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J Neuroimmunol ; 359: 577691, 2021 10 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347721


Massive vaccination against COVID-19 has become a global priority. Simultaneously, concerns regarding the safety of vaccines are growing. We describe two patients who developed sensory Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) shortly after the first dose of the ChAdOx1 vaccine. We also summarize 12 published cases of GBS after ChAdOx1 vaccination, highlighting their unique clinical and paraclinical features. We propose a possible association between the risk of GBS and the ChAdOx1 vaccine and recommend surveillance for GBS following vaccination. Population-based studies are needed to determine causality and whether specific subpopulations are susceptible.

COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 207: 106775, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338371


Post-infectious/immune mediated effects of COVID-19 infection include descriptions of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in patients usually with respiratory failure and after 1-2 weeks from the onset of viral illness. Asymptomatic cases for COVID-19 infection were rarely described. Herein, we studied a 62-year-old patient with progressive weakness of lower extremities, rapidly evolving to a severe, flaccid tetraplegia and dysphagia. Neurological symptoms weren't preceded by fever or pulmonary symptoms. Because of laboratory test abnormalities (thrombocytopenia, lymphocytopenia, high inflammation indexes), the patient underwent to nasopharyngeal swab, resulted positive for SARS-CoV-2 on RT-PCR assay; cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) was negative for SARS-CoV-2. The clinical (severe symmetric distal upper and lower limbs weakness, grade 0/5; decreased proprioceptive sensitivity and hypoesthesia involving the four limbs; loss of deep tendon reflexes), electrophysiological (prevailing axonal polyradiculoneuritis) and CSF features (albumino-cytological dissociation) disclosed the GBS diagnosis (level 1 of diagnostic certainty according to the Brighton criteria). The patient received plasma exchange and immunoglobulin, and, at 4 weeks after treatment and physical therapy, the patient had moderate improvement (weakness at lower and upper extremities was grade 2/5 and 3/5, respectively). Neurologists and clinicians should be aware of the possible link between neurological symptoms and COVID-19 infection, not only after viral prodrome and pulmonary symptoms, but also without COVID-19 symptoms.

COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Plasma Exchange/methods
Clin Med (Lond) ; 20(4): e93-e94, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-679736


INTRODUCTION: Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present with respiratory symptoms, but little is known about the disease's potential neurological complications.We report a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following a severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, in association with leptomeningeal enhancement. CASE PRESENTATION: A 56-year-old woman presented with recent unsteadiness and paraesthesia in both hands. Fifteen days earlier, she complained of fever, dry cough and shortness of breath. Her chest X-ray showed a lobar consolidation and PCR was positive for SARS-CoV-2; she was admitted due to mild COVID-19 pneumonia.In the first 48 hours of hospitalisation, she started to experience lumbar pain and weakness of the proximal lower extremities, progressing to bilateral facial nerve palsy, oropharyngeal weakness and severe proximal tetraparesis with cervical flexion 2/5 on the MRC scale. Full spine magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a brainstem and cervical leptomeningeal enhancement. Analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) revealed albumin-cytological dissociation. Microbiological studies on CSF, including SARS-CoV-2, were negative. Nerve conduction studies were consistent with demyelinating neuropathy. She was treated with intravenous immunoglobulin, with significant neurological improvement noted over the next 2 weeks. CONCLUSION: Leptomeningeal enhancement is an atypical feature in GBS, but could be a marker of its association with SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Axis, Cervical Vertebra , Brain Stem/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnostic imaging , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neural Conduction , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging