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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0261398, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1631249

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To quantify changes in adherence to mask and distancing guidelines in outdoor settings in Philadelphia, PA before and after President Trump announced he was infected with COVID-19. METHODS: We used Systematic Observation of Masking Adherence and Distancing (SOMAD) to assess mask adherence in parks, playgrounds, and commercial streets in the 10 City Council districts in Philadelphia PA. We compared adherence rates between August and September 2020 and after October 2, 2020. RESULTS: Disparities in mask adherence existed by age group, gender, and race/ethnicity, with females wearing masks correctly more often than males, seniors having higher mask use than other age groups, and Asians having higher adherence than other race/ethnicities. Correct mask use did not increase after the City released additional mask guidance in September but did after Oct 2. Incorrect mask use also decreased, but the percentage not having masks at all was unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Vulnerability of leadership appears to influence population behavior. Public health departments likely need more resources to effectively and persuasively communicate critical safety messages related to COVID-19 transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Masks/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Philadelphia , Physical Distancing , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Young Adult
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261439, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1623657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first-wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, dentists were considered at high-risk of infection. In France, to stop the spread of SARS-CoV-2, a nationwide lockdown was enforced, during which dentists suspended their routine clinical activities, working solely on dental emergencies. This measure has had an indisputable mitigating effect on the pandemic. To continue protecting dentists after suspension of nationwide lockdown, implementation of preventive measures was recommended, including adequate personal protective equipment (PPE) and room aeration between patients. No study has explored whether implementation of such preventive measures since the end of the first-wave has had an impact on the contamination of dentists. METHODS: An online survey was conducted within a French dentist population between July and September 2020. To explore risk factors associated with COVID-19, univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed. RESULTS: The results showed that COVID-19 prevalence among the 3497 respondents was 3.6%. Wearing surgical masks during non-aerosol generating procedures was a risk factor of COVID-19, whereas reducing the number of patients was a protective factor. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the similar COVID-19 prevalence between dentists and the general population, such data suggest that dentists are not overexposed in their work environment when adequate preventive measures are applied. IMPACT: Dentists should wear specific PPE (FFP2, FFP3 or (K)N95 masks) including during non-aerosol generating procedures and reduce the number of patients to allow proper implementation of disinfection and aeration procedures. Considering the similarities between COVID-19 and other viral respiratory infections, such preventive measures may also be of interest to limit emerging variants spread as well as seasonal viral outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/trends , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/trends , Dentists/psychology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , France/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
3.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261733, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581733

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 pandemic has highlighted the importance of citizens' behaviors in the containment of the virus. Individuals might change their intention to adhere to public health prescriptions depending on various personal characteristics, including their own emotional status, which has been recognized to be a crucial psychological factor in orienting people's adherence to public health recommendation during emergency settings. In particular, it is crucial to support citizens' alliance with authorities and feeling of trust: public engagement is a concept that refers to the general involvement of citizens into public affairs which is generally considered an effective approach to enhance citizens' understanding of their crucial role in public affairs. However, so far there is no agreement on the metrics and indexes that should be used to measures public engagement during a health crisis. The aim of this paper is to validate a psychometric scale (PHEs-E), which intends to measure the readiness of individuals to adhere to the prescribed behavioral change to contain the emergency. Data were collected throughout the pandemic in Italy: in particular, five independent samples were recruited starting from March 2020 to March 2021. Results showed that the proposed measure has good psychometric characteristics. A general linear model was computed to assess the differences of public engagement across the different data points and among citizens with different sociodemographic characteristics. Correlations with other psychological constructs (i.e. Anxiety, Depression and Self-Efficacy) were also tested, showing that more engaged citizens have a lower level of anxiety and depression, and a higher self-efficacy. This study's findings indicate that individuals' characteristics may differentiate citizens' motivation to engage in public health behavioral recommendation to prevent the COVID-19 contagion. However the scale could be useful to perform a psychological monitoring of psychological readiness to engage in public health strategies to face critical events and settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Psychometrics/methods , Stakeholder Participation/psychology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/prevention & control , Community Participation , Cross-Sectional Studies , Emergencies , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Compliance/psychology , Public Health/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
4.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21700, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504478

ABSTRACT

With recurring waves of the Covid-19 pandemic, a dilemma facing public health leadership is whether to provide public advice that is medically optimal (e.g., most protective against infection if followed), but unlikely to be adhered to, or advice that is less protective but is more likely to be followed. To provide insight about this dilemma, we examined and quantified public perceptions about the tradeoff between (a) the stand-alone value of health behavior advice, and (b) the advice's adherence likelihood. In a series of studies about preference for public health leadership advice, we asked 1061 participants to choose between (5) strict advice that is medically optimal if adhered to but which is less likely to be broadly followed, and (2) relaxed advice, which is less medically effective but more likely to gain adherence-given varying infection expectancies. Participants' preference was consistent with risk aversion. Offering an informed choice alternative that shifts volition to advice recipients only strengthened risk aversion, but also demonstrated that informed choice was preferred as much or more than the risk-averse strict advice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Information Dissemination/methods , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health/trends , Public Policy/trends , Risk Reduction Behavior , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
5.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21675, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504246

ABSTRACT

The recent outbreak of the COVID-19 led to death of millions of people worldwide. To stave off the spread of the virus, the authorities in the US employed different strategies, including the mask mandate order issued by the states' governors. In the current work, we defined a parameter called average death ratio as the monthly average of the number of daily deaths to the monthly average number of daily cases. We utilized survey data to quantify people's abidance by the mask mandate order. Additionally, we implicitly addressed the extent to which people abide by the mask mandate order, which may depend on some parameters such as population, income, and education level. Using different machine learning classification algorithms, we investigated how the decrease or increase in death ratio for the counties in the US West Coast correlates with the input parameters. The results showed that for the majority of counties, the mask mandate order decreased the death ratio, reflecting the effectiveness of such a preventive measure on the West Coast. Additionally, the changes in the death ratio demonstrated a noticeable correlation with the socio-economic condition of each county. Moreover, the results showed a promising classification accuracy score as high as 90%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Masks/trends , California , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy , Humans , Machine Learning , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Oregon , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Washington
6.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21844, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1503889

ABSTRACT

This study assesses attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination and the predictive value of COVID-VAC, a novel scale, among adults in the four largest US metropolitan areas and nationally. A 36-item survey of 6037 Americans was conducted in mid-April 2021. The study reports factors for COVID-19 vaccine acceptance among: (1) already vaccinated; (2) unvaccinated but willing to accept a vaccine; and (3) unvaccinated and unwilling to vaccinate. More than 20% were unwilling to vaccinate, expressing concerns about vaccine efficacy and safety and questioning the disease's severity. Poverty, working outside of the home and conservative political views are predictors of unwillingness. Conversely, those who either personally tested positive for COVID-19, or had a family member who did so, were more likely to accept vaccination. Majorities of all respondents supported vaccination mandates for employees and university students. Respondents preferred to receive vaccines in their doctor´s office. Lower income and conservative ideology, but not race, were strongly associated with vaccine unwillingness. The predictive value of COVID-VAC was demonstrated. While vaccination mandates are likely to be accepted, additional effective, targeted interventions to increase vaccine uptake are needed urgently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/psychology , Vaccination Refusal/trends , Adult , Attitude , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/supply & distribution , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Policy/trends , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/trends , Vaccines/pharmacology
7.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258840, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the development and enforcement of preventive guidelines by governments, COVID-19 continues to spread across nations, causing unprecedented economic losses and mortality. Public places remain hotspots for COVID-19 transmission due to large numbers of people present; however preventive measures are poorly enforced. Supermarkets are among the high-risk establishments due to the high interactions involved, which makes compliance with the COVID-19 preventive guidelines of paramount importance. However, until now, there has been limited evidence on compliance with the set COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Therefore, this study aimed to measure compliance with the COVID-19 prevention guidelines among supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among selected supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality in September 2020. A total of 229 supermarkets (195 in Kampala City and 34 in Mukono Municipality) were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected through structured observations on the status of compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, and entered using the KoboCollect software, which was preinstalled on mobile devices (smart phones and tablets). Descriptive statistics were generated to measure compliance to the set COVID-19 Ministry of Health prevention guidelines using Stata 14 software. RESULTS: Only 16.6% (38/229) of the supermarkets complied with the COVID-19 prevention and control guidelines. In line with the specific measures, almost all supermarkets 95.2% (218/229) had hand washing facilities placed at strategic points such as the entrance, and 59.8% (137/229) of the supermarkets surveyed regularly disinfected commonly touched surfaces. Only 40.6% and 30.6% of the supermarkets enforced mandatory hand washing and use of face masks respectively for all customers accessing the premises. Slightly more than half, 52.4% (120/229) of the supermarkets had someone or a team in charge of enforcing compliance to COVID-19 measures and more than half, 55.5% (127/229) of the supermarkets had not provided their staff with job-specific training/mentorship on infection prevention and control for COVID-19. Less than a third, 26.2% (60/229) of the supermarkets had an infrared temperature gun for screening every customer, and only 5.7% (13/229) of the supermarkets captured details of clients accessing the supermarket as a measure to ease follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study revealed low compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, which required mandatory preventive measures such as face masking, regular disinfection, social distancing, and hand hygiene. This study suggests the need for health authorities to strengthen enforcement of these guidelines, and to sensitise the supermarket managers on COVID-19 in order to increase the uptake of the different measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uganda
8.
Circ Heart Fail ; 14(10): e008573, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1443687

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An unprecedented shift to remote heart failure outpatient care occurred during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Given challenges inherent to remote care, we studied whether remote visits (video or telephone) were associated with different patient usage, clinician practice patterns, and outcomes. METHODS: We included all ambulatory cardiology visits for heart failure at a multisite health system from April 1, 2019, to December 31, 2019 (pre-COVID) or April 1, 2020, to December 31, 2020 (COVID era), resulting in 10 591 pre-COVID in-person, 7775 COVID-era in-person, 1009 COVID-era video, and 2322 COVID-era telephone visits. We used multivariable logistic and Cox proportional hazards regressions with propensity weighting and patient clustering to study ordering practices and outcomes. RESULTS: Compared with in-person visits, video visits were used more often by younger (mean 64.7 years [SD 14.5] versus 74.2 [14.1]), male (68.3% versus 61.4%), and privately insured (45.9% versus 28.9%) individuals (P<0.05 for all). Remote visits were more frequently used by non-White patients (35.8% video, 37.0% telephone versus 33.2% in-person). During remote visits, clinicians were less likely to order diagnostic testing (odds ratio, 0.20 [0.18-0.22] video versus in-person, 0.18 [0.17-0.19] telephone versus in-person) or prescribe ß-blockers (0.82 [0.68-0.99], 0.35 [0.26-0.47]), mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (0.69 [0.50-0.96], 0.48 [0.35-0.66]), or loop diuretics (0.67 [0.53-0.85], 0.45 [0.37-0.55]). During telephone visits, clinicians were less likely to prescribe ACE (angiotensin-converting enzyme) inhibitor/ARB (angiotensin receptor blockers)/ARNIs (angiotensin receptor-neprilysin inhibitors; 0.54 [0.40-0.72]). Telephone visits but not video visits were associated with higher rates of 90-day mortality (1.82 [1.14-2.90]) and nonsignificant trends towards higher rates of 90-day heart failure emergency department visits (1.34 [0.97-1.86]) and hospitalizations (1.36 [0.98-1.89]). CONCLUSIONS: Remote visits for heart failure care were associated with reduced diagnostic testing and guideline-directed medical therapy prescription. Telephone but not video visits were associated with increased 90-day mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiologists/trends , Heart Failure/therapy , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Telemedicine/trends , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/trends , Drug Prescriptions , Drug Utilization/trends , Emergency Service, Hospital/trends , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/mortality , Heart Failure/physiopathology , Hospitalization/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Telephone/trends , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Videoconferencing/trends
9.
Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken) ; 73(9): 1322-1331, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1344956

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To understand medication, lifestyle, and clinical care changes of persons with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) during the first months (March 2020 through May 2020) of the COVID-19 pandemic in the US. METHODS: Data were collected from adults with RA participating in FORWARD, The National Databank for Rheumatic Diseases observational registry, who answered COVID-19 web-based surveys in May 2020 and previously provided baseline characteristics and medication use prior to the US COVID-19 pandemic. We compared medication changes by disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (DMARD) exposure in logistic models that were adjusted for age, sex, comorbidities including pulmonary and cardiovascular diseases, education level, health insurance status, RA disease activity, fatigue, and polysymptomatic distress. RESULTS: Of 734 respondents, 221 (30%) reported medication changes. Among respondents who experienced a medication change, i.e., "medication changers/changers," glucocorticoids (GCs) were more commonly used compared to respondents who did not experience a medication change ("non-changers") (33% versus 18%). Non-hydroxychloroquine conventional DMARDs were less commonly used in changers compared to non-changers pre-COVID-19 (49% versus 62%), and changers reported more economic hardship during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to non-changers (23% versus 15%). While JAK inhibitor use was associated with the likelihood of a medication change, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.0, 3.4), only pre-COVID GC use remained a strong predictor for medication change in multivariable models (OR 3.0 [95% CI 1.9, 4.9]). Change in care was observed to have a significant association with pulmonary disease (OR 2.9 [95% CI 1.3, 6.5]), worse RA disease activity (OR 1.1 [95% CI 1.0, 1.1]), and GC use (OR 1.6 [95% CI 1.0, 2.5]). While the incidence of medication changes was the same before and after the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guidance for the management of rheumatic disease in adult patients during the COVID-19 pandemic were first published in April 2020, self-imposed changes in medication were approximately twice as likely before publication of the guidelines, and physician-guided changes were more likely after publication. CONCLUSION: Persons with RA in the US made substantial medication changes during the first three months of the COVID-19 pandemic, and changes among persons with RA after publication of the ACR guidance in April 2020 were made with increased physician guidance.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , COVID-19 , Drug Substitution/trends , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Risk Reduction Behavior , Aged , Antirheumatic Agents/adverse effects , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/diagnosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Female , Glucocorticoids/therapeutic use , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Janus Kinase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Registries , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Hosp Infect ; 111: 6-26, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is general consensus that hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent healthcare-associated infections. However, low rates of compliance amongst healthcare workers have been reported globally. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has further emphasized the need for global improvement in hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers. AIM: This comprehensive systematic review provides an up-to-date compilation of clinical trials, reported between 2014 and 2020, assessing hand hygiene interventions in order to inform healthcare leaders and practitioners regarding approaches to reduce healthcare-associated infections using hand hygiene. METHODS: CINAHL, Cochrane, EMbase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials published between March 2014 and December 2020 on the topic of hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers. In total, 332 papers were identified from these searches, of which 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. FINDINGS: Forty-five of the 57 studies (79%) included in this review were conducted in Asia, Europe and the USA. The large majority of these clinical trials were conducted in acute care facilities, including hospital wards and intensive care facilities. Nurses represented the largest group of healthcare workers studied (44 studies, 77%), followed by physicians (41 studies, 72%). Thirty-six studies (63%) adopted the World Health Organization's multi-modal framework or a variation of this framework, and many of them recorded hand hygiene opportunities at each of the 'Five Moments'. However, recording of hand hygiene technique was not common. CONCLUSION: Both single intervention and multi-modal hand hygiene strategies can achieve modest-to-moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/trends , Hand Hygiene/standards , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Adult , Female , Forecasting , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
12.
PLoS One ; 16(3): e0248282, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1124945

ABSTRACT

Compliance with infection prevention and control (IPC) protocols is critical in minimizing the risk of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) infection among healthcare workers. However, data on IPC compliance among healthcare workers in COVID-19 treatment centers are unknown in Ghana. This study aims to assess IPC compliance among healthcare workers in Ghana's COVID-19 treatment centers. The study was a secondary analysis of data, which was initially collected to determine the level of risk of COVID-19 virus infection among healthcare workers in Ghana. Quantitative data were conveniently collected using the WHO COVID-19 risk assessment tool. We analyzed the data using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analyses. We observed that IPC compliance during healthcare interactions was 88.4% for hand hygiene and 90.6% for Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) usage; IPC compliance while performing aerosol-generating procedures (AGPs), was 97.5% for hand hygiene and 97.5% for PPE usage. For hand hygiene during healthcare interactions, lower compliance was seen among nonclinical staff [OR (odds ratio): 0.43; 95% CI (Confidence interval): 0.21-0.89], and healthcare workers with secondary level qualification (OR: 0.24; 95% CI: 0.08-0.71). Midwives (OR: 0.29; 95% CI: 0.09-0.93) and Pharmacists (OR: 0.15; 95% CI: 0.02-0.92) compliance with hand hygiene was significantly lower than registered nurses. For PPE usage during healthcare interactions, lower compliance was seen among healthcare workers who were separated/divorced/widowed (OR: 0.08; 95% CI: 0.01-0.43), those with secondary level qualifications (OR 0.08; 95% CI 0.01-0.43), non-clinical staff (OR 0.16 95% CI 0.07-0.35), cleaners (OR: 0.16; 95% CI: 0.05-0.52), pharmacists (OR: 0.07; 95% CI: 0.01-0.49) and among healthcare workers who reported of insufficiency of PPEs (OR: 0.33; 95% CI: 0.14-0.77). Generally, healthcare workers' infection prevention and control compliance were high, but this compliance differs across the different groups of health professionals in the treatment centers. Ensuring an adequate supply of IPC logistics coupled with behavior change interventions and paying particular attention to nonclinical staff is critical in minimizing the risk of COVID-19 transmission in the treatment centers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Personnel/psychology , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Ghana/epidemiology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Knowledge , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Virus Diseases/transmission
13.
J Am Board Fam Med ; 34(Suppl): S77-S84, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100003

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study was conducted to determine if limited access to health care during the COVID-19 pandemic impacted utilization of recommended nonpharmacological treatments, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, and opioids by patients with chronic low back pain and affected clinical outcomes relating to pain intensity and disability. METHODS: Participants within the Pain Registry for Epidemiological, Clinical, and Interventional Studies and Innovation were eligible if they provided encounter data in the 3 months immediately before and after the national emergency proclamation date (NEPD). RESULTS: The mean age of the 528 study participants was 53.9 years and 74.1% were women. Utilization of exercise therapy, massage therapy, and spinal manipulation decreased during the pandemic. Increasing age was associated with decreased utilization of all nonpharmacological treatments except exercise therapy, and with increased opioid use during the pandemic. African American participants reported decreased utilization of yoga and spinal manipulation during the pandemic. Overall, mean change scores for pain intensity and disability before and after the NEPD were not significant. However, African American participants consistently reported worse pain intensity and disability outcomes during the pandemic. Marginally worse outcomes were observed less consistently for pain intensity with increasing age and for disability among women. DISCUSSION: Social distancing during the pandemic impacted the uptake of recommended nonpharmacological treatments for chronic low back pain that require visiting community-based facilities or interacting closely with providers. CONCLUSIONS: The pandemic threatens to exacerbate the impact of chronic low back pain, particularly among African American patients and the older population, by impeding access to guideline-informed noninvasive treatments.


Subject(s)
Chronic Pain/therapy , Low Back Pain/therapy , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , Demography , Female , Guideline Adherence/organization & administration , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Health Services Accessibility/trends , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Quality of Life , Registries , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
14.
Front Public Health ; 8: 559437, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983738

ABSTRACT

Background: Amid a critical and emergent situation like the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic related to extreme health and economic repercussions, we used and presented the mathematical modeling like susceptible-infectious-recovered (SIR) to have a numerical demonstration that can shed light to decide the fate of the scourge in Bangladesh. To describe the idea about the factors influencing the outbreak data, we presented the current situation of the COVID-19 outbreak with graphical trends. Methods: Primary data were collected and analyzed by using a pre-created Google Survey form having a pre-set questionnaire on the social distancing status of different districts. Secondary data on the total and the daily number of laboratory tests, confirmed positive cases, and death cases were extracted from the publicly available sources to make predictions. We estimated the basic reproduction number (R ◦) based on the SIR mathematical model and predicted the probable fate of this pandemic in Bangladesh. Results: Quarantine situations in different regions of Bangladesh were evaluated and presented. We also provided tentative forecasts until 31 May 2020 and found that the predicted curve followed the actual curve approximately. Estimated R ◦-values (6.924) indicated that infection rate would be greater than the recovery rate. Furthermore, by calibrating the parameters of the SIR model to fit the reported data, we assume the ultimate ending of the pandemic in Bangladesh by December 2022. Conclusion: We hope that the results of our analysis could contribute to the elucidation of critical aspects of this outbreak and help the concerned authority toward decision making.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/trends , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Models, Statistical
15.
Endocrine ; 71(1): 20-25, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962158

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Nowadays, the clinical management of thyroid nodules needs to be multi-disciplinary. In particular, the crosstalk between endocrinologists and cytopathologists is key. When FNAs are properly requested by endocrinologists for nodules characterised by relevant clinical and ultrasound features, cytopathologists play a pivotal role in the diagnostic work-up. Conversely, improper FNA requests can lead to questionable diagnostic efficiency. Recently, recommendations to delay all non-urgent diagnostic procedures, such as thyroid FNAs, to contain the spread of COVID-19 infection, have made the interplay between endocrinologists and cytopathologists even more essential. The objective of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on our practice by evaluating the total number of FNAs performed and the distribution of the Bethesda Categories before, during, and after the lockdown. METHODS: We analysed the FNA trends before (1st January 2019 to March 13th 2020), during (March 14th to May 15th), and after (May 16th to July 7th) the lockdown. RESULTS: Although the total number of weekly FNAs dropped from 62.1 to 23.1, our referring endocrinologists managed to prioritise patients with high-risk nodules. In fact, in the post-lockdown, the weekly proportion of benign diagnoses dropped on average by 12% and that of high-risk diagnoses increased by 6%. CONCLUSIONS: The lesson we have learned so far from this pandemic is that by applying safety protocols to avoid contagion and by increasing the threshold for FNA requests for thyroid nodules, we can continue to guarantee our services to high-risk patients even in times of a health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Pandemics , Quarantine , Thyroid Nodule/diagnosis , Adult , Aged , Attitude to Health , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/statistics & numerical data , Biopsy, Fine-Needle/trends , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/organization & administration , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Female , Guideline Adherence/standards , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/trends , Health Priorities/standards , Health Priorities/statistics & numerical data , Health Priorities/trends , Health Services Accessibility/standards , Health Services Accessibility/trends , History, 21st Century , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/standards , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/statistics & numerical data , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/trends , Quarantine/organization & administration , Quarantine/standards , Referral and Consultation/statistics & numerical data , Referral and Consultation/trends , Thyroid Gland/pathology , Thyroid Nodule/epidemiology , Time Factors , Ultrasonography, Interventional
16.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(5): 671-676, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-756834

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Social distancing strategies such as "stay-at-home" (SAH) orders can slow the transmission of contagious viruses like the SARS-CoV-2 virus, but require population adherence to be effective. This study explored adherence to SAH orders by young adults with hazardous drinking, and the role of alcohol consumption with in-person contacts on adherence. METHODS: Analyses included young adults with hazardous drinking (i.e., AUDIT-C score ≥3/4 for women/men; n = 50; ages 18-25) participating in a randomized trial in Pittsburgh, PA. Participants provided experience sampling reports on drinking twice per week from the week before SAH orders started on April 1, 2020 through 6 weeks during the SAH period. We examined how in-person contact with non-household friends changed over time and event-level relationships between alcohol consumption and in-person contacts. RESULTS: The percentage of participants with any in-person contact in the week before SAH was 44% (95% confidence interval [CI] 30%-59%), which decreased to 29% (95% CI 15%-43%) in the first SAH week and increased to 65% (95% CI 46%-85%) by SAH week 6. Controlling for average levels of alcohol consumption, on days when young adults drank, participants reported more in-person contacts compared to nondrinking days. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary data indicate that, among young adults with hazardous drinking, adherence to public policies like SAH orders is suboptimal, declines over time, and is associated with drinking events. Interventions aimed at enhancing young adults' adherence to social distancing policies are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Health Policy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Social Isolation , Underage Drinking/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/psychology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence/trends , Humans , Male , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Young Adult
17.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(1): 30-33, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Achieving high levels of hand hygiene compliance of health care personnel has been an ongoing challenge. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hand hygiene performance (HHP) rates in acute care hospitals. METHODS: HHP rates were estimated using an automated hand hygiene monitoring system installed in 74 adult inpatient units in 7 hospitals and 10 pediatric inpatient units in 2 children's hospitals. A segmented regression model was used to estimate the trajectory of HHP rates in the 10 weeks leading up to a COVID-19-related milestone event (eg, school closures) and for 10 weeks after. RESULTS: Three effects emerged, all of which were significant at P < .01. Average HHP rates increased from 46% to 56% in the months preceding pandemic-related school closures. This was followed by a 6% upward shift at the time school closures occurred. HHP rates remained over 60% for 4 weeks before declining to 54% at the end of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Data from an automated hand hygiene monitoring system indicated that HHP shifted in multiple directions during the early stages of the pandemic. We discuss possible reasons why HHP first increased as the pandemic began and then decreased as it progressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Hand Disinfection/trends , Health Personnel , Infection Control/trends , Automation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/standards , Hand Hygiene/standards , Hand Hygiene/trends , Hand Sanitizers , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps , United States/epidemiology
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