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1.
Neurol India ; 71(2): 209-227, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2314756

ABSTRACT

Indian data regarding serious neurological and psychiatric adverse events, following coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, are lacking. We, therefore, systematically evaluated cases of post-vaccinal serious neurological and psychiatric adverse reactions published from India. A systematic review of cases published from India, which were archived in PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar databases, was performed; pre-print databases along with ahead-of-print contents were searched in addition. Retrieved articles, as on June 27, 2022, were evaluated following PRISMA guidelines. EndNote 20 web tool was used to make a PRISMA flow chart. Individual patients' data were compiled in a tabular form. The protocol of the systematic review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42022324183). A total of 64 records describing 136 instances of serious neurological and psychiatric adverse events were identified. More than 50% (36/64) reports were from the following four states, namely, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, New Delhi, and West Bengal. The mean age of persons developing these complications was 44.89 ± 15.77 years. In the majority, adverse events occurred within 2 weeks of administration of the first dose of COVISHIELD vaccine. Immune-mediated central nervous system (CNS) disorders were identified in 54 instances. Guillain-Barre syndrome and other immune-mediated peripheral neuropathies were reported in 21 cases. Post-vaccinal herpes zoster was recorded in 31 vaccine recipients. Psychiatric adverse events were recorded in six patients. In Indian recipients of COVID-19 vaccine, a variety of serious neurological complications were reported. The overall risk appears minuscule. Immune-mediated central and peripheral neuronal demyelinations were the most frequently reported post-vaccinal adverse events. A large number of cases of herpes zoster have also been reported. Immune-mediated disorders responded well to immunotherapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Herpes Zoster , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases , Vaccines , Adult , Humans , Middle Aged , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/complications
2.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1183258, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318787

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 vaccination is a life-saving intervention. However, it does not come up without a risk of rare adverse events, which frequency varies between vaccines developed using different technological platforms. The increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) has been reported for selected adenoviral vector vaccines but not for other vaccine types, including more widely used mRNA preparations. Therefore, it is unlikely that GBS results from the cross-reactivity of antibodies against the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein generated after the COVID-19 vaccination. This paper outlines two hypotheses according to which increased risk of GBS following adenoviral vaccination is due to (1) generation of anti-vector antibodies that may cross-react with proteins involved in biological processes related to myelin and axons, or (2) neuroinvasion of selected adenovirus vectors to the peripheral nervous system, infection of neurons and subsequent inflammation and neuropathies. The rationale behind these hypotheses is outlined, advocating further epidemiological and experimental research to verify them. This is particularly important given the ongoing interest in using adenoviruses in developing vaccines against various infectious diseases and cancer immunotherapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2295060

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare immune-mediated acute polyradiculo-neuropathy that typically develops after a previous gastrointestinal or respiratory infection. This narrative overview aims to summarise and discuss current knowledge and previous evidence regarding triggers and pathophysiology of GBS. A systematic search of the literature was carried out using suitable search terms. The most common subtypes of GBS are acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN). The most common triggers of GBS, in three quarters of cases, are previous infections. The most common infectious agents that cause GBS include Campylobacter jejuni (C. jejuni), Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and cytomegalovirus. C. jejuni is responsible for about a third of GBS cases. GBS due to C. jejuni is usually more severe than that due to other causes. Clinical presentation of GBS is highly dependent on the structure of pathogenic lipo-oligosaccharides (LOS) that trigger the innate immune system via Toll-like-receptor (TLR)-4 signalling. AIDP is due to demyelination, whereas in AMAN, structures of the axolemma are affected in the nodal or inter-nodal space. In conclusion, GBS is a neuro-immunological disorder caused by autoantibodies against components of the myelin sheath or axolemma. Molecular mimicry between surface structures of pathogens and components of myelin or the axon is one scenario that may explain the pathophysiology of GBS.


Subject(s)
Campylobacter jejuni , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Amantadine , Autoantibodies , Axons/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology
4.
BMC Neurol ; 23(1): 133, 2023 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291755

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Polyradiculoneuropathy following infection with varicella zoster virus (VZV) is rare and most of the time, happens in the context of reactivation of latent VZV. We report a case of acute polyradiculoneuropathy following primary infection with VZV marked by atypical clinical features raising the hypothesis of a para-infectious disease. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a 43-years-old male who developed ataxia, dysphagia, dysphonia, and oculomotor disorders (vertical binocular diplopia and bilateral ptosis) followed by quadriplegia with areflexia which occurred 4 days later. The patient had a history of varicella that occurred 10 days before the onset of these symptoms. Nerve conduction study revealed features consistent with an acute motor-sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN). Anti-ganglioside antibodies were negative. Based on clinical presentation and ancillary examination, we retain the Miller Fisher/Guillain-Barré overlap syndrome diagnosis. The patient was treated with high doses of methylprednisolone but the evolution of the disease was nevertheless marked by a complete recovery six weeks after onset of symptoms. CONCLUSION: GBS following varicella is a rare but severe disease occurring most often in adults and marked by greater involvement of the cranial nerves. Its clinical features suggest that it is a para-infectious disease. Antiviral therapy has no effect on the course of the disease but its administration within the first 24 h after the onset of chickenpox in adults can prevent its occurrence.


Subject(s)
Chickenpox , Communicable Diseases , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Miller Fisher Syndrome , Adult , Male , Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Chickenpox/complications , Herpesvirus 3, Human , Diplopia/complications , Communicable Diseases/complications
5.
Semin Neurol ; 43(2): 187-194, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296549

ABSTRACT

Neurologic symptoms have been reported in over 30% of hospitalized patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but the pathogenesis of these symptoms remains under investigation. Here, we place the neurologic complications of COVID-19 within the context of three historical viral pandemics that have been associated with neurologic diseases: (1) the 1918 influenza pandemic, subsequent spread of encephalitis lethargica, and lessons for the study of COVID-19-related neuroinflammation; (2) the controversial link between the 1976 influenza vaccination campaign and Guillain-Barré Syndrome and its implications for the post- and parainfectious complications of COVID-19 and COVID-19 vaccination; and (3) potential applications of scientific techniques developed in the wake of the human immunodeficiency virus pandemic to the study of postacute sequelae of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Influenza, Human , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications
6.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 9-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278901

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Albeit primarily a disease of respiratory tract, the 2019 coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) has been found to have causal association with a plethora of neurological, neuropsychiatric and psychological effects. This review aims to analyze them with a discussion of evolving therapeutic recommendations. METHODS: PubMed and Google Scholar were searched from 1 January 2020 to 30 May 2020 with the following key terms: "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2", "pandemic", "neuro-COVID", "stroke-COVID", "epilepsy-COVID", "COVID-encephalopathy", "SARS-CoV-2-encephalitis", "SARS-CoV-2-rhabdomyolysis", "COVID-demyelinating disease", "neurological manifestations", "psychosocial manifestations", "treatment recommendations", "COVID-19 and therapeutic changes", "psychiatry", "marginalised", "telemedicine", "mental health", "quarantine", "infodemic" and "social media". A few newspaper reports related to COVID-19 and psychosocial impacts have also been added as per context. RESULTS: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of COVID-19 are abundant. Clinical features of both central and peripheral nervous system involvement are evident. These have been categorically analyzed briefly with literature support. Most of the psychological effects are secondary to pandemic-associated regulatory, socioeconomic and psychosocial changes. CONCLUSION: Neurological and neuropsychiatric manifestations of this disease are only beginning to unravel. This demands a wide index of suspicion for prompt diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 to prevent further complications and mortality.


Les impacts neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques d'une infection à la COVID-19. CONTEXTE: Bien qu'il s'agisse principalement d'une maladie des voies respiratoires, la maladie infectieuse à coronavirus apparue en 2019 (COVID-19) s'est avérée avoir un lien de causalité avec une pléthore d'impacts d'ordre neurologique, neuropsychiatrique et psychologique. Cette étude entend donc analyser ces impacts tout en discutant l'évolution des recommandations thérapeutiques se rapportant à cette maladie. MÉTHODES: Les bases de données PubMed et Google Scholar ont été interrogées entre les 1er janvier et 30 mai 2020. Les termes clés suivants ont été utilisés : « COVID-19 ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ¼, « Pandémie ¼, « Neuro ­ COVID ¼, « AVC ­ COVID ¼, « Épilepsie ­ COVID ¼, « COVID ­ encéphalopathie ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ encéphalite ¼, « SRAS ­ CoV-2 ­ rhabdomyolyse ¼, « COVID ­ maladie démyélinisante ¼, « Manifestations neurologiques ¼, « Manifestations psychosociales ¼, « Recommandations thérapeutiques ¼, « COVID-19 et changement thérapeutiques ¼, « Psychiatrie ¼, « Marginalisés ¼, « Télémédecine ¼, « Santé mentale ¼, « Quarantaine ¼, « Infodémique ¼ et « Médias sociaux ¼. De plus, quelques articles de journaux relatifs à la pandémie de COVID-19 et à ses impacts psychosociaux ont également été ajoutés en fonction du contexte. RÉSULTATS: Il appert que les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques des infections à la COVID-19 sont nombreuses. Les caractéristiques cliniques d'une implication des systèmes nerveux central et périphérique sautent désormais aux yeux. Ces caractéristiques ont fait l'objet d'une brève analyse systématique à l'aide de publications scientifiques. En outre, la plupart des impacts d'ordre psychologique de cette pandémie se sont révélés moins apparents que les changements réglementaires, socioéconomiques et psychosociaux. CONCLUSION: Les manifestations neurologiques et neuropsychiatriques de cette maladie ne font que commencer à être élucidées. Cela exige donc une capacité accrue de vigilance en vue d'un diagnostic rapide, et ce, afin de prévenir des complications additionnelles et une mortalité accrue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Ageusia/etiology , Ageusia/physiopathology , Alzheimer Disease/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cerebellar Ataxia/etiology , Cerebellar Ataxia/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Comorbidity , Delivery of Health Care , Demyelinating Diseases/therapy , Disease Management , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Epilepsy/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Headache/physiopathology , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Meningoencephalitis/etiology , Meningoencephalitis/physiopathology , Muscular Diseases/etiology , Muscular Diseases/physiopathology , Myelitis, Transverse/etiology , Myelitis, Transverse/physiopathology , Myoclonus/etiology , Myoclonus/physiopathology , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Parkinson Disease/therapy , Polyneuropathies/etiology , Polyneuropathies/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Stroke/therapy , Viral Tropism
7.
Can J Neurol Sci ; 48(1): 66-76, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Growing evidence showed that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection may present with neurological manifestations. This review aimed to determine the neurological manifestations and complications in COVID-19. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis that included cohort and case series/reports involving a population of patients confirmed with COVID-19 infection and their neurologic manifestations. We searched the following electronic databases until April 18, 2020: PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and World Health Organization database (PROSPERO registration number: CRD42020180658). RESULTS: From 403 articles identified, 49 studies involving a total of 6,335 confirmed COVID-19 cases were included. The random-effects modeling analysis for each neurological symptom showed the following proportional point estimates with 95% confidence intervals: "headache" (0.12; 0.10-0.14; I2 = 77%), "dizziness" (0.08; 0.05-0.12; I2 = 82%), "headache and dizziness" (0.09; 0.06-0.13; I2 = 0%), "nausea" (0.07; 0.04-0.11; I2 = 79%), "vomiting" (0.05; 0.03-0.08; I2 = 74%), "nausea and vomiting" (0.06; 0.03-0.11; I2 = 83%), "confusion" (0.05; 0.02-0.14; I2 = 86%), and "myalgia" (0.21; 0.18-0.25; I2 = 85%). The most common neurological complication associated with COVID-19 infection was vascular disorders (n = 23); other associated conditions were encephalopathy (n = 3), encephalitis (n = 1), oculomotor nerve palsy (n = 1), isolated sudden-onset anosmia (n = 1), Guillain-Barré syndrome (n = 1), and Miller-Fisher syndrome (n = 2). Most patients with neurological complications survived (n = 14); a considerable number of patients died (n = 7); and the rest had unclear outcomes (n = 12). CONCLUSION: This review revealed that neurologic involvement may manifest in COVID-19 infection. What has initially been thought of as a primarily respiratory illness has evolved into a wide-ranging multi-organ disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/physiopathology , Headache/physiopathology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Anosmia/etiology , Anosmia/physiopathology , Brain Diseases/etiology , Brain Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/complications , Cerebral Hemorrhage/etiology , Cerebral Hemorrhage/physiopathology , Cerebral Infarction/etiology , Cerebral Infarction/physiopathology , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Confusion/etiology , Confusion/physiopathology , Dizziness/etiology , Dizziness/physiopathology , Encephalitis/etiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Headache/etiology , Humans , Myalgia/etiology , Nausea/etiology , Nausea/physiopathology , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/etiology , Oculomotor Nerve Diseases/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/etiology , Sinus Thrombosis, Intracranial/physiopathology , Vomiting/etiology , Vomiting/physiopathology
8.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 27(5): 2152-2164, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2270406

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this systematic review was to study the incidence, risk factors and patients subjected to Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) after COVID-19. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For qualitative assessment and assessing the methodological quality, the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions and the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA 2020) checklist were utilized. Data from PubMed, Cochrane, Embase, CINAHIL, Medline, ResearchGate, and Scopus were searched. The relevant studies involved patients with confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis by RT-PCR, and GBS diagnosis based on typical clinical symptoms and/or confirmatory diagnostic results. A total of 12 English relevant articles (6 papers were case reports and 8 were case series with a total of 32 patients) published in a peer-reviewed journal from 2019 to 2021 were included. Following the review methodology, two independent raters were responsible for retrieving, extracting and checking for data eligibility. Demographic characteristics are presented as frequencies and percentages. Based on distribution of values, continuous data were expressed as median and interquartile range (IQR). RESULTS: Out of 32 patients, 26 patients reported neurological symptoms, 6 cases went unnoticed, 7 cases showed involvement of the cranial nerves, 12 cases did not, and 13 cases went unreported. CONCLUSIONS: It is too early to draw any conclusions concerning a potential relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and GBS. More large-scale observational studies are required to understand the pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2-associated GBS and to demonstrate a definite causal relationship between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Incidence , COVID-19 Testing
9.
Semin Neurol ; 43(2): 251-259, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282856

ABSTRACT

Accumulating evidence in the third year of the global pandemic suggests that coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) can cause neuromuscular complications during or after the acute phase of infection. Direct viral infection and immune-mediated mechanisms have been hypothesized. Furthermore, in patients with underlying autoimmune neuromuscular diseases, COVID-19 infection may trigger a disease flare. COVID-19 vaccines appear to be safe and effective at preventing severe illness from COVID-19. Certain vaccines are associated with an increased risk of Guillain-Barré syndrome and possibly Bell's palsy, but the absolute incidence is low, and benefits likely outweigh the risks. Newer prophylactic therapies and treatments are also becoming available for patients who may not mount a sufficient response to vaccination or have contraindications. In this article, we discuss the current available evidence on neuromuscular complications of COVID-19 and clinical considerations regarding vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects
10.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 3773, 2023 03 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2261761

ABSTRACT

Increasing evidence suggests an association between SARS-CoV-2 vaccines and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Nevertheless, little is understood about the contributing risk factors and clinical characteristics of GBS post SARS-CoV-2 vaccination. In this prospective surveillance study of 38,828,691 SARS-CoV-2 vaccine doses administered from February 2021 to March 2022 in the Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, 55 cases of GBS were reported post vaccination. We estimated the incidence rate of GBS per million doses and the incidence rate ratio for the vaccine dose, mechanism, age, and sex. Additionally, we compared the clinical characteristics of GBS following mRNA-based and viral vector-based vaccinations. The overall incidence of GBS following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination was 1.42 per million doses. Viral vector-based vaccines were associated with a higher risk of GBS. Men were more likely to develop GBS than women. The third dose of vaccine was associated with a lower risk of developing GBS. Classic sensorimotor and pure motor subtypes were the predominant clinical subtypes, and demyelinating type was the predominant electrodiagnostic subtype. The initial dose of viral-vector based vaccine and later doses of mRNA-based vaccine were associated with GBS, respectively. GBS following SARS-CoV-2 vaccination may not be clinically distinct. However, physicians should pay close attention to the classic presentation of GBS in men receiving an initial dose of viral vector-based SARS-CoV-2 vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Viral Vaccines , Male , Humans , Female , Incidence , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , SARS-CoV-2 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Prospective Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination/adverse effects , RNA, Messenger
11.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 19(1): 2171231, 2023 12 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2268247

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a rare but severe complication of COVID-19 vaccination. We report two cases of GBS following vaccination with the adenovirus vector vaccine ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 (Vaxzevria, AstraZeneca) and review the relevant literature. Relevant studies published between December 2020 and May 2022 including 881 patients with GBS were reviewed. GBS incidence and the need for mechanical ventilation were reported at a higher level among patients receiving Vaxzevria (n = 400). However, incidence cannot be accurately estimated from case reports. Thus, the true GBS rates following COVID-19 vaccination should be determined by population-based data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Influenza Vaccines , Humans , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/complications , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(8): e57, 2023 Feb 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2266501

ABSTRACT

The occurrence of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) related to coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has rarely been reported. We describe two patients who were diagnosed with CIDP after COVID-19 vaccination. A 72-year-old man presented with a progressive tingling sensation and weakness below both knees for two weeks. He had been vaccinated against COVID-19 (mRNA-1273 vaccine) a month before the appearance of symptoms. Demyelinating polyneuropathy was observed in the nerve conduction studies (NCS). Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) was administered under the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and his symptoms were improved. However, his symptoms relapsed at 10 weeks from the onset. Oral prednisolone, azathioprine, and IVIg were administered as treatment. The second case was a 50-year-old man who complained of a bilateral leg tingling sensation and gait disturbance lasting four weeks. He had received the Ad26.COV2.S vaccine against COVID-19 five weeks prior. Demyelinating polyneuropathy was observed in the NCS. He was treated with oral prednisolone, azathioprine, and IVIg for CIDP because his symptoms had lasted for more than 12 weeks from the onset. A causal relationship has not been established between COVID-19 vaccination and CIDP; however, CIDP may follow COVID-19 vaccination. As CIDP treatment is different from that for GBS, clinicians should closely monitor patients diagnosed with GBS associated with COVID-19 whether they deteriorate after initial treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating , Aged , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , Azathioprine/adverse effects , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/diagnosis , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/drug therapy , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating/etiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
13.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 89(3): 1224-1225, 2023 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240712
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 6(2): e2253845, 2023 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2219607

ABSTRACT

Importance: Because of historical associations between vaccines and Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), the condition was a prespecified adverse event of special interest for COVID-19 vaccine monitoring. Objective: To evaluate GBS reports to the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS) and compare reporting patterns within 21 and 42 days after vaccination with Ad26.COV2.S (Janssen), BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech), and mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccines. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study was conducted using US VAERS reports submitted during December 2020 to January 2022. GBS case reports verified as meeting the Brighton Collaboration case definition for GBS in US adults after COVID-19 vaccination were included. Exposures: Receipt of the Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine. Main Outcomes and Measures: Descriptive analyses of GBS case were conducted. GBS reporting rates within 21 and 42 days after Ad26.COV2.S, BNT162b2, or mRNA-1273 vaccination based on doses administered were calculated. Reporting rate ratios (RRRs) after receipt of Ad26.COV2.S vs BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 within 21- and 42-day postvaccination intervals were calculated. Observed-to-expected (OE) ratios were estimated using published GBS background rates. Results: Among 487 651 785 COVID-19 vaccine doses, 17 944 515 doses (3.7%) were Ad26.COV2.S, 266 859 784 doses (54.7%) were BNT162b2, and 202 847 486 doses (41.6%) were mRNA-1273. Of 295 verified reports of individuals with GBS identified after COVID-19 vaccination (12 Asian [4.1%], 18 Black [6.1%], and 193 White [65.4%]; 17 Hispanic [5.8%]; 169 males [57.3%]; median [IQR] age, 59.0 [46.0-68.0] years), 275 reports (93.2%) documented hospitalization. There were 209 and 253 reports of GBS that occurred within 21 days and 42 days of vaccination, respectively. Within 21 days of vaccination, GBS reporting rates per 1 000 000 doses were 3.29 for Ad26.COV.2, 0.29 for BNT162b2, and 0.35 for mRNA-1273 administered; within 42 days of vaccination, they were 4.07 for Ad26.COV.2, 0.34 for BNT162b2, and 0.44 for mRNA-1273. GBS was more frequently reported within 21 days after Ad26.COV2.S than after BNT162b2 (RRR = 11.40; 95% CI, 8.11-15.99) or mRNA-1273 (RRR = 9.26; 95% CI, 6.57-13.07) vaccination; similar findings were observed within 42 days after vaccination (BNT162b2: RRR = 12.06; 95% CI, 8.86-16.43; mRNA-1273: RRR = 9.27; 95% CI, 6.80-12.63). OE ratios were 3.79 (95% CI, 2.88-4.88) for 21-day and 2.34 (95% CI, 1.83-2.94) for 42-day intervals after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination and less than 1 (not significant) after BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccination within both postvaccination periods. Conclusions and Relevance: This study found disproportionate reporting and imbalances after Ad26.COV2.S vaccination, suggesting that Ad26.COV2.S vaccination was associated with increased risk for GBS. No associations between mRNA COVID-19 vaccines and risk of GBS were observed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Adult , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Ad26COVS1 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Retrospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination/adverse effects
17.
Am J Case Rep ; 23: e936896, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2203693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an autoimmune condition that presents as weakness, numbness, paresthesia, and areflexia. GBS may occur following infection or vaccination. The pathogenesis of GBS is characterized by inflammatory infiltrates and segmental demyelination. The mechanism of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination is hypothesized to arise from an autoimmune-mediated mechanism leading to an increase in inflammatory cytokines. While there were no reported cases of GBS during the mRNA COVID-19 vaccination clinical trials, there have been a few case reports of GBS following COVID-19 vaccination. CASE REPORT We report a case of symmetric weakness and paresthesia that began 3 days after the patient received his first dose of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies demonstrated albuminocytologic dissociation. The combination of the patient's CSF findings and clinical symptoms was concerning for Guillain-Barre syndrome. Given the clinical findings 3 days following COVID-19 vaccination, there was a high concern for COVID-19 vaccine-induced GBS. The patient was treated with IVIG followed by plasmapheresis but failed to show significant improvement from either treatment. CONCLUSIONS Our case report demonstrates occurrence of GBS soon after the patient received the COVID-19 Moderna vaccine. Although rare, there is some evidence to support an association between COVID-19 vaccination and GBS, but this is generally limited to case reports and case series. Clinicians, however, should remain vigilant to mitigate potential risks, such as autonomic dysfunction, respiratory failure, permanent disability, and death in patients who develop GBS after vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Humans , Paresthesia
18.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(48): e32140, 2022 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161258

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an acute inflammatory polyneuropathy related to infection with bacteria or virus and vaccination. Cases of GBS after coronavirus infection-19 (COVID-19) vaccination have been reported. However, cases of GBS after inoculation with mRNA-based COVID-19 vaccines, especially mRNA-1273, have rarely been reported compared to after inoculation with adenovirus vector-based COVID-19 vaccines. On 1 hand, GBS occurring after scrub typhus is often reported, but the exact pathological mechanism has not been elucidated. We report the case of a patient with GBS after inoculation with mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine and scrub typhus. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 47-year-old man received COVID-19 vaccination 4 weeks before admission. He had a fever, rash and general weakness 1 day after vaccination. After 3 weeks, the muscle strength of the extremities deteriorated to the extent that walking was impossible. DIAGNOSIS, INTERVENTIONS, AND OUTCOMES: The patient developed quadriplegia with areflexia, axonal-type sensorimotor polyneuropathy was confirmed by nerve conduction study. The patient was diagnosed as GBS. Scrub typhus was also diagnosed as eschar was observed in the chest area and the serologic test of anti-R-tsutsugamushi antibody showed a strongly positive result. The patient received treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin at 0.4 g/kg daily for 5 days. Mechanical ventilation was applied during the intensive care unit. He was treated for scrub typhus simultaneously. Six months after the onset of the disease, the patient showed improvement to the point where he could work and exercise alone. LESSONS: When GBS is suspected, early evaluation and treatment can lead to favorable outcomes. Considering that cases of GBS after COVID-19 vaccination have been reported, it is important to conduct early evaluation and management of patients with muscle weakness after COVID-19 vaccination to ensure early detection of GBS. And even if fever and rash are side effects that can occur frequently after vaccination, it is necessary to consider other diseases in addition to the side effects of the vaccine. This is to prevent delay in diagnosis and treatment of other diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Middle Aged , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19/complications
19.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 16(11): 1703-1705, 2022 Nov 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143903

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization in March 2020 and since then it has spread to almost every country around the world. Vaccines against COVID-19 are considered an essential measure to curb this pandemic. However, side effects, including local and systemic reactions, after administering the COVID-19 vaccine have been defined, and some side effects have been reported. We present two cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) after receiving the ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine (Oxford- AstraZeneca). Both cases were admitted to the 108 Military Central Hospital, Vietnam, and received plasmapheresis therapy with satisfactory recovery after treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Vietnam , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Vaccination
20.
Afr Health Sci ; 22(3): 520-526, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2100084

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 emerged as a novel pandemic with serious illness. Acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy, a Guillain-Barré syndrome variant also results in ventilator support, and bed-ridden state. Presence of COVID-19 along with GBS will cause serious complications if left untreated. Objective: To report the effect of physiotherapy in acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy along with COVID-19 in Intensive care unit. Case description: A 35-year-old-male with AMSAN, alcoholic hepatitis, and hyponatremia, came with paraparesis, ventilated due to poor oxygen saturation, diagnosed to have COVID-19, reduced muscle power in right wrist extensors, hand grip and diaphragm. Method: 30 minutes physiotherapy session, thrice a day for a period of 4 weeks. The vital signs were taken as a primary outcome measure. Medical Research Council muscle power grading and Hughes functional grading scale were taken as secondary outcomes. All the outcome measures were assessed for 4 weeks. Results: The 4 weeks of physiotherapy program show significant improvements on health status, muscle power, and functional status of an AMSAN patient with COVID 19. Conclusion: From the results, it can be concluded that physiotherapy will be beneficial in AMSAN patients with COVID-19 in Intensive care units and further studies have to declare evidence-based practice.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Humans , Male , Adult , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Hand Strength , Pandemics
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