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1.
J Korean Med Sci ; 37(7): e58, 2022 Feb 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1704893

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated acute polyradiculoneuropathy and commonly occurs after a preceding infection or immunization sequalae. Following the severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 virus pandemic with co-introduction of massive vaccinations, several GBS cases associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection per se or after vaccination for COVID-19 were reported internationally. Herein, we report two cases of Korean GBS presenting with tetraplegia after two different COVID-19 vaccinations (42-year old man by AstraZeneca and 48-year woman by Pfizer vaccines) within four weeks after vaccination. The patients were diagnosed with clinical examination, serial electromyography, and compatible laboratory results and improved after comprehensive rehabilitative treatment and intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Furthermore, we performed an electrodiagnostic follow-up study of each case to examine their unique characteristics.


Subject(s)
/adverse effects , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Quadriplegia/pathology , Vaccination/adverse effects , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Electromyography , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/rehabilitation , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , Quadriplegia/rehabilitation , Quadriplegia/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
2.
Front Immunol ; 12: 674922, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1607886

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the world has been facing an outbreak of a new disease called coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). The COVID-19 pandemic is caused by a novel beta-coronavirus named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The SARS-CoV-2 infection mainly affects the respiratory system. Recently, there have been some reports of extra-respiratory symptoms such as neurological manifestations in COVID-19. According to the increasing reports of Guillain-Barré syndrome following COVID-19, we mainly focused on SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome in this review. We tried to explain the possibility of a relationship between SARS-CoV-2 infection and Guillain-Barré syndrome and potential pathogenic mechanisms based on current and past knowledge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Nervous System Diseases/pathology , Virulence
4.
Neurosci Lett ; 759: 136040, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322284

ABSTRACT

Despite a likely underestimation due to the many obstacles of the highly infectious, intensive care setting, increasing clinical reports about COVID-19 patients developing acute paralysis for polyradiculoneuritis or myelitis determine additional impact on the disease course and outcome. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated basing on clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging features, and response to treatments. Here we provide an overview with insights built on the available reports. Besides direct viral pathogenicity, a crucial role seems to be represented by immune-mediated mechanisms, supporting and further characterizing the already hypothesized neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and implying specific treatments. Proper clinical and instrumental depiction of symptomatic cases, as well as screening for their early recognition is advocated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Myelitis/epidemiology , Myelitis/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Myelitis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Lancet ; 397(10280): 1214-1228, 2021 03 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1182740

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Most patients present with an antecedent illness, most commonly upper respiratory tract infection, before the onset of progressive motor weakness. Several microorganisms have been associated with Guillain-Barré syndrome, most notably Campylobacter jejuni, Zika virus, and in 2020, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2. In C jejuni-related Guillain-Barré syndrome, there is good evidence to support an autoantibody-mediated immune process that is triggered by molecular mimicry between structural components of peripheral nerves and the microorganism. Making a diagnosis of so-called classical Guillain-Barré syndrome is straightforward; however, the existing diagnostic criteria have limitations and can result in some variants of the syndrome being missed. Most patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome do well with immunotherapy, but a substantial proportion are left with disability, and death can occur. Results from the International Guillain-Barré Syndrome Outcome Study suggest that geographical variations exist in Guillain-Barré syndrome, including insufficient access to immunotherapy in low-income countries. There is a need to provide improved access to treatment for all patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, and to develop effective disease-modifying therapies that can limit the extent of nerve injury. Clinical trials are currently underway to investigate some of the potential therapeutic candidates, including complement inhibitors, which, together with emerging data from large international collaborative studies on the syndrome, will contribute substantially to understanding the many facets of this disease.


Subject(s)
Disease Management , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Immunotherapy , Prognosis
6.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 797-799, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070964

ABSTRACT

There is concern that the global burden of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection might yield an increased occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). It is currently unknown whether concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection and GBS are pathophysiologically related, what biomarkers are useful for diagnosis, and what is the optimal treatment given the medical comorbidities, complications, and simultaneous infection. We report a patient who developed severe GBS following SARS-CoV-2 infection at the peak of the initial COVID-19 surge (April 2020) in New York City and discuss diagnostic and management issues and complications that may warrant special consideration in similar patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Hyponatremia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hyponatremia/pathology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/virology , New York City , Pandemics , Plasmapheresis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 619-630, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728290

ABSTRACT

The recent pandemic outbreak of coronavirus is pathogenic and a highly transmittable viral infection caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2). In this time of ongoing pandemic, many emerging reports suggested that the SARS-CoV-2 has inimical effects on neurological functions, and even causes serious neurological damage. The neurological symptoms associated with COVID-19 include headache, dizziness, depression, anosmia, encephalitis, stroke, epileptic seizures, and Guillain-Barre syndrome along with many others. The involvement of the CNS may be related with poor prognosis and disease worsening. Here, we review the evidence of nervous system involvement and currently known neurological manifestations in COVID-19 infections caused by SARS-CoV-2. We prioritize the 332 human targets of SARS-CoV-2 according to their association with brain-related disease and identified 73 candidate genes. We prioritize these 73 genes according to their spatio-temporal expression in the different regions of brain and also through evolutionary intolerance analysis. The prioritized genes could be considered potential indicators of COVID-19-associated neurological symptoms and thus act as a possible therapeutic target for the prevention and treatment of CNS manifestations associated with COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Brain/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Nerve Tissue Proteins/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics , Brain/pathology , Brain/virology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Depression , Dizziness/complications , Dizziness/genetics , Dizziness/pathology , Dizziness/virology , Encephalitis/complications , Encephalitis/genetics , Encephalitis/pathology , Encephalitis/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/genetics , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Headache/complications , Headache/genetics , Headache/pathology , Headache/virology , Humans , Nerve Tissue Proteins/classification , Nerve Tissue Proteins/metabolism , Olfaction Disorders/complications , Olfaction Disorders/genetics , Olfaction Disorders/pathology , Olfaction Disorders/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Interaction Mapping , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/complications , Seizures/genetics , Seizures/pathology , Seizures/virology , Severity of Illness Index , Stroke/complications , Stroke/genetics , Stroke/pathology , Stroke/virology , Viral Proteins/metabolism
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