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1.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
3.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 797-801, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432669

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an ascending demyelinating polyneuropathy often associated with recent infection. Miller Fisher syndrome represents a variant with predominant facial and cranial nerve involvement, although Miller Fisher and Guillain-Barré overlap syndromes can occur. Guillain-Barré spectrum syndromes have been thought to be rare among solid organ transplant recipients. We describe an immunocompromised patient with a liver transplant who presented with ophthalmoplegia and bulbar deficits. His symptoms rapidly progressed to a state of descending paralysis involving the diaphragm; he then developed acute respiratory failure and eventually developed quadriparesis. Electromyography and a nerve conduction study demonstrated a severe sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy consistent with Miller Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome. Despite several negative nasopharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction, a serology for SARS-CoV-2 IgG was positive. He was diagnosed with Miller Fisher-Guillain-Barré overlap syndrome with rapid recovery following treatment with plasma exchange. Although Guillain-Barré is a rare complication in solid organ transplant recipients, this case highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of neurologic complications in transplant patients. Furthermore, it demonstrates a possible case of neurological complications from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/immunology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Miller Fisher Syndrome/therapy , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
4.
Med Hypotheses ; 145: 110342, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1386307

ABSTRACT

This study aimed at identifying human neural proteins that can be attacked by cross-reacting SARS-COV-2 antibodies causing Guillain-Barré syndrome. These markers can be used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To achieve this goal, proteins implicated in the development of GBS were retrieved from literature. These human proteins were compared to SARS-COV-2 surface proteins to identify homologous sequences using Blastp. Then, MHC-I and MHC-II epitopes were determined in the homologous sequences and used for further analysis. Similar human and SARS-COV-2 epitopes were docked to the corresponding MHC molecule to compare the binding pattern of human and SARS-COV-2 proteins to the MHC molecule. Neural cell adhesion molecule is the only neural protein that showed homologous sequence to SARS-COV-2 envelope protein. The homologous sequence was part of HLA-A68 and HLA-DQA/HLA-DQB epitopes had a similar binding pattern to SARS-COV-2 envelope protein. Based on these results, the study suggests that NCAM may play a significant role in the immunopathogenesis of GBS. NCAM antibodies can be used as a marker for Guillain-Barré syndrome. However, more experimental studies are needed to prove these results.


Subject(s)
CD56 Antigen/chemistry , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/chemistry , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Amino Acid Motifs , COVID-19/immunology , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Crystallography, X-Ray , Epitopes/chemistry , HLA-A Antigens/chemistry , HLA-DQ alpha-Chains/chemistry , HLA-DQ beta-Chains/chemistry , Humans , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Models, Theoretical , Peptides/chemistry , Protein Binding
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(6): e236-e239, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203763

ABSTRACT

Neurologic manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children is evolving with time. We are reporting a young girl who presented to us with acute febrile illness followed by acute onset severe flaccid paralysis requiring prolonged intensive care unit stay and ventilator support. She was evaluated extensively and found to be positive for COVID serology, and neuroimaging revealed features of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) with enhancing cauda equina nerve roots, suggesting Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). She failed to respond to immune suppressive therapy and needed plasma exchange for recovery. Like other common viral illnesses, COVID-19 can also act as a trigger for GBS-like illness and LETM, and we need to suspect these diagnoses in the cases with COVID-19 infection in compatible cases. This is probably the first pediatric case with concurrent GBS and LETM secondary to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Myelitis, Transverse/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Rev Neurol ; 72(6): 203-212, 2021 03 16.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1134737

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is a major worldwide health disorder. There is an increasing number of neurological complications recognized with COVID-19 including patients with GBS and its variants. DEVELOPMENT: A review of the clinical cases of GBS associated to COVID-19 infection published in the last months has been developed. We included 48 patients (31 men, mean age 56.4 years). The most common COVID-19 symptoms were cough (60.4%) and fever (56.3%). Mean time from COVID-19 symptoms to neurologic manifestations was 12.1 days, but in nine patients (18.8%) developed GBS within seven days. Eleven patients (22.9%) presented cranial nerve involvement in the absence of muscle weakness; 36 presented the classic sensory motor variant (75%) and one had a pure motor variant (2.1%). The electrodiagnostic pattern was considered demyelinating in 82.4% of the generalized variants. The presence of hyposmia/dysgeusia was associated with a latency shorter than seven days to GBS onset of symptoms (30% vs 15.6%), and cranial nerve involvement in the absence of weakness (30.8% vs 17.1%). Most patients (87.5%) were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin. Neurological outcome was favorable in 64.6%; 29.2% had respiratory failure and 4.2% died shortly after being admitted. CONCLUSIONS: GBS in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection resembles clinically and electrophysiology the classical forms. Further studies are necessary to understand whether GBS frequency is actually increased due to SARS-CoV-2 infection and explore pathogenic mechanisms.


TITLE: Síndrome de Guillain-Barré asociado a infección por COVID-19: revisión de casos publicados.Introducción. La pandemia por la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) es un importante problema para la salud mundial. Hay un incremento en las complicaciones neurológicas reconocidas por la COVID-19, incluyendo el síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) y sus variantes. Desarrollo. Se realizó una revisión de los casos publicados en los últimos meses de SGB asociado a infección por COVID-19. Incluimos a 48 pacientes (31 hombres; edad media: 56,4 años). Los síntomas de COVID-19 más comunes fueron tos (60,4%) y fiebre (56,3%). El tiempo promedio entre los síntomas de COVID-19 y el SGB fue de 12,1 días, pero nueve pacientes (18,8%) desarrollaron SGB en menos de siete días. Once pacientes (22,9%) presentaron afectación de los nervios craneales en ausencia de debilidad muscular, 36 presentaron la variante clásica sensitivomotora (75%) y uno tuvo una variante motora pura (2,1%). El patrón electrofisiológico se consideró desmielinizante en el 82,4% de las variantes generalizadas. La presencia de hiposmia/disgeusia estuvo asociada con una latencia menor a los siete días hasta el inicio de los síntomas del SGB (30 frente a 15,6%) y a la afectación de los nervios craneales en ausencia de debilidad (30,8 frente a 17,1%). La mayoría de los pacientes (87,5%) fueron tratados con inmunoglobulina endovenosa. La evolución neurológica fue favorable en el 64,6%, el 29,2% tuvo insuficiencia respiratoria y hubo un 4,2% de muertes. Conclusiones. El SGB en pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 es similar clínica y electrofisiológicamente a las formas clásicas. Se requieren más estudios para comprender si la frecuencia del SGB realmente aumentó debido a la pandemia por COVID-19 y explorar los mecanismos patógenos involucrados.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/etiology , Autoantibodies/blood , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , Cranial Nerve Diseases/etiology , Dysgeusia/etiology , Female , Gangliosides/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Plasmapheresis , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Symptom Assessment , Treatment Outcome , Young Adult
10.
Neurol Sci ; 41(12): 3391-3394, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-815976

ABSTRACT

We report the clinical and immunological features in a case of SARS-CoV-2-induced Guillain-Barré syndrome (Si-GBS), suggesting that (1) Si-GBS can develop even after paucisymptomatic COVID-19 infection; (2) a distinctive cytokine repertoire is associated with this autoimmune complication, with increased CSF concentration of IL-8, and moderately increased serum levels of IL-6, IL-8, and TNF-α; (3) a particular genetic predisposition can be relevant, since the patient carried several HLA alleles known to be associated with GBS, including distinctive class I (HLA-A33) and class II alleles (DRB1*03:01 and DQB1*05:01). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of GBS in which SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were detected in the CSF, further strengthening the role of the virus as a trigger. In conclusion, our study suggests that SARS-CoV-2 antibodies need to be searched in the serum and CSF in patients with GBS living in endemic areas, even in the absence of a clinically severe COVID-19 infection, and that IL-8 pathway can be relevant in Si-GBS pathogenesis. Further studies are needed to conclude on the relevance of the genetic findings, but it is likely that HLA plays a role in this setting as in other autoimmune neurological syndromes, including those triggered by infections.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/genetics , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Autoantibodies/immunology , Autoantigens/immunology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cytokines/immunology , Genotype , HLA Antigens/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Neurol Neuroimmunol Neuroinflamm ; 7(5)2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-810332

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To present the COVID-19-associated GBS, the prototypic viral-triggered autoimmune disease, in the context of other emerging COVID-19-triggered autoimmunities, and discuss potential concerns with ongoing neuroimmunotherapies. METHODS: Eleven GBS cases in four key COVID-19 hotspots are discussed regarding presenting symptoms, response to therapies and cross-reactivity of COVID spike proteins with nerve glycolipids. Emerging cases of COVID-19-triggered autoimmune necrotizing myositis (NAM) and encephalopathies are also reviewed in the context of viral invasion, autoimmunity and ongoing immunotherapies. RESULTS: Collective data indicate that in this pandemic any patient presenting with an acute paralytic disease-like GBS, encephalomyelitis or myositis-even without systemic symptoms, may represent the first manifestation of COVID-19. Anosmia, ageusia, other cranial neuropathies and lymphocytopenia are red flags enhancing early diagnostic suspicion. In Miller-Fisher Syndrome, ganglioside antibodies against GD1b, instead of QG1b, were found; because the COVID-19 spike protein also binds to sialic acid-containing glycoproteins for cell-entry and anti-GD1b antibodies typically cause ataxic neuropathy, cross-reactivity between COVID-19-bearing gangliosides and peripheral nerve glycolipids was addressed. Elevated Creatine Kinase (>10,000) is reported in 10% of COVID-19-infected patients; two such patients presented with painful muscle weakness responding to IVIg indicating that COVID-19-triggered NAM is an overlooked entity. Cases of acute necrotizing brainstem encephalitis, cranial neuropathies with leptomeningeal enhancement, and tumefactive postgadolinium-enhanced demyelinating lesions are now emerging with the need to explore neuroinvasion and autoimmunity. Concerns for modifications-if any-of chronic immunotherapies with steroids, mycophenolate, azathioprine, IVIg, and anti-B-cell agents were addressed; the role of complement in innate immunity to viral responses and anti-complement therapeutics (i.e. eculizumab) were reviewed. CONCLUSIONS: Emerging data indicate that COVID-19 can trigger not only GBS but other autoimmune neurological diseases necessitating vigilance for early diagnosis and therapy initiation. Although COVID-19 infection, like most other viruses, can potentially worsen patients with pre-existing autoimmunity, there is no evidence that patients with autoimmune neurological diseases stable on common immunotherapies are facing increased risks of infection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Myositis/diagnosis , Myositis/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/diagnosis , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases of the Nervous System/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Male , Myositis/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Mol Neurobiol ; 57(12): 5263-5275, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-738570

ABSTRACT

Similar to its predecessors, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) exhibits neurotrophic properties, which lead to progression of neurologic sequelae. Besides direct viral invasion to the central nervous system (CNS), indirect CNS involvement through viral-mediated immune response is plausible. Aberrant immune pathways such as extreme release of cytokines (cytokine storm), autoimmunity mediated by cross-reactivity between CNS components and viral particles, and microglial activation propagate CNS damage in these patients. Here, we review the currently available evidence to discuss the plausible immunologic pathways that may contribute to the development of COVID-19 neurological complications, namely Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Guillain-Barre syndrome, seizure, and brainstem involvement.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain Stem/physiopathology , Brain Stem/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/etiology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Disease Outbreaks , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Mice , Multiple Sclerosis/etiology , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Nerve Tissue Proteins/physiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/etiology , Neurodegenerative Diseases/immunology , Neuroglia/pathology , Neuroglia/virology , Neurons/pathology , Neurons/virology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/physiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Receptors, Virus/physiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/etiology , Seizures/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/complications , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/immunology
13.
Rheumatol Int ; 40(10): 1539-1554, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646938

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is likely to pose new challenges to the rheumatology community in the near and distant future. Some of the challenges, like the severity of COVID-19 among patients on immunosuppressive agents, are predictable and are being evaluated with great care and effort across the globe. A few others, such as atypical manifestations of COVID-19 mimicking rheumatic musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs) are being reported. Like in many other viral infections, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection can potentially lead to an array of rheumatological and autoimmune manifestations by molecular mimicry (cross-reacting epitope between the virus and the host), bystander killing (virus-specific CD8 + T cells migrating to the target tissues and exerting cytotoxicity), epitope spreading, viral persistence (polyclonal activation due to the constant presence of viral antigens driving immune-mediated injury) and formation of neutrophil extracellular traps. In addition, the myriad of antiviral drugs presently being tried in the treatment of COVID-19 can result in several rheumatic musculoskeletal adverse effects. In this review, we have addressed the possible spectrum and mechanisms of various autoimmune and rheumatic musculoskeletal manifestations that can be precipitated by COVID-19 infection, its therapy, and the preventive strategies to contain the infection.


Subject(s)
Autoimmune Diseases/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Rheumatic Diseases/physiopathology , Antibodies, Antinuclear/immunology , Antibodies, Antiphospholipid/immunology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Arthralgia/etiology , Arthralgia/immunology , Arthralgia/physiopathology , Autoimmune Diseases/etiology , Autoimmune Diseases/immunology , Betacoronavirus , Blood Coagulation Disorders/etiology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/immunology , Blood Coagulation Disorders/physiopathology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Cross Reactions/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Lupus Coagulation Inhibitor/immunology , Molecular Mimicry , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/etiology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/immunology , Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Muscle Weakness/immunology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/etiology , Musculoskeletal Diseases/immunology , Myalgia/etiology , Myalgia/immunology , Myalgia/physiopathology , Myocarditis/etiology , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Rheumatic Diseases/etiology , Rheumatic Diseases/immunology , SARS-CoV-2
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