimulating hormone, hemoglobin, sleep study ever) in July 2020 coincided with electronic health record integrations. Total adherence to the 5 AAP guideline components was greater for follow-up visits compared with new patient visits (69% and 61%, respectively; P < .01). CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic influenced adherence to components of the AAP Health supervision for children with Down syndrome, but improvements in adherence coincided with implementation of our intervention and reopening after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Down Syndrome , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Electronic Health Records , Down Syndrome/epidemiology , Down Syndrome/therapy , Down Syndrome/diagnosis , Retrospective Studies , Guideline Adherence
10.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(7): 834-839, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An accurate estimate of the average number of hand hygiene opportunities per patient hour (HHO rate) is required to implement group electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (GEHHMSs). We sought to identify predictors of HHOs to validate and implement a GEHHMS across a network of critical care units. DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study (10 hospitals) followed by quality improvement intervention involving 24 critical care units across 12 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Critical care patient beds were randomized to receive 1 hour of continuous direct observation to determine the HHO rate. A Poisson regression model determined unit-level predictors of HHOs. Estimates of average HHO rates across different types of critical care units were derived and used to implement and evaluate use of GEHHMS. RESULTS: During 2,812 hours of observation, we identified 25,417 HHOs. There was significant variability in HHO rate across critical care units. Time of day, day of the week, unit acuity, patient acuity, patient population and use of transmission-based precautions were significantly associated with HHO rate. Using unit-specific estimates of average HHO rate, aggregate HH adherence was 30.0% (1,084,329 of 3,614,908) at baseline with GEHHMS and improved to 38.5% (740,660 of 1,921,656) within 2 months of continuous feedback to units (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Unit-specific estimates based on known predictors of HHO rate enabled broad implementation of GEHHMS. Further longitudinal quality improvement efforts using this system are required to assess the impact of GEHHMS on both HH adherence and clinical outcomes within critically ill patient populations.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Critical Care , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Electronics , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Ontario
11.
Trials ; 23(1): 980, 2022 Dec 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this protocol is to describe the study protocol changes made and subsequently implemented to the Pediatric Guideline Adherence and Outcomes (PEGASUS) Argentina randomized controlled trial (RCT) for care of children with severe traumatic brain injuries (TBI) imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic. The PEGASUS study group met in spring 2020 to evaluate available literature review guidance and the study design change or pausing options due to the potential interruption of research. METHODS: As a parallel cluster RCT, pediatric patients with severe TBIs are admitted to 8 control (usual care) and 8 intervention (PEGASUS program) hospitals in Argentina, Chile, and Paraguay. PEGASUS is an intervention that aims to increase guideline adherence and best practice care for improving patient outcomes using multi-level implementation science-based approaches. Strengths and weaknesses of proposed options were assessed and resulted in a decision to revert from a stepped wedge to a parallel cluster RCT but to not delay planned implementation. DISCUSSION: The parallel cluster design was considered more robust and flexible to secular interruptions and acceptable and feasible to the local study sites in this situation. Due to the early stage of the study, the team had flexibility to redesign and implement a design more compatible with the conditions of the research landscape in 2020 while balancing analytical methods and power, logistical and implementation feasibility, and acceptability. As of fall 2022, the PEGASUS RCT has been active for nearly 2 years of implementation and data collection, scheduled to be completed in in fall 2023. The experience of navigating research during this period will influence decisions about future research design, strategies, and contingencies. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Pediatric Guideline Adherence and Outcomes-Argentina. Registered with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT03896789 on April 1, 2019.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , COVID-19 , Child , Humans , Guideline Adherence , Argentina/epidemiology , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnosis , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/therapy , Implementation Science , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
12.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25762, 2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141307

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health campaigns aimed at curbing the spread of COVID-19 are important in reducing disease transmission, but traditional information-based campaigns have received unexpectedly extreme backlash. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether customizing of public service announcements (PSAs) providing health guidelines to match individuals' identities increases their compliance. METHODS: We conducted a within- and between-subjects, randomized controlled cross-sectional, web-based study in July 2020. Participants viewed two PSAs: one advocating wearing a mask in public settings and one advocating staying at home. The control PSA only provided information, and the treatment PSAs were designed to appeal to the identities held by individuals; that is, either a Christian identity or an economically motivated identity. Participants were asked about their identity and then provided a control PSA and treatment PSA matching their identity, in random order. The PSAs were of approximately 100 words. RESULTS: We recruited 300 social media users from Amazon Mechanical Turk in accordance with usual protocols to ensure data quality. In total, 8 failed the data quality checks, and the remaining 292 were included in the analysis. In the identity-based PSA, the source of the PSA was changed, and a phrase of approximately 12 words relevant to the individual's identity was inserted. A PSA tailored for Christians, when matched with a Christian identity, increased the likelihood of compliance by 12 percentage points. A PSA that focused on economic values, when shown to individuals who identified as economically motivated, increased the likelihood of compliance by 6 points. CONCLUSIONS: Using social media to deliver COVID-19 public health announcements customized to individuals' identities is a promising measure to increase compliance with public health guidelines. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry 22331899; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN22331899.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Persuasive Communication , Public Service Announcements as Topic , Social Identification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Quarantine , Social Media , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110064

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hand hygiene interventions on the overall hand hygiene (HH) status of teaching instruction of hand hygiene in kindergartens, given the vulnerability of kindergarten children and their high risk due to infectious diseases and the current COVID-19 epidemic. We investigated the HH status of teachers from two kindergartens in the same community. The participants were recruited from 28 classes in both kindergartens. After completing the baseline survey, the intervention program consisted of three components: lectures on infectious diseases, lectures on HH, and seven-step hand washing techniques conducted in two kindergartens. The intervention program effectively increased teachers' perceived disease susceptibility (p < 0.05), reduced the total bacterial colonization of children's hands (p < 0.001), and improved the HH environment (p < 0.01). We recommend that health authorities or kindergartens adopt this HH intervention program to effectively improve the HH status in kindergartens and allow for preventive responses to the COVID-19 epidemic or other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Schools
14.
Span J Psychol ; 24: e13, 2021 Feb 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096600

ABSTRACT

In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in the consequences of conspiracy theories and the COVID-19 pandemic raised this interest to another level. In this article, I will outline what we know about the consequences of conspiracy theories for individuals, groups, and society, arguing that they are certainly not harmless. In particular, research suggests that conspiracy theories are associated with political apathy, support for non-normative political action, climate denial, vaccine refusal, prejudice, crime, violence, disengagement in the workplace, and reluctance to adhere to COVID-19 recommendations. In this article, I will also discuss the challenges of dealing with the negative consequences of conspiracy theories, which present some opportunities for future research.


Subject(s)
Attitude to Health , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control , Health Behavior , Politics , Prejudice , Vaccination Refusal , Apathy , Attitude , Climate Change , Crime , Culture , Denial, Psychological , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Personnel Loyalty , SARS-CoV-2 , Violence
15.
Front Public Health ; 10: 968231, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022995

ABSTRACT

Background: The practice of hand washing is an effective way to prevent contamination and disease transmission. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, hand washing has become increasingly important. Therefore, this qualitative study aimed to understand barriers to hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: Twenty-five healthcare workers from intensive care units were sampled using purposive sampling in a qualitative content analysis study. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field notes. Based on the Lundman and Graneheim approach, the data were analyzed. COREQ checklist was used to report the research. Results: According to the findings, there are three main categories of barriers to hand hygiene practice: barriers related to individuals (including two subcategories of lack of knowledge of healthcare workers and healthcare workers' improper attitude), barriers related to management (including two subcategories of wrong behavioral patterns and unsuitable training and planning), and barriers related to organizations (including four subcategories of heavy workloads, improperly designed wards, a lack of equipment, and lack of quality equipment). Conclusions: This research indicates that hand washing practice increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, some barriers persist, resulting in a decline in hand washing compliance among health care workers. This finding can help managers and policymakers remove barriers to hand washing compliance and improve healthcare workers' adherence to hand washing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics
16.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 40(4): 496-500, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015460

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The ongoing COVID-19 crisis has drastically changed the practice of biomedical waste (BMW) generation and management. Studies venturing into the facility level preparedness at various levels of healthcare delivery during pandemic situation is the need of the hour. Hence, we did this study to assess the BMW disposal practices amongst secondary and tertiary health facilities during COVID-19 pandemic in Tamil Nadu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional survey was conducted amongst doctors, nurses and allied healthcare staffs across various departments in 18 public health facilities across six districts of Tamil Nadu. Multivariable logistic regression analysis was done based on the random-intercept model to assess the determinants of BMW disposal practices. The effect size was reported as adjusted odds ratio (aOR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: In total, 2593 BMW disposal observations were made. During nearly three-fourth of the observations (73%), the BMW was disposed of appropriately. Nurses (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.54; 95%CI: 1.06-2.23) and doctors (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.60; 95%CI: 1.05-2.45), healthcare workers in Paediatrics department (aOR â€‹= â€‹1.77; 95%CI: 1.13-2.76), healthcare workers in inpatient department (aOR â€‹= â€‹2.77; 95%CI: 1.95-3.94) and injection outpatient department (aOR â€‹= â€‹2.69; 95%CI: 1.59-4.47) had significantly better odds of having appropriate BMW disposal practices. CONCLUSION: Our study shows that nearly during three-fourth of the observations, healthcare workers performed appropriate BMW disposal practices. However, measures should be taken to achieve 100% compliance by healthcare workers especially the target groups identified in our study by allocating appropriate resources and periodically monitor the BMW disposal practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Hazardous Waste , Health Personnel , Medical Waste Disposal , Secondary Care Centers , Tertiary Care Centers , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , India/epidemiology , Pandemics , Medical Waste Disposal/methods , Odds Ratio
17.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 100, 2022 07 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962896

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An effective use of surgical antibiotic prophylaxis (SAP) appears essential to prevent the development of infections linked to surgery while inappropriate and excessive prescriptions of prophylactic antibiotics increase the risk of adverse effects, bacterial resistance and Clostridium difficile infections. In this study, we aimed to analyze SAP practices in an acute secondary hospital in Belgium during the years 2016-2021 in order to evaluate the impacts of combined stewardship interventions, implemented thanks to a physician-pharmacist collaboration. METHODS: A quasi-experimental study on SAP practices was conducted during 5 years (2016-2021) in a Belgian University Hospital. We first performed a retrospective observational transversal study on a baseline group (2016.1-2016.4). Then, we constituted a group of patients (2017.1-2017.4) to test a combined intervention strategy of stewardship which integrated the central role of a pharmacist in antibiotic stewardship team and in the pre-operative delivery of nominative kits of antibiotics adapted to patient factors. After this test, we collected patient data (2018.1-2018.4) to evaluate the sustained effects of stewardship interventions. Furthermore, we evaluated SAP practices (2019.1-2019.4) after the diffusion of a computerized decision support system. Finally, we analyzed SAP practices in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic (2020.1-2020.4 and 2021.1-2021.4). The groups were compared from year to year in terms of compliance to institutional guidelines, as evaluated from seven criteria (χ2 test). RESULTS: In total, 760 surgical interventions were recorded. The observational study within the baseline group showed that true penicillin allergy, certain types of surgery and certain practitioners were associated with non-compliance (p < 0.05). Compared with the baseline group, the compliance was significantly increased in the test group for all seven criteria assessed (p < 0.05). However, the effects were not fully sustained after discontinuation of the active interventions. Following the diffusion of the computerized decision support system, the compliance to guidelines was not significantly improved. Finally, the COVID-19 pandemic did not appear to affect the practices in terms of compliance to guidelines. CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that optimization of SAP practices is achievable within a proactive multidisciplinary approach including real-time pharmaceutical interventions in the operating area and in the care units practicing SAP.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Physicians , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pharmacists , Retrospective Studies
18.
Med J Malaysia ; 77(Suppl 1): 5-9, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1958425

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) must be controlled by involving all stakeholders, including the community. Community protocol compliance with COVID-19 health guidelines is essential. This study assessed the social determinants of health on community protocol compliance with COVID-19 health guidelines among adults in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study was a mixed-method study of 461 adults from February through May 2021 in Yogyakarta Province. We collected data through an online survey, focus group discussions, and in-depth interviews. Logistic regression was used to analyze the results. RESULTS: Most respondents (86%) always wore masks, followed social distancing (51.8%), and washed their hands regularly (99%). Subjects older than 45 years, women, and community leaders demonstrated greater compliance with COVID-19 health protocols compared to other people. On the other hand, the occupation has become a healthy lifestyle practice indicator. CONCLUSION: Gender, age, educational level, economics, and social status were determinants of health protocol adherence among adults in Yogyakarta. Therefore, health providers need to consider social determinants for health promotion approaches and COVID-19 prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Indonesia/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Determinants of Health
19.
20.
PLoS One ; 17(2): e0263936, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910532

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The updated Surviving Sepsis Campaign guidelines recommend a 1-hour window for completion of a sepsis care bundle; however, the effectiveness of the hour-1 bundle has not been fully evaluated. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of hour-1 bundle completion on clinical outcomes in sepsis patients. METHODS: This was a multicenter, prospective, observational study conducted in 17 intensive care units in tertiary hospitals in Japan. We included all adult patients who were diagnosed as having sepsis by Sepsis-3 and admitted to intensive care units from July 2019 to August 2020. Impacts of hour-1 bundle adherence and delay of adherence on risk-adjusted in-hospital mortality were estimated by multivariable logistic regression analyses. RESULTS: The final study cohort included 178 patients with sepsis. Among them, 89 received bundle-adherent care. Completion rates of each component (measure lactate level, obtain blood cultures, administer broad-spectrum antibiotics, administer crystalloid, apply vasopressors) within 1 hour were 98.9%, 86.2%, 51.1%, 94.9%, and 69.1%, respectively. Completion rate of all components within 1 hour was 50%. In-hospital mortality was 18.0% in the patients with and 30.3% in the patients without bundle-adherent care (p = 0.054). The adjusted odds ratio of non-bundle-adherent versus bundle-adherent care for in-hospital mortality was 2.32 (95% CI 1.09-4.95) using propensity scoring. Non-adherence to obtaining blood cultures and administering broad-spectrum antibiotics within 1 hour was related to in-hospital mortality (2.65 [95% CI 1.25-5.62] and 4.81 [95% CI 1.38-16.72], respectively). The adjusted odds ratio for 1-hour delay in achieving hour-1 bundle components for in-hospital mortality was 1.28 (95% CI 1.04-1.57) by logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: Completion of the hour-1 bundle was associated with lower in-hospital mortality. Obtaining blood cultures and administering antibiotics within 1 hour may have been the components most contributing to decreased in-hospital mortality.


Subject(s)
Hospital Mortality/trends , Patient Care Bundles/methods , Sepsis/therapy , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Japan , Logistic Models , Male , Prospective Studies , Sepsis/mortality , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
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