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2.
Tuberk Toraks ; 69(2): 242-246, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1444456

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, typically presents with respiratory symptoms and fever, but still a variety of clinical presentations have been reported. In this study, it was aimed to report a case of COVID-19 with an atypical presentation and an atypical course. As well, the recovery phase was complicated with GBS and consequently cytomegalovirus infection. It should be kept in mind that patients with COVID-19 severe disease need to be followed for neurological and other complications which may arise during the course of critical illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnosis, Differential , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Turkey/epidemiology
3.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 797-801, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1432669

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an ascending demyelinating polyneuropathy often associated with recent infection. Miller Fisher syndrome represents a variant with predominant facial and cranial nerve involvement, although Miller Fisher and Guillain-Barré overlap syndromes can occur. Guillain-Barré spectrum syndromes have been thought to be rare among solid organ transplant recipients. We describe an immunocompromised patient with a liver transplant who presented with ophthalmoplegia and bulbar deficits. His symptoms rapidly progressed to a state of descending paralysis involving the diaphragm; he then developed acute respiratory failure and eventually developed quadriparesis. Electromyography and a nerve conduction study demonstrated a severe sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy consistent with Miller Fisher variant Guillain-Barré syndrome. Despite several negative nasopharyngeal swabs for COVID-19 polymerase chain reaction, a serology for SARS-CoV-2 IgG was positive. He was diagnosed with Miller Fisher-Guillain-Barré overlap syndrome with rapid recovery following treatment with plasma exchange. Although Guillain-Barré is a rare complication in solid organ transplant recipients, this case highlights the importance of rapid diagnosis and treatment of neurologic complications in transplant patients. Furthermore, it demonstrates a possible case of neurological complications from COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/immunology , Miller Fisher Syndrome/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Immunocompromised Host , Liver Transplantation , Male , Middle Aged , Miller Fisher Syndrome/therapy , Plasmapheresis , SARS-CoV-2 , Transplant Recipients
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(9): 5432-5437, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363681

ABSTRACT

This case series describes three patients affected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, who developed polyradiculoneuritis as a probable neurological complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). A diagnosis of Guillain Barré syndrome was made on the basis of clinical symptoms, cerebrospinal fluid analysis, and electroneurography. In all of them, the therapeutic approach included the administration of intravenous immunoglobulin (0.4 gr/kg for 5 days), which resulted in the improvement of neurological symptoms. Clinical neurophysiology revealed the presence of conduction block, absence of F waves, and in two cases, a significant decrease in amplitude of compound motor action potential cMAP. Due to the potential role of inflammation on symptoms development and prognosis, interleukin-6 (IL-6) and IL-8 levels were measured in serum and cerebrospinal fluid during the acute phase, while only serum was tested after recovery. Both IL-6 and IL-8 were found increased during the acute phase, both in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid, whereas 4 months after admission (at complete recovery), only IL-8 remained elevated in the serum. These results confirm the inflammatory response that might be linked to peripheral nervous system complications and encourage the use of IL-6 and IL-8 as prognostic biomarkers in COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Interleukin-8/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Action Potentials/drug effects , Acute Disease , Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Biomarkers/blood , Biomarkers/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Convalescence , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/cerebrospinal fluid , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-8/blood , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Male , Neural Conduction/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/drug effects , Peripheral Nervous System/pathology , Peripheral Nervous System/virology , Prognosis , Respiratory Insufficiency/cerebrospinal fluid , Respiratory Insufficiency/drug therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
6.
J Neurovirol ; 27(4): 662-665, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1338290

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a peripheral nervous system disease caused by an immune-mediated inflammatory mechanism, usually triggered by a previous infectious process or vaccine; its typical presentation is a rapid and progressive bilateral limb hyposthenia, associated with sensory deficits and reduction or absence of osteotendinous reflexes. However, also autonomic nervous system can be involved with heart rate fluctuations, blood pressure instability, pupillary dysfunction, and urinary retention. Since the beginning of COVID-19 pandemic, GBS has been reported among neurological complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection, although etiopathological mechanisms still have to be clearly defined. We report the case of a 79-year-old man with multiple comorbidities, including diabetes, who was affected by SARS-CoV-2 interstitial pneumonia and developed dysautonomic symptoms after 10 days of hospitalization. A neurological evaluation was performed, and GBS was considered as a possible cause of the clinical manifestations. This hypothesis was confirmed by electrophysiological study and further supported, ex-juvantibus, by the satisfactory response to immunoglobulin treatment. In our opinion, this case of pure dysautonomic presentation of GBS in a SARS-CoV-2 positive patient is relevant because it suggests to consider GBS upon SARS-CoV-2 infection even if the symptoms have uncommon characteristics (e.g., pure vegetative manifestations) and if there are confounding factors which could lead to a misdiagnosis (e.g., old age, SARS-CoV-2 infection consequences and diabetes).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Primary Dysautonomias/virology , Aged , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Humans , Male , Primary Dysautonomias/etiology , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Neurosci Lett ; 759: 136040, 2021 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322284

ABSTRACT

Despite a likely underestimation due to the many obstacles of the highly infectious, intensive care setting, increasing clinical reports about COVID-19 patients developing acute paralysis for polyradiculoneuritis or myelitis determine additional impact on the disease course and outcome. Different pathogenic mechanisms have been postulated basing on clinical, laboratory and neuroimaging features, and response to treatments. Here we provide an overview with insights built on the available reports. Besides direct viral pathogenicity, a crucial role seems to be represented by immune-mediated mechanisms, supporting and further characterizing the already hypothesized neurotropic potential of SARS-CoV-2 and implying specific treatments. Proper clinical and instrumental depiction of symptomatic cases, as well as screening for their early recognition is advocated.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Myelitis/epidemiology , Myelitis/virology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Humans , Myelitis/pathology , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Neuroimmunol ; 357: 577605, 2021 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313260

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an immune-mediated peripheral neuropathy characterized by a typical post-infectious profile. Some post-Zika virus and post-severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus-2 GBS cases have been reported to occur with very short intervals between the infection and GBS onset. Evaluating 161 GBS patients consecutively admitted to two Italian Regional Hospitals between 2003 and 2019, we found that the only three with an antecedent influenza A (H1N1) virus infection developed GBS within an interval of less than 10 days from the influenza illness. The two of them with a demyelinating subtype promptly recovered without therapy. Overall, the parainfectious cases add heterogeneity to the GBS category, warranting pathogenetic insights.


Subject(s)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/etiology , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/isolation & purification , Influenza, Human/complications , Influenza, Human/diagnosis , Adolescent , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged
10.
J Neurovirol ; 27(5): 802-805, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1245766

ABSTRACT

Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is spreading around the world. Patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) typically present fever, cough, and respiratory illnesses. It has been revealed that the comorbidities can turn it into severe types, and the managements meet unpredicted complications. Here, we report a case of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) coincidence with confirmed acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). Ten days after admission and therapeutic process, the patient developed autonomic dysfunction. Despite respiratory support and receiving intravenous immunoglobulin, the patient died due to cardiac arrest. Albeit it is yet scientifically doubtful, there are raising concerns toward a possible association between GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection, demonstrating potential neurological symptoms of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Aged , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
11.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(7): e274-e276, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1228550

ABSTRACT

Underlying mechanisms on the association between severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and neurologic complications are still poorly understood. Cases of Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS) have been linked to the SARS-CoV-2 infection as the result of dysregulated immune response with damage in neuronal tissues. In the current report, we present the first pediatric case of GBS with detection of SARS-CoV-2 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CFS). This unique case of COVID-19-associated GBS with detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the CSF indicates direct viral involvement inducing peripheral nerve inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/cerebrospinal fluid , COVID-19/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Adolescent , COVID-19/complications , Cauda Equina/diagnostic imaging , Cauda Equina/pathology , Cauda Equina/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Inflammation/virology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
J Neuroimmunol ; 356: 577590, 2021 07 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1217589

ABSTRACT

A 50-years old male presented with quadriplegia and paresthesia and was diagnosed as Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). He was found positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) six weeks prior to the onset of weakness. GBS disability score was 4. Electrophysiology showed acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculopathy. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG was found positive. Immunological tests for Campylobacter jejuni, Zika virus, Hepatitis E virus, Herpes Simplex virus, Haemophilus influanzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae were negative. Patient received standard dose of intravenous immunoglobulin and after six months had almost complete recovery of muscle power. This case represents possible association of SARS-CoV-2 infection and GBS with good clinical outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Follow-Up Studies , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/drug therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Time
13.
J Med Case Rep ; 15(1): 219, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1208393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a global pandemic. The disease, typically characterized by bilateral pulmonary infiltrates and profound elevation of inflammatory markers, can range in severity from mild or asymptomatic illness to a lethal cytokine storm and respiratory failure. A number of recognized complications of COVID-19 infection are described in the literature. Common neurological complications include headache and anosmia. Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is an uncommon complication described in isolated case reports. However, a causal relationship has yet to be established. This case report adds to the growing body of evidence that GBS is a potential COVID-19 complication. CASE PRESENTATION: A 70-year-old Caucasian woman with recently diagnosed COVID-19 infection presented to the emergency department with 4 days of gradually worsening ascending lower extremity weakness. Exam revealed bilateral lower extremity weakness, mute reflexes, and sensory loss. Soon after starting intravenous administration of immunoglobulin (IVIG), the patient developed respiratory distress, eventually requiring intubation. She remained intubated for the duration of her IVIG treatment. After five rounds of treatment, the patient was successfully extubated and transferred to acute rehab. Following 4 weeks of intense physical therapy, she was able to walk with assistance on room air. CONCLUSION: At the present time, this is one of the few reports of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) or GBS associated with COVID-19 in the United States. It is unclear whether a causal relationship exists given the nature of the syndrome. However, in light of the growing number of reported cases, physicians should be aware of this possible complication when evaluating COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , United States/epidemiology
14.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(6): e236-e239, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1203763

ABSTRACT

Neurologic manifestation of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in children is evolving with time. We are reporting a young girl who presented to us with acute febrile illness followed by acute onset severe flaccid paralysis requiring prolonged intensive care unit stay and ventilator support. She was evaluated extensively and found to be positive for COVID serology, and neuroimaging revealed features of longitudinally extensive transverse myelitis (LETM) with enhancing cauda equina nerve roots, suggesting Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS). She failed to respond to immune suppressive therapy and needed plasma exchange for recovery. Like other common viral illnesses, COVID-19 can also act as a trigger for GBS-like illness and LETM, and we need to suspect these diagnoses in the cases with COVID-19 infection in compatible cases. This is probably the first pediatric case with concurrent GBS and LETM secondary to COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Child , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/immunology , Humans , Myelitis, Transverse/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
15.
J Neuroimmunol ; 355: 577577, 2021 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1188801

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The systematic review aimed to determine demographic characteristics, clinical features, lab evaluation, management and complications of the studies focusing on Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS) as a sequele of novel coronavirus (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: After protocol registration, PubMed, Web of Science and Cumulative Index to Nursing & Allied Health Literature (CINHAL) databases were searched for relevant articles using MeSH key-words and imported into referencing/review softwares. The data, regarding demographic and clinical characteristics, diagnostic workup and management, was analyzed in International Business Machines (IBM) Statistics SPSS 21. Many statistical tests, such as t-test and the Mann-Whitney U test, were used. P < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: We identified 64 relevant articles. The mean age of the patients was 56 ± 16 years; the majority were males (64.9%). Among the neurological findings, paresthesia was the most typical symptom (48.9%). Most of the patients had been diagnosed by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) (69.2%). Two-third of the patients received immunoglobulins (IVIg) (77.7%). Although functions recovered in most patients, there were four patients with facial diplegia during follow-up (4.26%). Acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) was more likely to be associated with paresis of the lower extremity (p < 0.05) and higher levels of glucose on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis (p < 0.05). These patients were more likely to receive IVIg (p < 0.05) and develop respiratory insufficiency, subsequently (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: GBS is being recognized as one of the many presentations of the COVID-19 infection. Although the common form is AIDP that might lead to complications, other variants are possible as well, and more studies are needed to focus on those subvariants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J Neurol ; 268(4): 1191-1194, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1148889

ABSTRACT

Presented herein is a severe case of SARS-CoV-2 associated Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), showing only slight improvement despite adequate therapy. To date, only few cases of GBS associated with this infection have been described. This case report summarizes the insights gain so far to GBS with this antecedent trigger. So far, attention has mostly focused on complications of the CNS involvement. Taking into account that GBS can cause a considerable impairment of the respiratory system, clinicians dealing with SARS-CoV-2 positive-tested patients should pay attention to symptoms of the peripheral nervous system. As far as we know from this reported case and the review of the current literature, there seems to be no association with antiganglioside antibodies or a positive SARS-CoV-2 RT-PCR in CSF. An obvious frequent occurrence of a bilateral facial weakness or bilateral peripheral facial diplegia should be emphasized.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/physiopathology , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Arch Iran Med ; 23(10): 718-721, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115682

ABSTRACT

Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is a neurological disorder accompanied by several neurological signs and symptoms including progressive weakness and diminished or decreased reflexes. GBS was reported as one of the several neurological complications in MERS-CoV and SARS-CoV outbreaks. Several studies have reported GBS as a neurological complication in recent COVID-19 outbreak. We report on the case of a 55-years -old female who was hospitalized with dyspnea, dry cough, and myalgia. She developed Acute Motor & Sensory Axonal Neuropathy (AMSAN), a rare variant of GBS signs and symptoms including decreased muscle strength and pinprick sensation in both lower extremities during her hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
18.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 30, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110741

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 is an infection due to a novel virus belonging to the coronavirus family. Since December 2019, first human cases of COVID-19 have been identified in Wuhan (China) and rapidly has been progressed to a global pandemic declared by the world health organization (WHO) on March 11th 2020. The major complication of COVID-19, is pneumonia, but other presentations like cardiovascular and neurological complications have been reported. Herein, we report a first case of pregnant women presented with bifacial weakness and paraesthesia (BFP) associated to a vestibulocochlear neuritis as post-COVID-19 manifestation. This is a 36-year-old Moroccan female patient with a history of SARS-CoV-2 positive 6 weeks before admission. She presented to the emergency department with rapid bifacial paralysis, bilateral lower extremity paresthesia, vertigo, nausea, vomiting and right auricular pain. An acute stroke was ruled out after neurological examination and brain MRI. Clinical presentation, neurophysiological, audiometry and videonystagmography workup additionally to CSF findings were suggestive of a variant of Guillain Barré Syndrome (GBS), which is BFP associated to right vestibulocochlear neuritis. The patient was treated with Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG) therapy associated with intravenous steroids. The patient made a complete recovery of the right facial palsy and the sensorineural hearing loss but still have tingling in lower limbs and left facial palsy at 2 weeks´ follow-up. BFP can be induced by COVID-19 as a postinfectious immune-mediated complication. Regarding the pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis, is probably similar to other viral infection causing nerve damage. Clinicians should consider the association of vestibulocochlear neuritis and BFP as a post SARS-CoV-2 manifestation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Vestibular Neuronitis/virology , Adult , Facial Paralysis/diagnosis , Facial Paralysis/virology , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/diagnosis , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Paresthesia/virology , Pregnancy , Vestibular Neuronitis/diagnosis
19.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 9(4): 510-513, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1072381

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Physicians in China reported what is believed to be the first adult case of a SARS-CoV-2 infection associated with acute Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), followed by 5 adult Italian patients and another case in the United States. In the current report, we present one of the first descriptions of an association of GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection in a child. In our facility, an 11-year-old boy presented with typical features of GBS and, after 5 days, a morbilliform skin rash over the palms of both hands. Three weeks before the start of the neurological symptoms, the boy had experienced an episode of mild febrile illness with mild respiratory manifestations and a persistent cough. The diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by oropharyngeal swab on reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction assay. The disease course of our patient strongly suggests a possible relationship between the development of GBS and SARS-CoV-2 infection. The case is discussed in view of previous case reports regarding the association of GBS and COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Child , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , SARS-CoV-2
20.
J Neurovirol ; 26(5): 797-799, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070964

ABSTRACT

There is concern that the global burden of coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection might yield an increased occurrence of Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). It is currently unknown whether concomitant SARS-CoV-2 infection and GBS are pathophysiologically related, what biomarkers are useful for diagnosis, and what is the optimal treatment given the medical comorbidities, complications, and simultaneous infection. We report a patient who developed severe GBS following SARS-CoV-2 infection at the peak of the initial COVID-19 surge (April 2020) in New York City and discuss diagnostic and management issues and complications that may warrant special consideration in similar patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/complications , Hyponatremia/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Acute Disease , Aged , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Enoxaparin/therapeutic use , Female , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/pathology , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/therapy , Guillain-Barre Syndrome/virology , Humans , Hyponatremia/pathology , Hyponatremia/therapy , Hyponatremia/virology , New York City , Pandemics , Plasmapheresis , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2
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