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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 55: e03062021, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1869217

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Guillian Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute autoimmune polyradiculoneuropathy often associated with previous exposure to infectious agents. METHODS: A clinical cohort of 41 patients with GBS admitted to the Base Hospital Institute of the Federal District between May 2017 and April 2019 was followed up for 1 year. Serological tests for arbovirus detection and amplification of nucleic acids using polymerase chain reaction for zika virus (ZIKV), dengue virus (DENV), and chikungunya virus (CHIKV) were performed. RESULTS: The cohort consisted of 61% men with a median age of 40 years, and 83% had GBS-triggering events. A total of 54% had Grade 4 disability, 17% had Grade 3, 12% had Grade 2, 10% had Grade 5, and 7% had Grade 1. The classic form occurred in 83% of patients. Nerve conduction evaluations revealed acute demyelinating inflammatory polyneuropathy (51%), acute motor axonal neuropathy (17%), acute sensory-motor neuropathy (15%), and indeterminate forms (17%). Four patients were seropositive for DENV. There was no laboratory detection of ZIKV or CHIKV infection. Ninety percent of patients received human immunoglobulin. Intensive care unit admission occurred in 17.1% of the patients, and mechanical ventilation was used in 14.6%. One patient died of Bickerstaff's encephalitis. Most patients showed an improvement in disability at 10 weeks of follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: GBS in the Federal District showed a variable clinical spectrum, and it was possible to detect recent exposure to DENV.


Subject(s)
Arboviruses , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Adult , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Tertiary Care Centers , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
3.
J Infect Dis ; 225(9): 1569-1574, 2022 05 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1831176

ABSTRACT

Using meta-analytic methods, we calculated expected rates of 20 potential adverse events of special interest (AESI) that would occur after coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination within 1-, 7-, and 42-day intervals without causal associations. Based on these expected rates, if 10 000 000 persons are vaccinated, (1) 0.5, 3.7, and 22.5 Guillain-Barre syndrome cases, (2) 0.3, 2.4, and 14.3 myopericarditis cases, (3) and 236.5, 1655.5, and 9932.8 all-cause deaths would occur coincidentally within 1, 7, and 42 days postvaccination, respectively. Expected rates of potential AESI can contextualize events associated temporally with immunization, aid in safety signal detection, guide COVID-19 vaccine health communications, and inform COVID-19 vaccine benefit-risk assessments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Vaccination/adverse effects
4.
Vaccine ; 40(24): 3305-3312, 2022 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Background incidence rates are critical in pharmacovigilance to facilitate identification of vaccine safety signals. We estimated background incidence rates of 11 adverse events of special interest related to COVID-19 vaccines in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: We conducted a population-based retrospective observational study using linked health administrative databases for hospitalizations and emergency department visits among Ontario residents. We estimated incidence rates of Bell's palsy, idiopathic thrombocytopenia, febrile convulsions, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, myocarditis, pericarditis, Kawasaki disease, Guillain-Barré syndrome, transverse myelitis, acute myocardial infarction, and anaphylaxis during five pre-pandemic years (2015-2019) and 2020. RESULTS: The average annual population was 14 million across all age groups with 51% female. The pre-pandemic mean annual rates per 100,000 population during 2015-2019 were 191 for acute myocardial infarction, 43.9 for idiopathic thrombocytopenia, 28.8 for anaphylaxis, 27.8 for Bell's palsy, 25.0 for febrile convulsions, 22.8 for acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, 11.3 for myocarditis/pericarditis, 8.7 for pericarditis, 2.9 for myocarditis, 2.0 for Kawasaki disease, 1.9 for Guillain-Barré syndrome, and 1.7 for transverse myelitis. Females had higher rates of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, transverse myelitis and anaphylaxis while males had higher rates of myocarditis, pericarditis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Bell's palsy, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome increased with age. The mean rates of myocarditis and/or pericarditis increased with age up to 79 years; males had higher rates than females: from 12 to 59 years for myocarditis and ≥12 years for pericarditis. Febrile convulsions and Kawasaki disease were predominantly childhood diseases and generally decreased with age. CONCLUSIONS: Our estimated background rates will permit estimating numbers of expected events for these conditions and facilitate detection of potential safety signals following COVID-19 vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Anaphylaxis/chemically induced , Anaphylaxis/epidemiology , Bell Palsy/chemically induced , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/chemically induced , Encephalomyelitis, Acute Disseminated/epidemiology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/chemically induced , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/epidemiology , Myelitis, Transverse/chemically induced , Myelitis, Transverse/epidemiology , Myocardial Infarction/chemically induced , Myocardial Infarction/epidemiology , Myocarditis/chemically induced , Myocarditis/epidemiology , Ontario/epidemiology , Pericarditis/chemically induced , Pericarditis/epidemiology , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/chemically induced , Retrospective Studies , Seizures, Febrile/chemically induced , Seizures, Febrile/epidemiology
5.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(4): e228879, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1801993

ABSTRACT

Importance: Postauthorization monitoring of vaccines in a large population may detect rare adverse events not identified in clinical trials such as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), which has a background rate of 1 to 2 per 100 000 person-years. Objective: To describe cases and incidence of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination and assess the risk of GBS after vaccination for Ad.26.COV2.S (Janssen) and mRNA vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This cohort study used surveillance data from the Vaccine Safety Datalink at 8 participating integrated health care systems in the United States. There were 10 158 003 participants aged at least 12 years. Data analysis was performed from November 2021 to February 2022. Exposures: Ad.26.COV2.S, BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), or mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine, including mRNA vaccine doses 1 and 2, December 13, 2020, to November 13, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: GBS with symptom onset in the 1 to 84 days after vaccination, confirmed by medical record review and adjudication. Descriptive characteristics of confirmed cases, GBS incidence rates during postvaccination risk intervals after each type of vaccine compared with the background rate, rate ratios (RRs) comparing GBS incidence in the 1 to 21 vs 22 to 42 days postvaccination, and RRs directly comparing risk of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S vs mRNA vaccination, using Poisson regression adjusted for age, sex, race and ethnicity, site, and calendar day. Results: From December 13, 2020, through November 13, 2021, 15 120 073 doses of COVID-19 vaccines were administered to 7 894 989 individuals (mean [SE] age, 46.5 [0.02] years; 8 138 318 doses received [53.8%] by female individuals; 3 671 199 doses received [24.3%] by Hispanic or Latino individuals, 2 215 064 doses received [14.7%] by Asian individuals, 6 266 424 doses received [41.4%] by White individuals), including 483 053 Ad.26.COV2.S doses, 8 806 595 BNT162b2 doses, and 5 830 425 mRNA-1273 doses. Eleven cases of GBS after Ad.26.COV2.S were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate of GBS per 100 000 person-years in the 1 to 21 days after Ad.26.COV2.S was 32.4 (95% CI, 14.8-61.5), significantly higher than the background rate, and the adjusted RR in the 1 to 21 vs 22 to 42 days following Ad.26.COV2.S was 6.03 (95% CI, 0.79-147.79). Thirty-six cases of GBS after mRNA vaccines were confirmed. The unadjusted incidence rate per 100 000 person-years in the 1 to 21 days after mRNA vaccines was 1.3 (95% CI, 0.7-2.4) and the adjusted RR in the 1 to 21 vs 22 to 42 days following mRNA vaccines was 0.56 (95% CI, 0.21-1.48). In a head-to-head comparison of Ad.26.COV2.S vs mRNA vaccines, the adjusted RR was 20.56 (95% CI, 6.94-64.66). Conclusions and Relevance: In this cohort study of COVID-19 vaccines, the incidence of GBS was elevated after receiving the Ad.26.COV2.S vaccine. Surveillance is ongoing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Cohort Studies , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Vaccines, Synthetic
6.
Rev Neurol ; 74(8): 258-264, 2022 04 16.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1780452

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is ongoing in Mexico and Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) cases have been reported, validation of Brighton criteria in Mexico is necessary. Moreover, epidemiology of GBS in Mexico differs from European and North American countries. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical, cerebrospinal and electrodiagnostic features in Mexican patients diagnosed with GBS and classify them according to the Brighton Collaboration Group diagnostic criteria. Patrients and methods. An ambispective cohort study was conducted. We included patients that fulfilled the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) diagnostic criteria for Guillain-Barre syndrome. Patients in this study were classified according to Brighton collaboration group levels of certainty for Guillain-Barre syndrome. RESULTS: Sixty eight percent of patients were male. Of the 248 patients included, 58.4% had history of a precedent infection, mean time from symptom onset to admission was 5 (1-30) days. Mean Medical Research Council sum score 30.3 ± 15.5. Almost 98% of patients had a monophasic course. Level 1 of certainty according to Brighton collaboration group criteria was fulfilled by 54.6% of patients, level 2 by 45% and level 4 by 0.6%. Patients meeting level 2 of certainty were mostly because normal cerebrospinal fluid findings or findings in nerve conduction studies not consistent with any GBS variants. CONCLUSION: GBS is a frequent autoimmune neuropathy that has been associated with preceding infections and with vaccination campaigns. For SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign in Mexico, validation of Brighton Criteria is necessary. Although Mexico's GBS epidemiology has been changing throughout recent years, this study provides similar data compared to other countries.


TITLE: Síndrome de Guillain-Barré en México: características clínicas y validación de los criterios de Brighton.Introducción. Dado que la vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2 está en curso en México y se han notificado casos de Guillain-Barré, es necesaria la validación de los criterios de Brighton en México. La epidemiología de Guillain-Barré en México difiere de la de los países europeos y norteamericanos. Objetivo. Describir las características clínicas, cerebroespinales y electrodiagnósticas en pacientes mexicanos con diagnóstico de Guillain-Barré y clasificarlos según los criterios diagnósticos del Brighton Collaboration Group. Pacientes y métodos. Se realizó un estudio de cohorte ambispectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes que cumplen con los criterios del National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke para el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB). Se clasificó a los pacientes según los niveles de certeza del Brighton Collaboration Group para el SGB. Resultados. El 68% de los pacientes eran hombres. De los 248 pacientes incluidos, el 58,4% tenía antecedentes de infección previa. La media desde el inicio de los síntomas hasta el ingreso fue de 5 (1-30) días, y la puntuación media de la suma del Medical Research Council, de 30,3 ± 15,5. El nivel 1 de certeza según los criterios del Brighton Collaboration Group se cumplió en el 54,6% de los pacientes; el nivel 2, en el 45%; y el nivel 4, en el 0,6%. Los pacientes que alcanzaron el nivel 2 de certeza se debieron principalmente a hallazgos normales en el líquido cefalorraquídeo o a hallazgos en estudios de neuroconducción que no cumplen los criterios de ninguna variante de SGB. Conclusión. El SGB es una neuropatía autoinmune frecuente que se ha asociado con infecciones previas y con campañas de vacunación. Para la campaña de vacunación contra el SARS-CoV-2 en México es necesaria la validación de los criterios de Brighton. Aunque la epidemiología del SGB en México ha ido cambiando a lo largo de los últimos años, este estudio proporciona datos similares en comparación con otros países.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mexico/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
BMJ ; 376: e068373, 2022 03 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1745759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To study the association between covid-19 vaccines, SARS-CoV-2 infection, and risk of immune mediated neurological events. DESIGN: Population based historical rate comparison study and self-controlled case series analysis. SETTING: Primary care records from the United Kingdom, and primary care records from Spain linked to hospital data. PARTICIPANTS: 8 330 497 people who received at least one dose of covid-19 vaccines ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, or Ad.26.COV2.S between the rollout of the vaccination campaigns and end of data availability (UK: 9 May 2021; Spain: 30 June 2021). The study sample also comprised a cohort of 735 870 unvaccinated individuals with a first positive reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction test result for SARS-CoV-2 from 1 September 2020, and 14 330 080 participants from the general population. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Outcomes were incidence of Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transverse myelitis. Incidence rates were estimated in the 21 days after the first vaccine dose, 90 days after a positive test result for SARS-CoV-2, and between 2017 and 2019 for background rates in the general population cohort. Indirectly standardised incidence ratios were estimated. Adjusted incidence rate ratios were estimated from the self-controlled case series. RESULTS: The study included 4 376 535 people who received ChAdOx1 nCoV-19, 3 588 318 who received BNT162b2, 244 913 who received mRNA-1273, and 120 731 who received Ad26.CoV.2; 735 870 people with SARS-CoV-2 infection; and 14 330 080 people from the general population. Overall, post-vaccine rates were consistent with expected (background) rates for Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Self-controlled case series was conducted only for Bell's palsy, given limited statistical power, but with no safety signal seen for those vaccinated. Rates were, however, higher than expected after SARS-CoV-2 infection. For example, in the data from the UK, the standardised incidence ratio for Bell's palsy was 1.33 (1.02 to 1.74), for encephalomyelitis was 6.89 (3.82 to 12.44), and for Guillain-Barré syndrome was 3.53 (1.83 to 6.77). Transverse myelitis was rare (<5 events in all vaccinated cohorts) and could not be analysed. CONCLUSIONS: No safety signal was observed between covid-19 vaccines and the immune mediated neurological events of Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome, and transverse myelitis. An increased risk of Bell's palsy, encephalomyelitis, and Guillain-Barré syndrome was, however, observed for people with SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Encephalomyelitis/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Myelitis, Transverse/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Routinely Collected Health Data , Spain , United Kingdom , Vaccination/adverse effects
8.
J Neurol Sci ; 436: 120231, 2022 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1739963

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Rare autoimmune neurological events have been reported during the ongoing global drive for mass vaccination as a means of controlling the Covid-19 pandemic. Guillain-Barré syndrome, an acute inflammatory neuropathy well recognised as a rare complication of influenza vaccination, has been reported to follow administration of the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (AstraZeneca) vaccine. METHODS: We report four patients with inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy after vaccination in whom a relapsing or progressive course indicated the development of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). CONCLUSIONS: Awareness of this complication and distinction from Guillain-Barré syndrome enables the timely institution of maintenance immunomodulatory treatment. Our report also highlights the likely relationship between vaccination and the subsequent development of CIDP, but definitive demonstration of a causal link needs larger studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Graft vs Host Disease , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Graft vs Host Disease/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/complications
9.
Front Immunol ; 13: 782198, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699887

ABSTRACT

Misunderstanding temporal coincidence of adverse events during mass vaccination and invalid assessment of possible safety concerns have negative effects on immunization programs, leading to low immunization coverage. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to identify the incidence rates of GBS that are temporally associated with viral vaccine administration but might not be attributable to the vaccines. By literature search in Embase and PubMed, we included 48 publications and 2,110,441,600 participants. The pooled incidence rate of GBS was 3.09 per million persons (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.67 to 3.51) within six weeks of vaccination, equally 2.47 per 100,000 person-year (95%CI: 2.14 to 2.81). Subgroup analyses illustrated that the pooled rates were 2.77 per million persons (95%CI: 2.47 to 3.07) for individuals who received the influenza vaccine and 2.44 per million persons (95%CI: 0.97 to 3.91) for human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines, respectively. Our findings evidence the GBS-associated safety of virus vaccines. We present a reference for the evaluation of post-vaccination GBS rates in mass immunization campaigns, including the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Papillomavirus Vaccines/adverse effects , Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza Vaccines/immunology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Vaccines/immunology , Population Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
10.
J Peripher Nerv Syst ; 27(1): 4-30, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1673194

ABSTRACT

Increasing literature has linked COVID-19 to peripheral nervous system (PNS) diseases. In addition, as we move from the pandemic to the vaccination era, literature interest is shifting towards the potential association between COVID-19 vaccines and PNS manifestations. We reviewed published literature on COVID-19, COVID-19 vaccines and PNS manifestations between 1 January 2020 and 1 December 2021. For Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), isolated cranial neuropathy (ICN) and myositis associated with COVID-19, the demographic, clinical, laboratory, electrophysiological and imaging features were included in a narrative synthesis. We identified 169 studies on COVID-19-associated complications, including 63 papers (92 patients) on GBS, 29 papers (37 patients) on ICN and 11 papers (18 patients) on myositis. Additional clinical phenotypes included chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, vasculitic neuropathies, neuralgic amyotrophy, critical care-related complications, and myasthenia gravis. PNS complications secondary to COVID-19 vaccines have been reported during randomized clinical trials, in real-world case reports, and during large-scale surveillance programs. These mainly include cases of GBS, Bell's palsy, and cases of neuralgic amyotrophy. Based on our extensive review of the literature, any conclusion about a pathophysiological correlation between COVID-19 and PNS disorders remains premature, and solely supported by their temporal association, while epidemiological and pathological data are insufficient. The occurrence of PNS complications after COVID-19 vaccines seems limited to a possible higher risk of facial nerve palsy and GBS, to a degree that widespread access to the ongoing vaccination campaign should not be discouraged, while awaiting for more definitive data from large-scale surveillance studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Peripheral Nervous System
11.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
12.
Brain ; 144(11): 3392-3404, 2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1606276

ABSTRACT

In the wake of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic, an increasing number of patients with neurological disorders, including Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), have been reported following this infection. It remains unclear, however, if these cases are coincidental or not, as most publications were case reports or small regional retrospective cohort studies. The International GBS Outcome Study is an ongoing prospective observational cohort study enrolling patients with GBS within 2 weeks from onset of weakness. Data from patients included in this study, between 30 January 2020 and 30 May 2020, were used to investigate clinical and laboratory signs of a preceding or concurrent SARS-CoV-2 infection and to describe the associated clinical phenotype and disease course. Patients were classified according to the SARS-CoV-2 case definitions of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control and laboratory recommendations of the World Health Organization. Forty-nine patients with GBS were included, of whom eight (16%) had a confirmed and three (6%) a probable SARS-CoV-2 infection. Nine of these 11 patients had no serological evidence of other recent preceding infections associated with GBS, whereas two had serological evidence of a recent Campylobacter jejuni infection. Patients with a confirmed or probable SARS-CoV-2 infection frequently had a sensorimotor variant 8/11 (73%) and facial palsy 7/11 (64%). The eight patients who underwent electrophysiological examination all had a demyelinating subtype, which was more prevalent than the other patients included in the same time window [14/30 (47%), P = 0.012] as well as historical region and age-matched control subjects included in the International GBS Outcome Study before the pandemic [23/44 (52%), P = 0.016]. The median time from the onset of infection to neurological symptoms was 16 days (interquartile range 12-22). Patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection shared uniform neurological features, similar to those previously described in other post-viral GBS patients. The frequency (22%) of a preceding SARS-CoV-2 infection in our study population was higher than estimates of the contemporaneous background prevalence of SARS-CoV-2, which may be a result of recruitment bias during the pandemic, but could also indicate that GBS may rarely follow a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection. Consistent with previous studies, we found no increase in patient recruitment during the pandemic for our ongoing International GBS Outcome Study compared to previous years, making a strong relationship of GBS with SARS-CoV-2 unlikely. A case-control study is required to determine if there is a causative link or not.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(4): 393-398, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583695

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barre syndrome following COVID-19 vaccines (GBSfCV19v) is a reported adverse effect that remains unclear. We present a structured review based on two case reports of GBSfCV19v, a systematic review, and Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) analysis to estimate the risk and describe the clinical characteristics (CC) of these events. We've searched on MEDLINE and Embase, from the inception to May 20, 2021, using the keywords: "Guillain barre syndrome" and cross-referenced with "covid-19 vaccines." We estimated the risk of GBSfCV19v, comparing it with the risk of GBS following the influenza vaccine (GBSfIv), considering the VAERS sensitivity. The clinical characteristics included: age, sex, comorbidities, type of vaccine, administered dose, clinical onset, deaths, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and electromyography (EMG) pattern. We found 43 cases, considering the risk of GBSfCV19v lower than GBSfIv (160-320 cases). The patients had a mean age of 54 years and 23 (56%) were male. The types of vaccines used: Pfizer (22), Moderna (9), AstraZeneca (3), Janssen (3), and Johnson & Johnson (1). 24 cases of GBS occurred after the first dose, with clinical onset of 7 days. CSF albuminocytological dissociation was reported in 7 patients, and EMG revealed a predominant demyelinating pattern. GBSfCV19v risk appears to be lower than what was expected from other respiratory virus vaccines. Most cases of GBS were middle-aged males within a week following the first dose of the COVID-19 vaccine, showing a typical demyelinating neuropathy with albuminocytological dissociation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Influenza Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Influenza Vaccines/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Muscle Nerve ; 65(2): 233-237, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1520266

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION/AIMS: We aimed to determine whether specific severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) vaccines may be associated with acute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy and if they may result in particular clinical presentations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed records of all persons presenting with acute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy from January 1, 2021, to June 30, 2021, admitted to two Neuroscience centers, of the West and North Midlands, United Kingdom. We compared subjects with previous SARS-CoV2 vaccine exposure with a local cohort of persons with acute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy admitted between 2005 and 2019 and compared admission numbers for the studied time frame with that of the previous 3 years. RESULTS: Of 24 persons with acute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy, 16 (66.7%) presented within 4 weeks after first SARS-CoV2 vaccine. Fourteen had received the AstraZeneca vaccine and one each, the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines. The final diagnosis was Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) in 12 and acute-onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy in 4. Among AstraZeneca vaccine recipients, facial weakness in nine persons (64.3%), bulbar weakness in seven (50%), and the bifacial weakness and distal paresthesias GBS variant in three (21.4%), were more common than in historical controls (P = .01; P = .004, and P = .002, respectively). A 2.6-fold (95% confidence interval: 1.98-3.51) increase in admissions for acute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy was noted during the studied time frame, compared to the same period in the previous 3 years. DISCUSSION: Despite a low risk, smaller than that of SARS-CoV2 infection and its complications, exposure to the first dose of AstraZeneca SARS-CoV2 vaccine may be a risk factor for acute-onset polyradiculoneuropathy, characterized by more common cranial nerve involvement.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Polyradiculoneuropathy , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Polyradiculoneuropathy/chemically induced , Polyradiculoneuropathy/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , United Kingdom
15.
Travel Med Infect Dis ; 44: 102169, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505906

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: /Aims: Corona virus disease 2019 (COVID 19) is a pandemic infectious disease of 2020, which often presents with respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms. The behavior of the virus and its full clinical picture has not been fully studied yet. Many case reports and case series have been running in order to elaborate different presentations and associations. Pulmonary and gastrointestinal features of COVID-19 infection are well outlined; however, neurological manifestations are less defined. CASE PRESENTATION: We report two adult cases of COVID-19 infection presented with acute Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), and a literature review on the causal association between COVID-19 and GBS. CONCLUSION: Our two case reports in addition to literature review of 116 published cases may help offer insight into the clinical course of COVID-19 infection. Our two COVID-19 patients presented with neurological manifestations of GBS which were not preceded with any respiratory, gastrointestinal or other systemic infection. This leads us to raise the possibility of establish direct causal association between COVID-19 infection and GBS. Physicians should have high clinical suspicions when encounter GBS patient during the current COVID-19 pandemic and consider co-existence of COVID-19 infection that may warrant SARS-CoV-2 testing, isolation precautions, and specific treatment for Covid-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Adult , COVID-19 Testing , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505020

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
17.
J Neuroimmunol ; 360: 577719, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1492308

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has presented an unprecedented global challenge. Vaccines against COVID have been developed to date. Covid-19 has been linked with the development of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS), a rare immune-mediated demyelinating neuropathy. We report three cases of Guillain-Barre Syndrome and one case of Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP), presenting to a Tasmanian hospital, and review 15 other reported cases and discuss likely immunopathology. Nearly all reported cases of post-COVID-19 vacciation inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy are linked to AstraZeneca vaccination and a variant with bifacial weakness is the most reported form of GBS globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/chemically induced , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tasmania/epidemiology
18.
Nat Med ; 27(12): 2144-2153, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1483142

ABSTRACT

Emerging reports of rare neurological complications associated with COVID-19 infection and vaccinations are leading to regulatory, clinical and public health concerns. We undertook a self-controlled case series study to investigate hospital admissions from neurological complications in the 28 days after a first dose of ChAdOx1nCoV-19 (n = 20,417,752) or BNT162b2 (n = 12,134,782), and after a SARS-CoV-2-positive test (n = 2,005,280). There was an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (incidence rate ratio (IRR), 2.90; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.15-3.92 at 15-21 days after vaccination) and Bell's palsy (IRR, 1.29; 95% CI: 1.08-1.56 at 15-21 days) with ChAdOx1nCoV-19. There was an increased risk of hemorrhagic stroke (IRR, 1.38; 95% CI: 1.12-1.71 at 15-21 days) with BNT162b2. An independent Scottish cohort provided further support for the association between ChAdOx1nCoV and Guillain-Barré syndrome (IRR, 2.32; 95% CI: 1.08-5.02 at 1-28 days). There was a substantially higher risk of all neurological outcomes in the 28 days after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test including Guillain-Barré syndrome (IRR, 5.25; 95% CI: 3.00-9.18). Overall, we estimated 38 excess cases of Guillain-Barré syndrome per 10 million people receiving ChAdOx1nCoV-19 and 145 excess cases per 10 million people after a positive SARS-CoV-2 test. In summary, although we find an increased risk of neurological complications in those who received COVID-19 vaccines, the risk of these complications is greater following a positive SARS-CoV-2 test.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Bell Palsy/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Hemorrhagic Stroke/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bell Palsy/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , England/epidemiology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Hemorrhagic Stroke/virology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Scotland/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453486

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
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