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1.
Rev Neurol ; 73(9): 315-320, 2021 11 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1634849

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: To describe clinical characteristics and electrophysiological variants of GBS cases during the pandemic, we carried out a comparative analysis between SARS-CoV2 related GBS and non-SARS-CoV2 patients and then compared to the 2019 cases. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We carried out a cross-sectional study of GBS patients diagnosed according to Asbury and Cornblath criteria. We collected information on clinical and paraclinical variables. We defined a SARS-CoV-2 related GBS case according to the description of Ellul et al. We used Hadden criteria to classify the electrophysiological variants. We performed a comparative analysis between groups. RESULTS: Fourty-two patients were diagnosed with GBS in 2020, men 64.2%, age 46 ± 17.4 years, patients with obesity/overweight 42.8%, previous diarrhea 31%, history of respiratory tract infection 14.2%. Guillain Barre Disability Scale = 3 points 71.4% and, cranial nerve involvement 69%. The most frequent electrophysiological variant was acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) 53.5%. Seven (16.6%) cases were SARS-CoV2 related, four men, age 43.4 ± 13.4 years. When comparing patients with GBS in 2020 vs patients in 2019, we observed a decrease in the previous infection history during 2020 (45.2% vs 73.3%, p-value = 0.005) and a decrease in previous respiratory infection (14.2% vs 33.3%, p = 0.045), as well as a higher frequency of cranial nerve involvement, and albuminocytologic dissociation. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV2 virus infection preventive measures may be impacting the presentation of post-infectious diseases such as GBS. We did not observe an increase in GBS cases during 2020. Also, the AIDP variant were more frequent in our population in the COVID-19 pandemic.


Síndrome de Guillain-Barré durante la pandemia de COVID-19: experiencia de un centro de referencia en México.Introducción. Se trata de describir las características clínicas y variantes electrofisiológicas de los casos de síndrome de Guillain-Barré (SGB) durante la pandemia. Llevamos a cabo un análisis comparativo entre pacientes con SGB relacionado con el SARS-CoV-2 y sin antecedente del virus, y posteriormente realizamos una comparación con los casos de 2019. Pacientes y métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio transversal de los pacientes con diagnóstico de SGB según los criterios de Asbury y Cornblath. Se recolectaron información clínica y variables paraclínicas. Definimos el SGB relacionado con el SARS-CoV-2 conforme a la descripción de Ellul et al. Se utilizaron los criterios de Hadden para la clasificación de las variantes electrofisiológicas. Por último, realizamos un análisis comparativo entre grupos. Resultados. Se diagnosticó a 42 pacientes con SGB en 2020, un 64,2% hombres, con una edad de 46 ± 17,4 años, un 42,8% con obesidad/sobrepeso, un 31% con historia de diarrea previa y un 14,2% con infección respiratoria previa. El 71,4% tuvo una puntuación en la Guillain-Barré Disability Score igual o mayor que 3 puntos y el 69% tenía afectados los nervios del cráneo. La variante electrofisiológica más común fue la polirradiculoneuropatía desmielinizante inflamatoria aguda (PDIA; 53,5%). Siete (16,6%) casos tuvieron relación con el SARS-CoV-2, cuatro hombres, con edad de 43,4 ± 13,4 años. Al realizar la comparación entre pacientes con SGB de 2020 frente a los de 2019, observamos un decremento en el antecedente de infección previa en 2020 (45,2 frente a 73,3%; p = 0,005) y un decremento específico en la historia de infección respiratoria (14,2 frente a 33,3%; p = 0,045), así como una mayor frecuencia de afectación de los nervios del cráneo y de disociación albuminocitológica. Conclusiones. Las maniobras preventivas para la infección por el SARS-CoV-2 impactan directamente en la presentación de enfermedades postinfecciosas como el SGB. No observamos un incremento en los casos de SGB durante 2020. Asimismo, la variante de PDIA fue la más frecuente en nuestra población durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Health Facilities , Humans , Male , Mexico , Middle Aged , Referral and Consultation
6.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(9)2020 Sep 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304172

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of COVID-19 are known to be variable with growing evidence of nervous system involvement. In this case report, we describe the symptoms of a patient infected with SARS-CoV-2 whose clinical course was complicated with Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). We present a case of a 58-year-old woman who was initially diagnosed with COVID-19 pneumonia due to symptoms of fever and cough. Two weeks later, after the resolution of upper respiratory tract symptoms, she developed symmetric ascending quadriparesis and paresthesias. The diagnosis of GBS was made through cerebrospinal fluid analysis and she was successfully treated with intravenous immunoglobulin administration.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Low Back Pain/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Analgesics/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Gabapentin/therapeutic use , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Lumbar Vertebrae/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Radiculopathy/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 13(7)2020 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1291917
9.
J Neurol ; 268(4): 1191-1194, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148889

ABSTRACT

Presented herein is a severe case of SARS-CoV-2 associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), showing only slight improvement despite adequate therapy. To date, only few cases of GBS associated with this infection have been described. This case report summarizes the insights gain so far to GBS with this antecedent trigger. So far, attention has mostly focused on complications of the CNS involvement. Taking into account that GBS can cause a considerable impairment of the respiratory system, clinicians dealing with SARS-CoV-2 positive-tested patients should pay attention to symptoms of the peripheral nervous system. As far as we know from this reported case and the review of the current literature, there seems to be no association with antiganglioside antibodies or a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in CSF. An obvious frequent occurrence of a bilateral facial weakness or bilateral peripheral facial diplegia should be emphasized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Neurol ; 21(1): 135, 2021 Mar 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148212

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, different neurological manifestations have been observed. However, only a few cases of Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) and COVID-19 have been reported. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate a case of concomitant GBS with COVID-19 in Colombia. CASE PRESENTATION: A 39-year-old woman was admitted to a teaching hospital in Barranquilla, Colombia with a history of progressive general weakness with lower limb dominance. Previous symptoms such as ageusia, anosmia and intense headache were reported. Upon admission, facial diplegia, quadriparesis with lower extremity predominance and Medical Research Council muscular strength of 2/5 in the lower limbs and 4/5 in the upper limbs were reported. During clinical evolution, due to general areflexia, hypertensive emergency and progressive diaphragmatic weakness, the patient was admitted to an intensive care unit. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis showed protein-cytological dissociation and the GBS diagnosis was confirmed via a nerve conduction and electromyography test. With regard to the symptoms before hospitalisation, SARS-CoV-2 diagnostic testing was performed with positive results in the second test. The patient was managed with supportive care and was discharged after 20 days of hospitalization with clinical improvement. CONCLUSIONS: Only a few cases of COVID-19 with GBS have been reported. Different subtypes have been previously identified, such as Miller-Fisher syndrome and dysautonomic GBS with SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study investigated the first confirmed case of COVID-19 with concomitant GBS in Colombia. In patients with GBS, several viral and bacterial pathogens have been found in case-control studies but the factors that induce the immune-mediated destruction of the nerve tissues have not been determined. Further studies are needed to determine the possible association between COVID-19 exposure and GBS.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Adult , Bell Palsy/diagnosis , Colombia , Electromyography , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Hospitalization , Humans , Neural Conduction , Quadriplegia/diagnosis
12.
Pan Afr Med J ; 35(Suppl 2): 150, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1106496

ABSTRACT

The new coronavirus 2019 epidemic declared in China on December 31, 2019 soon spread to the rest of the world, becoming the subject of an unprecedented health pandemic according to the World Health Organization's declaration of March 11, 2020. It is a disease that has the potential to cause multiple systemic infections. We report here the case of an acute polyradiculoneuritis of the Guillain-Barré type (GBS) indicative of a COVID-19 infection. This is a 41 year old patient seen for ascending, symmetrical and bilateral, progressive and acute tetraparesis with in a context of influenza syndrome and digestive infections treated 2 weeks earlier. During a COVID-19 infection, certain inflammatory cells stimulated by the virus produce inflammatory cytokines creating immune-mediated processes. The same mechanism is observed in GBS being also an immune-mediated disorder. The management of this disease in COVID-19 positive patients does not differ from that of patients who do not carry the virus. The risk of respiratory distress in COVID-19 positive patients becomes twice as great in patients with GBS who test positive for COVID-19 at the same time. Monitoring for hemodynamic disorders and respiratory distress in a neuro-intensive care unit may be fruitful.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Azithromycin/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Chloroquine/adverse effects , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Combined Modality Therapy , Contraindications, Drug , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Early Diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Nasopharynx/virology , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Quadriplegia/etiology , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2 , Urinary Incontinence/etiology
13.
Neuroepidemiology ; 55(2): 109-118, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102234

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can be accompanied by acute neurological complications of both central and peripheral nervous systems (CNS and PNS). In this study, we estimate the frequency of such complications among hospital inpatients with COVID-19 in Assiut and Aswan university hospitals. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We screened all patients with suspected COVID-19 admitted from 1 June to 10 August 2020 to the university hospitals of Assiut and Aswan in Upper Egypt. Clinical and laboratory tests, CT/MRI of the chest and brain, and neurophysiology study were performed for each patient if indicated. RESULTS: 439 patients had confirmed/probable COVID-19; neurological manifestations occurred in 222. Of these, 117 had acute neurological disease and the remainder had nonspecific neuropsychiatric symptoms such as headache, vertigo, and depression. The CNS was affected in 75 patients: 55 had stroke and the others had convulsions (5), encephalitis (6), hypoxic encephalopathy (4), cord myelopathy (2), relapse of multiple sclerosis (2), and meningoencephalitis (1). The PNS was affected in 42 patients: the majority had anosmia and ageusia (31) and the others had Guillain-Barré syndrome (4), peripheral neuropathy (3), myasthenia gravis (MG, 2), or myositis (2). Fever, respiratory symptoms, and headache were the most common general symptoms. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and ischemic heart disease were the most common comorbidities in patients with CNS affection. CONCLUSION: In COVID-19, both the CNS and PNS are affected. Stroke was the most common complication for CNS, and anosmia and/or ageusia were common for PNS diseases. However, there were 6 cases of encephalitis, 2 cases of spinal cord myelopathy, 2 cases of MG, and 2 cases of myositis.


Subject(s)
Anosmia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Central Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/physiopathology , Adult , Aged , Anosmia/epidemiology , Brain/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Central Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Disease Progression , Egypt/epidemiology , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/physiopathology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Hospitals, University , Humans , Hypoxia, Brain/epidemiology , Hypoxia, Brain/physiopathology , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/epidemiology , Multiple Sclerosis, Relapsing-Remitting/physiopathology , Myasthenia Gravis/epidemiology , Myasthenia Gravis/physiopathology , Myositis/epidemiology , Myositis/physiopathology , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Peripheral Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Seizures/epidemiology , Seizures/physiopathology , Spinal Cord/diagnostic imaging , Spinal Cord Diseases/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Diseases/physiopathology , Stroke/diagnosis , Stroke/epidemiology , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Neurophysiol Clin ; 51(2): 183-191, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087170

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess whether patients with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) associated with SARS-CoV-2 show characteristic electrophysiological features. METHODS: Clinical and electrophysiological findings of 24 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and AIDP (S-AIDP) and of 48 control AIDP (C-AIDP) without SARS-CoV-2 infection were compared. RESULTS: S-AIDP patients more frequently developed respiratory failure (83.3% vs. 25%, P=0.000) and required intensive care unit (ICU) hospitalization (58.3% vs. 31.3%, P=0.000). In C-AIDP, distal motor latencies (DMLs) were more frequently prolonged (70.9% vs. 26.2%, P=0.000) whereas in S-AIDP distal compound muscle action potential (dCMAP) durations were more frequently increased (49.5% vs. 32.4%, P=0.002) and F waves were more often absent (45.6% vs. 31.8%, P=0.011). Presence of nerves with increased dCMAP duration and normal or slightly prolonged DML was elevenfold higher in S-AIDP (31.1% vs. 2.8%, P=0.000);11 S-AIDP patients showed this pattern in 2 nerves. CONCLUSION: Increased dCMAP duration, thought to be a marker of acquired demyelination, can also be oserved in critical illness myopathy. In S-AIDP patients, an increased dCMAP duration dissociated from prolonged DML, suggests additional muscle fiber conduction slowing, possibly due to a COVID-19-related hyperinflammatory state. Absent F waves, at least in some S-AIDP patients, may reflect α-motor neuron hypoexcitability because of immobilization during the ICU stay. These features should be considered in the electrodiagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 patients with weakness, to avoid misdiagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Action Potentials , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Electrodiagnosis , Electrophysiological Phenomena , Female , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Motor Neurons , Muscle, Skeletal/physiopathology , Neural Conduction , Respiratory Insufficiency/etiology , Sensory Receptor Cells
15.
Ann Neurol ; 89(3): 598-603, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086259

ABSTRACT

We diagnosed 11 Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) cases among 71,904 COVID patients attended at 61 Spanish emergency departments (EDs) during the 2-month pandemic peak. The relative frequency of GBS among ED patients was higher in COVID (0.15‰) than non-COVID (0.02‰) patients (odds ratio [OR] = 6.30, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.18-12.5), as was the standardized incidence (9.44 and 0.69 cases/100,000 inhabitant-years, respectively, OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 9.87-18.4). Regarding clinical characteristics, olfactory-gustatory disorders were more frequent in COVID-GBS than non-COVID-GBS (OR = 27.59, 95% CI = 1.296-587) and COVID-non-GBS (OR = 7.875, 95% CI = 1.587-39.09) patients. Although COVID-GBS patients were more frequently admitted to intensive care, mortality was not increased versus control groups. Our results suggest SARS-CoV-2 could be another viral infection causing GBS. ANN NEUROL 2021;89:598-603.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Olfaction Disorders/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Case-Control Studies , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Olfaction Disorders/etiology , Olfaction Disorders/physiopathology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain/epidemiology , Taste Disorders/etiology , Taste Disorders/physiopathology
16.
Neurol Sci ; 42(2): 607-612, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051353

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the infectious agent responsible for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Respiratory and gastrointestinal manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 are well described, less defined is the clinical neurological spectrum of COVID-19. We reported a case of COVID-19 patient with acute monophasic Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), and a literature review on the SARS-CoV-2 and GBS etiological correlation. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 68 years-old man presented to the emergency department with symptoms of acute progressive symmetric ascending flaccid tetraparesis. Oropharyngeal swab for SARS-CoV-2 tested positive. Neurological examination showed bifacial nerve palsy and distal muscular weakness of lower limbs. The cerebrospinal fluid assessment showed an albuminocytologic dissociation. Electrophysiological studies showed delayed distal latencies and absent F waves in early course. A diagnosis of Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP) subtype of GBS was then made. CONCLUSIONS: Neurological manifestations of COVID-19 are still under study. The case we described of GBS in COVID-19 patient adds to those already reported in the literature, in support of SARS-CoV-2 triggers GBS. COVID-19 associated neurological clinic should probably be seen not as a corollary of classic respiratory and gastrointestinal symptoms, but as SARS-CoV-2-related standalone clinical entities. To date, it is essential for all Specialists, clinicians and surgeons, to direct attention towards the study of this virus, to better clarify the spectrum of its neurological manifestations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Quadriplegia/etiology , Acute Disease , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Male , Quadriplegia/diagnosis , Quadriplegia/physiopathology
17.
J Neuroimmune Pharmacol ; 16(1): 48-58, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1037278

ABSTRACT

Declared as a global public health emergency, coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is presented as a disease of the respiratory tract, although severe cases can affect the entire organism. Several studies have shown neurological symptoms, ranging from dizziness and loss of consciousness to cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. In this context, Guillain-Barré syndrome, an immune-mediated inflammatory neuropathy, has been closely associated with critical cases of infection with "severe acute respiratory syndrome of coronavirus 2" (SARS-CoV-2), the etiological agent of COVID-19. Its pathophysiology is related to a generalized inflammation that affects the nervous system, but neurotropism was also revealed by the new coronavirus, which may increase the risk of neurological sequel, as well as the mortality of the disease. Thus, considering the comorbidities that SARS-CoV-2 infection can promote, the modulation of purinergic signaling can be applied as a potential therapy. In this perspective, given the role of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in neural intercommunication, the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) acts on microglia cells and its inhibition may be able to reduce the inflammatory condition of neurodegenerative diseases. Finally, alternative measures to circumvent the reality of the COVID-19 pandemic need to be considered, given the severity of critical cases and the viral involvement of multiple organs.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate , COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Receptors, Purinergic , Signal Transduction , Humans , Receptors, Purinergic P2X7
18.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(1)2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1035259

ABSTRACT

We describe a case of delayed onset, acute demyelinating neuropathy secondary to novel SARS-CoV-2 infection. A previously healthy 46-year-old man presented with bilateral leg pain and loss of sensation in his feet 53 days after having COVID-19 pneumonitis. He developed painful sensory symptoms followed by a rapidly progressive lower motor neuron weakness involving all limbs, face and respiratory muscles, needing ventilatory support. In keeping with a diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome, cerebrospinal fluid examination showed albuminocytologic dissociation and nerve conduction studies supported the diagnosis of an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy. The delayed neurological dysfunction seen in our patient following SARS-CoV-2 infection may indicate a novel mechanism of disease that is part of the emerging 'long COVID-19 syndrome'.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Muscle Weakness/physiopathology , Neuralgia/physiopathology , Paresthesia/physiopathology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Electrodiagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Late Onset Disorders , Male , Middle Aged , Neural Conduction , Noninvasive Ventilation , SARS-CoV-2 , Time Factors
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