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1.
Rev Neurol ; 74(8): 258-264, 2022 Apr 16.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780452

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is ongoing in Mexico and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases have been reported, validation of Brighton criteria in Mexico is necessary. Moreover, epidemiology of GBS in Mexico differs from European and North American countries. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, cerebrospinal and electrodiagnostic features in Mexican patients diagnosed with GBS and classify them according to the Brighton Collaboration Group diagnostic criteria. Patrients and methods. An ambispective cohort study was conducted. We included patients that fulfilled the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) diagnostic criteria for Guillain-Barre syndrome. Patients in this study were classified according to Brighton collaboration group levels of certainty for Guillain-Barre syndrome. RESULTS: Sixty eight percent of patients were male. Of the 248 patients included, 58.4% had history of a precedent infection, mean time from symptom onset to admission was 5 (1-30) days. Mean Medical Research Council sum score 30.3 ± 15.5. Almost 98% of patients had a monophasic course. Level 1 of certainty according to Brighton collaboration group criteria was fulfilled by 54.6% of patients, level 2 by 45% and level 4 by 0.6%. Patients meeting level 2 of certainty were mostly because normal cerebrospinal fluid findings or findings in nerve conduction studies not consistent with any GBS variants. CONCLUSION: GBS is a frequent autoimmune neuropathy that has been associated with preceding infections and with vaccination campaigns. For SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign in Mexico, validation of Brighton Criteria is necessary. Although Mexico's GBS epidemiology has been changing throughout recent years, this study provides similar data compared to other countries.


TITLE: Síndrome de Guillain-Barré en México: características clínicas y validación de los criterios de Brighton.Introducción. Dado que la vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2 está en curso en México y se han notificado casos de Guillain-Barré, es necesaria la validación de los criterios de Brighton en México. La epidemiología de Guillain-Barré en México difiere de la de los países europeos y norteamericanos. Objetivo. Describir las características clínicas, cerebroespinales y electrodiagnósticas en pacientes mexicanos con diagnóstico de Guillain-Barré y clasificarlos según los criterios diagnósticos del Brighton Collaboration Group. Pacientes y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte ambispectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes que cumplen con los criterios del National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke para el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB). Se clasificó a los pacientes según los niveles de certeza del Brighton Collaboration Group para el SGB. Resultados. El 68% de los pacientes eran hombres. De los 248 pacientes incluidos, el 58,4% tenía antecedentes de infección previa. La media desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta el ingreso fue de 5 (1-30) días, y la puntuación media de la suma del Medical Research Council, de 30,3 ± 15,5. El nivel 1 de certeza según los criterios del Brighton Collaboration Group se cumplió en el 54,6% de los pacientes; el nivel 2, en el 45%; y el nivel 4, en el 0,6%. Los pacientes que alcanzaron el nivel 2 de certeza se debieron principalmente a hallazgos normales en el líquido cefalorraquídeo o a hallazgos en estudios de neuroconducción que no cumplen los criterios de ninguna variante de SGB. Conclusión. El SGB es una neuropatía autoinmune frecuente que se ha asociado con infecciones previas y con campañas de vacunación. Para la campaña de vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2 en México es necesaria la validación de los criterios de Brighton. Aunque la epidemiología del SGB en México ha ido cambiando a lo largo de los últimos años, este estudio proporciona datos similares en comparación con otros países.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
2.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6045-6049, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432431

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to be associated with a lot of neurological complications, of whom Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an important post-infectious consequentiality. More than 220 patients with GBS have been reported thus far. We intend to share our experience with five patients of GBS where one of them had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first-ever report demonstrating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of an adult patient; a similar occurrence has recently been described in a pediatric patient. We wish to emphasize the fact that commonly GBS occurs as a result of a post-infectious process but in a few cases where the symptoms of COVID-19 and GBS occur concurrently, corresponding to the viremic phase, separate pathogenesis needs to be thought of. This para-infectious nature is exemplified by the presence of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of one of our patients. We review the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-Cov-2 in this regard and draw parallels with Cytomegalovirus, Zika virus, and Human Immunodeficiency virus-associated occurrences of GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6045-6049, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281226

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to be associated with a lot of neurological complications, of whom Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an important post-infectious consequentiality. More than 220 patients with GBS have been reported thus far. We intend to share our experience with five patients of GBS where one of them had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first-ever report demonstrating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of an adult patient; a similar occurrence has recently been described in a pediatric patient. We wish to emphasize the fact that commonly GBS occurs as a result of a post-infectious process but in a few cases where the symptoms of COVID-19 and GBS occur concurrently, corresponding to the viremic phase, separate pathogenesis needs to be thought of. This para-infectious nature is exemplified by the presence of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of one of our patients. We review the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-Cov-2 in this regard and draw parallels with Cytomegalovirus, Zika virus, and Human Immunodeficiency virus-associated occurrences of GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
6.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1258081

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 766-774, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196399

ABSTRACT

We report a case series of five patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 who developed neurological symptoms, mainly expressing as polyradiculoneuritis and cranial polyneuritis in the 2 months of COVID-19 pandemic in a city in the northeast of Italy. A diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In four of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 g/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential compound muscle action potential (cMAP). Four patients presented a mild facial nerve involvement limited to the muscles of the lower face, with sparing of the forehead muscles associated to ageusia. In one patient, taste assessment showed right-sided ageusia of the tongue, ipsilateral to the mild facial palsy. In three patients we observed albuminocytological dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid, and notably, we found an increase of inflammatory mediators such as the interleukin-8. Peripheral nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 is possible and may include several signs that may be successfully treated with immunoglobulin therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Nervous System Physiological Phenomena , Neuritis/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/virology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/therapy , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neuritis/therapy , Neuritis/virology , Polyradiculoneuropathy/diagnosis , Polyradiculoneuropathy/virology
8.
Rev Neurol ; 72(6): 203-212, 2021 03 16.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134737

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major worldwide health disorder. There is an increasing number of neurological complications recognized with COVID-19 including patients with GBS and its variants. DEVELOPMENT: A review of the clinical cases of GBS associated to COVID-19 infection published in the last months has been developed. We included 48 patients (31 men, mean age 56.4 years). The most common COVID-19 symptoms were cough (60.4%) and fever (56.3%). Mean time from COVID-19 symptoms to neurologic manifestations was 12.1 days, but in nine patients (18.8%) developed GBS within seven days. Eleven patients (22.9%) presented cranial nerve involvement in the absence of muscle weakness; 36 presented the classic sensory motor variant (75%) and one had a pure motor variant (2.1%). The electrodiagnostic pattern was considered demyelinating in 82.4% of the generalized variants. The presence of hyposmia/dysgeusia was associated with a latency shorter than seven days to GBS onset of symptoms (30% vs 15.6%), and cranial nerve involvement in the absence of weakness (30.8% vs 17.1%). Most patients (87.5%) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Neurological outcome was favorable in 64.6%; 29.2% had respiratory failure and 4.2% died shortly after being admitted. CONCLUSIONS: GBS in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection resembles clinically and electrophysiology the classical forms. Further studies are necessary to understand whether GBS frequency is actually increased due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and explore pathogenic mechanisms.


TITLE: Síndrome de Guillain-Barré asociado a infección por COVID-19: revisión de casos publicados.Introducción. La pandemia por la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es un importante problema para la salud mundial. Hay un incremento en las complicaciones neurológicas reconocidas por la COVID-19, incluyendo el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) y sus variantes. Desarrollo. Se realizó una revisión de los casos publicados en los últimos meses de SGB asociado a infección por COVID-19. Incluimos a 48 pacientes (31 hombres; edad media: 56,4 años). Los síntomas de COVID-19 más comunes fueron tos (60,4%) y fiebre (56,3%). El tiempo promedio entre los síntomas de COVID-19 y el SGB fue de 12,1 días, pero nueve pacientes (18,8%) desarrollaron SGB en menos de siete días. Once pacientes (22,9%) presentaron afectación de los nervios craneales en ausencia de debilidad muscular, 36 presentaron la variante clásica sensitivomotora (75%) y uno tuvo una variante motora pura (2,1%). El patrón electrofisiológico se consideró desmielinizante en el 82,4% de las variantes generalizadas. La presencia de hiposmia/disgeusia estuvo asociada con una latencia menor a los siete días hasta el inicio de los síntomas del SGB (30 frente a 15,6%) y a la afectación de los nervios craneales en ausencia de debilidad (30,8 frente a 17,1%). La mayoría de los pacientes (87,5%) fueron tratados con inmunoglobulina endovenosa. La evolución neurológica fue favorable en el 64,6%, el 29,2% tuvo insuficiencia respiratoria y hubo un 4,2% de muertes. Conclusiones. El SGB en pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 es similar clínica y electrofisiológicamente a las formas clásicas. Se requieren más estudios para comprender si la frecuencia del SGB realmente aumentó debido a la pandemia por COVID-19 y explorar los mecanismos patógenos involucrados.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/etiology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Female , Gangliosides/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmapheresis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
9.
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(4): e93-e94, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679736

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present with respiratory symptoms, but little is known about the disease's potential neurological complications.We report a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, in association with leptomeningeal enhancement. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old woman presented with recent unsteadiness and paraesthesia in both hands. Fifteen days earlier, she complained of fever, dry cough and shortness of breath. Her chest X-ray showed a lobar consolidation and PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2; she was admitted due to mild COVID-19 pneumonia.In the first 48 hours of hospitalisation, she started to experience lumbar pain and weakness of the proximal lower extremities, progressing to bilateral facial nerve palsy, oropharyngeal weakness and severe proximal tetraparesis with cervical flexion 2/5 on the MRC scale. Full spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a brainstem and cervical leptomeningeal enhancement. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed albumin-cytological dissociation. Microbiological studies on CSF, including SARS-CoV-2, were negative. Nerve conduction studies were consistent with demyelinating neuropathy. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, with significant neurological improvement noted over the next 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: Leptomeningeal enhancement is an atypical feature in GBS, but could be a marker of its association with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neural Conduction , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging
10.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 766-774, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646665

ABSTRACT

We report a case series of five patients affected by SARS-CoV-2 who developed neurological symptoms, mainly expressing as polyradiculoneuritis and cranial polyneuritis in the 2 months of COVID-19 pandemic in a city in the northeast of Italy. A diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical presentation, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In four of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 g/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential compound muscle action potential (cMAP). Four patients presented a mild facial nerve involvement limited to the muscles of the lower face, with sparing of the forehead muscles associated to ageusia. In one patient, taste assessment showed right-sided ageusia of the tongue, ipsilateral to the mild facial palsy. In three patients we observed albuminocytological dissociation in the cerebrospinal fluid, and notably, we found an increase of inflammatory mediators such as the interleukin-8. Peripheral nervous system involvement after infection with COVID-19 is possible and may include several signs that may be successfully treated with immunoglobulin therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Nervous System Physiological Phenomena , Neuritis/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/diagnosis , Ageusia/virology , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/therapy , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Neuritis/therapy , Neuritis/virology , Polyradiculoneuropathy/diagnosis , Polyradiculoneuropathy/virology
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