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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
2.
Rev Fac Cien Med Univ Nac Cordoba ; 78(4): 405-407, 2021 12 28.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1599769

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Since the SARS-CoV-2 pandemics began, multiple cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome secondary to COVID-19 have been described. Its typical presentation consists of the triad of paresthesia, ascending muscle weakness and areflexia, although there are several regional variants such as facial diplegia. Case presentation: Two weeks after a contact with a confirmed case of COVID-19, a 35-year-old woman presents with viral myopericarditis. Laboratory studies for autoimmune diseases come back negative, as well as multiple viral serologies. She presents anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, with negative PCR. A week after discharge she presents with palsy of both facial nerves, without other neurological abnormalities. She undergoes examination with cranial CT without findings, and an EMG which shows bilateral alteration of facial nerves. She refuses the performance of a lumbar puncture. Discussion: Facial diplegia can occur because of several illnesses, such as meningeal or brainstem tumors, infectious agents, Guillain-Barre syndrome, autoimmune diseases, trauma, metabolic causes or congenital causes. In our patient, having discarded other etiologies with imaging and analytical studies, the most probable cause is the Guillain-Barre syndrome. It is possibly secondary to SARS-CoV-2 infection given the presence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies after contact with a confirmed case. Conclusion: This case supports the hypothesis that COVID-19 may trigger the Guillain-Barre syndrome, specifically as facial diplegia, which is an atypical variant that should be known to be early diagnosed and treated as part of this syndrome.


Introducción: Desde que se inició la pandemia por el SARS-CoV-2, se han descrito numerosos casos de síndrome de Guillain-Barré secundario a la COVID-19. Su presentación típica es la triada de parestesias, debilidad muscular ascendente y arreflexia, aunque hay diversas variantes regionales como la diplejía facial. Presentación del caso: Mujer de 35 años que, dos semanas después de un contacto estrecho con un caso confirmado de COVID-19, ingresa por miopericarditis probablemente viral, con estudio de autoinmunidad negativo, múltiples serologías virales negativas y positividad para IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 con PCR negativa. Una semana tras el alta presenta paresia de ambos nervios faciales sin otras alteraciones neurológicas. Se realiza TAC craneal sin hallazgos y EMG que evidencia afectación bilateral de los nervios faciales. La paciente rechaza realización de punción lumbar Discusión: La diplejía facial puede ocurrir en el contexto de diversas patologías, como tumores meníngeos o troncoencefálicos, agentes infecciosos, síndrome de Guillain-Barré, patologías autoinmunes, traumatismos, causas metabólicas o causas congénitas. En el caso descrito tras descartar mediante pruebas de imagen y analíticamente el resto de etiologías, y dada la presentación clínica, permanece como causa más probable el síndrome de Guillain-Barré, posiblemente secundario a infección por SARS-CoV-2 dada la positividad de IgG anti-SARS-CoV-2 tras un contacto con un caso confirmado. Conclusión: Este caso apoya la hipótesis de que la COVID-19 puede desencadenar el síndrome de Guillain-Barré, específicamente en forma de diplejía facial, una variante atípica que se debe conocer para su identificación y manejo precoz como parte de este síndrome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Adult , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Pandemics , Paresthesia , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Clin Immunol ; 230: 108818, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531118

ABSTRACT

Vaccines are the most effective strategy to mitigate the global impact of COVID-19. However, vaccine hesitancy is common, particularly among minorities. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is the most common autoimmune illness of the peripheral nervous system, occurring at an incidence of 1.1/100,000 worldwide. A causal link between mRNA vaccines and GBS has not been previously evaluated. We analyzed a cohort of 3,890,250 Hispanic/Latinx recipients of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine (613,780 of whom had already received both doses) for incident GBS occurring within 30 days from vaccine administration. Seven cases of GBS were detected among first-dose recipients, for an observed incidence of 0.18/100,000 administered doses during the prespecified timeframe of 30 days. No cases were reported after second-dose administration. Our data suggest that, among recipients of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine, GBS may occur at the expected community-based rate; however, this should be taken with caution as the current incidence of GBS among the unvaccinated population against COVID-19 is still undetermined. We hope that this preliminary data will increase the public perception of safety toward mRNA-based vaccines and reduce vaccine hesitancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Cohort Studies , Humans , Retrospective Studies
5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(12): 3175-3178, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528801

ABSTRACT

We conducted a multi-institutional study in Taiwan and a systematic review of the literature for reports of Guillain-​Barré syndrome after coronavirus disease vaccination. This condition, mostly the classic form and the acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy subtype, has been reported in 39 cases and has occurred within 2 weeks of vaccine administration.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
6.
Acta Neurol Scand ; 145(1): 5-9, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505947

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 and adverse reactions to SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations show a tropism for neuronal structures and tissues. This narrative review was conducted to collect and discuss published data about neurological side effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in order to discover type, frequency, treatment, and outcome of these side effects. The most frequent neurological side effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are headache, Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS), venous sinus thrombosis (VST), and transverse myelitis. Other neurological side effects occur in a much lower frequency. Neurological side effects occur with any of the approved vaccines but VST particularly occurs after vaccination with vector-based vaccines. Treatment of these side effects is not at variance from similar conditions due to other causes. The worst outcome of these side effects is associated with VST, why it should not be missed and treated appropriately in due time. In conclusion, safety concerns against SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are backed by an increasing number of studies reporting neurological side effects. The most frequent of them are headache, GBS, VST, and transverse myelitis. Healthcare professionals, particularly neurologists involved in the management of patients having undergone SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations, should be aware of these side effects and should stay vigilant to recognize them early and treat them adequately.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , COVID-19 Vaccines , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
7.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1505020

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
8.
Zh Nevrol Psikhiatr Im S S Korsakova ; 121(9): 100-103, 2021.
Article in Russian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485581

ABSTRACT

The article presents a clinical example of Guillain-Barre syndrome with a predominant involvement of cranial nerves, which developed after COVID-19. Comprehensive clinical and laboratory diagnostics, including examination of cerebrospinal fluid, electromyography, examination for possible etiological infectious agents, was carried out. A course of pathogenetic therapy was used in the form of plasmapheresis sessions, supportive therapy. A good clinical effect was obtained. To this moment, only a few cases of the development of Guillain-Barré syndrome after a new coronavirus infection have been described. The peculiarity of our case is the development of a clinical picture of insufficiency of predominantly cranial nerves with subclinical involvement of the nerves of the extremities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Cranial Nerves , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2
11.
JAMA ; 326(16): 1606-1613, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453486

ABSTRACT

Importance: As part of postauthorization safety surveillance, the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has identified a potential safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen/Johnson & Johnson) COVID-19 vaccine. Objective: To assess reports of GBS received in the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination. Design, Setting, and Participants: Reports of presumptive GBS were identified in a US passive reporting system (VAERS) February-July 2021 and characterized, including demographics, clinical characteristics, and relevant medical history. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine; the comparator was the background rate of GBS in the general (unvaccinated) population that had been estimated and published based on a standardized case definition. Main Outcomes and Measures: Presumptive GBS; the reporting rate was analyzed, including calculation of the observed to expected ratio based on background rates and vaccine administration data. Because of limited availability of medical records, cases were not assessed according to the Brighton Collaboration criteria for GBS. Results: As of July 24, 2021, 130 reports of presumptive GBS were identified in VAERS following Ad26.COV2.S vaccination (median age, 56 years; IQR, 45-62 years; 111 individuals [86.0%] were < 65 years; 77 men [59.7%]). The median time to onset of GBS following vaccination was 13 days (IQR, 10-18 days), with 105 cases (81.4%) beginning within 21 days and 123 (95.3%) within 42 days. One hundred twenty-one reports (93.1%) were serious, including 1 death. With approximately 13 209 858 doses of vaccine administered to adults in the US, the estimated crude reporting rate was 1 case of GBS per 100 000 doses administered. The overall estimated observed to expected rate ratio was 4.18 (95% CI, 3.47-4.98) for the 42-day window, and in the worst-case scenario analysis for adults 18 years or older, corresponded to an estimated absolute rate increase of 6.36 per 100 000 person-years (based on a rate of approximately 8.36 cases per 100 000 person-years [123 cases per 1 472 162 person-years] compared with a background rate of approximately 2 cases per 100 000 person-years). For both risk windows, the observed to expected rate ratio was elevated in all age groups except individuals aged 18 through 29 years. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest a potential small but statistically significant safety concern for Guillain-Barré syndrome following receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine. However, the findings are subject to the limitations of passive reporting systems and presumptive case definition, and they must be considered preliminary pending analysis of medical records to establish a definitive diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Preliminary Data , Product Surveillance, Postmarketing , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
12.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(10)2021 Oct 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1450598

ABSTRACT

SARS-COV-2 predominantly results in a respiratory illness. However, it has also been associated with a wide range of neurological disorders including a broad range of immune neuropathies. These immune neuropathies associated with SARS-COV2 infection include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), recurrent GBS and exacerbation of pre-existing chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We describe a case with acute-onset CIDP presenting with three relapses of demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy, the third relapse occurring in the 8 week of illness following a previous COVID-19 infection and a recent COVID-19 vaccination with ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 and high COVID-19 antibody level. In our knowledge, this is the ever reported case of acute-onset CIDP associated with COVID-19 vaccine and high COVID-19 antibody level.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating , COVID-19 Vaccines , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/drug therapy , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
15.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg ; 208: 106887, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433072

ABSTRACT

We report a case of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) following the first dose of Oxford/AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccine with papilledema as atypical onset. As the COVID-19 vaccination campaign progresses worldwide, GBSs vaccine-related have been increasingly reported. After reviewing the available literature, considering the annual incidence of GBS, in this historical moment, the public health systems cannot afford an unjustified distrust in vaccines, caused by misinterpretation of epidemiological data. Nonetheless, it is important for clinicians to promptly recognize neurological complications potentially associated with COVID-19 vaccinations and report them to pharmacovigilance agencies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Med Virol ; 93(10): 6045-6049, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432431

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been shown to be associated with a lot of neurological complications, of whom Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an important post-infectious consequentiality. More than 220 patients with GBS have been reported thus far. We intend to share our experience with five patients of GBS where one of them had severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). This is the first-ever report demonstrating the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the CSF of an adult patient; a similar occurrence has recently been described in a pediatric patient. We wish to emphasize the fact that commonly GBS occurs as a result of a post-infectious process but in a few cases where the symptoms of COVID-19 and GBS occur concurrently, corresponding to the viremic phase, separate pathogenesis needs to be thought of. This para-infectious nature is exemplified by the presence of virus in the cerebrospinal fluid of one of our patients. We review the neuroinvasive potential of SARS-Cov-2 in this regard and draw parallels with Cytomegalovirus, Zika virus, and Human Immunodeficiency virus-associated occurrences of GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/therapy , Cerebrospinal Fluid/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Outcome
20.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(5): 102246, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356198

ABSTRACT

Treatment related fluctuation (TRF) poses a special challenge in the treatment of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS). Many cases of GBS following COVID-19 infection have been reported in literature till date, but treatment related fluctuation (TRF) in post COVID-19 GBS has not been reported till date. We report a 35-year-old male patient who developed GBS following COVID-19 infection and had TRF after intravenous immunoglobulin (IV-IG) therapy. He required ventilator support but repeat IV-IG therapy led to complete recovery. Significant proximal muscle involvement, cranial nerve palsy, no antecedent diarrhea and absence of anti-GM1 antibodies are important predictors of TRF in GBS and need to be recognized early in the course of this illness. Early recognition of TRF and differentiating it from other forms of immune mediated neuropathy such as acute onset chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (A-CIDP) are important for prognostication and management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Adult , Biological Variation, Individual , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/etiology , COVID-19/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , India , Male , Motor Neurons/physiology , Neural Conduction/physiology , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Ulnar Neuropathies/diagnosis , Ulnar Neuropathies/etiology , Ulnar Neuropathies/therapy
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