Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 787
Filter
1.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 960938, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154694

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an extremely contagious illness caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Early disease recognition of COVID-19 is crucial not only for prompt diagnosis and treatment of the patients, but also for effective public health surveillance and response. The reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) is the most common method for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 viral mRNA and is regarded as the gold standard test for COVID-19. However, this test and those for antibodies (IgM and IgG) and antigens have certain limitations (e.g., by yielding false-negative and false-positive results). We have developed an RNA fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method for high-sensitivity detection of SARS-CoV-2 mRNAs in HEK 293T cell cultures as a model. After transfection of HEK 293T cells with plasmids, Spike (S)/envelope (E) proteins and their mRNAs were clearly detected inside the cells. In addition, hybridization time could be reduced to 2 hours for faster detection when probe concentration was increased. Our approach might thus significantly improve the sensitivity and specificity of SARS-CoV-2 detection and be widely applied for the high-sensitivity single-molecular detection of other RNA viruses (e.g., Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV), Hepatitis A virus, all influenza viruses, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)) in various types of samples including tissue, body fluid, blood, and water. RNA FISH can also be utilized for the detection of DNA viruses (e.g., Monkeypox virus, human papillomavirus (HPV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV)) by detection of their mRNAs inside cells or body fluid.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/methods , RNA, Messenger/genetics , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence , HEK293 Cells , Immunoglobulin M , Immunoglobulin G , Water
2.
Metabolism ; 133: 155236, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2131881

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 can cause multiple organ damages as well as metabolic abnormalities such as hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, and new onset of diabetes. The insulin/IGF signaling pathway plays an important role in regulating energy metabolism and cell survival, but little is known about the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The aim of this work was to investigate whether SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in the host cell/tissue, and if so, the potential mechanism and association with COVID-19 pathology. METHODS: To determine the impact of SARS-CoV-2 on insulin/IGF signaling pathway, we utilized transcriptome datasets of SARS-CoV-2 infected cells and tissues from public repositories for a wide range of high-throughput gene expression data: autopsy lungs from COVID-19 patients compared to the control from non-COVID-19 patients; lungs from a human ACE2 transgenic mouse infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the control infected with mock; human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived liver organoids infected with SARS-CoV-2; adipose tissues from a mouse model of COVID-19 overexpressing human ACE2 via adeno-associated virus serotype 9 (AAV9) compared to the control GFP after SARS-CoV-2 infection; iPS-derived human pancreatic cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 compared to the mock control. Gain and loss of IRF1 function models were established in HEK293T and/or Calu3 cells to evaluate the impact on insulin signaling. To understand the mechanistic regulation and relevance with COVID-19 risk factors, such as older age, male sex, obesity, and diabetes, several transcriptomes of human respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissue were analyzed. To estimate the association with COVID-19 severity, whole blood transcriptomes of critical patients with COVID-19 compared to those of hospitalized noncritical patients with COVID-19. RESULTS: We found that SARS-CoV-2 infection impaired insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes, such as IRS, PI3K, AKT, mTOR, and MAPK, in the host lung, liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic cells. The impairments were attributed to interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), and its gene expression was highly relevant to risk factors for severe COVID-19; increased with aging in the lung, specifically in men; augmented by obese and diabetic conditions in liver, adipose tissue, and pancreatic islets. IRF1 activation was significantly associated with the impaired insulin signaling in human cells. IRF1 intron variant rs17622656-A, which was previously reported to be associated with COVID-19 prevalence, increased the IRF1 gene expression in human tissue and was frequently found in American and European population. Critical patients with COVID-19 exhibited higher IRF1 and lower insulin/IGF signaling pathway genes in the whole blood compared to hospitalized noncritical patients. Hormonal interventions, such as dihydrotestosterone and dexamethasone, ameliorated the pathological traits in SARS-CoV-2 infectable cells and tissues. CONCLUSIONS: The present study provides the first scientific evidence that SARS-CoV-2 infection impairs the insulin/IGF signaling pathway in respiratory, metabolic, and endocrine cells and tissues. This feature likely contributes to COVID-19 severity with cell/tissue damage and metabolic abnormalities, which may be exacerbated in older, male, obese, or diabetic patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Insulin , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , COVID-19/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Insulin/metabolism , Interferon Regulatory Factor-1/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Obesity/metabolism , Obesity/pathology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction
3.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1020165, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114621

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunocompromised (IC) patients show diminished immune response to COVID-19 mRNA vaccines (Co-mV). To date, there is no 'empirical' evidence to link the perturbation of translation, a rate-limiting step for mRNA vaccine efficiency (VE), to the dampened response of Co-mV. Materials and methods: Impact of immunosuppressants (ISs), tacrolimus (T), mycophenolate (M), rapamycin/sirolimus (S), and their combinations on Pfizer Co-mV translation were determined by the Spike (Sp) protein expression following Co-mV transfection in HEK293 cells. In vivo impact of ISs on SARS-CoV-2 spike specific antigen (SpAg) and associated antibody levels (IgGSp) in serum were assessed in Balb/c mice after two doses (2D) of the Pfizer vaccine. Spike Ag and IgGSp levels were assessed in 259 IC patients and 50 healthy controls (HC) who received 2D of Pfizer or Moderna Co-mV as well as in 67 immunosuppressed solid organ transplant (SOT) patients and 843 non-transplanted (NT) subjects following three doses (3D) of Co-mV. Higher Co-mV concentrations and transient drug holidays were evaluated. Results: We observed significantly lower IgGSP response in IC patients (p<0.0001) compared to their matched controls in 2D and 3D Co-mV groups. IC patients on M or S showed a profound dampening of IgGSP response relative to those that were not on these drugs. M and S, when used individually or in combination, significantly attenuated the Co-mV-induced Sp expression, whereas T did not exert significant influence. Sirolimus combo pretreatment in vivo significantly attenuated the Co-mV induced IgMSp and IgGSp production, which correlated with a decreasing trend in the early levels (after day 1) of Co-mV induced Sp immunogen levels. Neither higher Co-mV concentrations (6µg) nor withholding S for 1-day could overcome the inhibition of Sp protein levels. Interestingly, 3-days S holiday or using T alone rescued Sp levels in vitro. Conclusions: This is the first study to demonstrate that ISs, sirolimus and mycophenolate inhibited Co-mV-induced Sp protein synthesis via translation repression. Selective use of tacrolimus or drug holiday of sirolimus can be a potential means to rescue translation-dependent Sp protein production. These findings lay a strong foundation for guiding future studies aimed at improving Co-mV responses in high-risk IC patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Mice , Animals , Humans , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , HEK293 Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Immunoglobulin G , Sirolimus/pharmacology , Sirolimus/therapeutic use
4.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 958634, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114014

ABSTRACT

Rationale: Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) seriously affect human health by causing respiratory diseases ranging from common colds to severe acute respiratory diseases. Immunophilins, including peptidyl-prolyl isomerases of the FK506-binding protein (FKBP) and the cyclophilin family, are promising targets for pharmaceutical inhibition of coronavirus replication, but cell-type specific effects have not been elucidated. FKBPs and cyclophilins bind the immunosuppressive drugs FK506 and cyclosporine A (CsA), respectively. Methods: Primary human bronchial epithelial cells (phBECs) were treated with CsA, Alisporivir (ALV), FK506, and FK506-derived non-immunosuppressive analogs and infected with HCoV-229E. RNA and protein were assessed by RT-qPCR and immunoblot analysis. Treatment with the same compounds was performed in hepatoma cells (Huh-7.5) infected with HCoV-229E expressing Renilla luciferase (HCoV-229E-RLuc) and the kidney cell line HEK293 transfected with a SARS-CoV-1 replicon expressing Renilla luciferase (SARS-CoV-1-RLuc), followed by quantification of luminescence as a measure of viral replication. Results: Both CsA and ALV robustly inhibited viral replication in all models; both compounds decreased HCoV-229E RNA in phBECs and reduced luminescence in HCoV-229E-RLuc-infected Huh7.5 and SARS-CoV-1-RLuc replicon-transfected HEK293. In contrast, FK506 showed inconsistent and less pronounced effects in phBECs while strongly affecting coronavirus replication in Huh-7.5 and HEK293. Two non-immunosuppressive FK506 analogs had no antiviral effect in any infection model. Conclusion: The immunophilin inhibitors CsA and ALV display robust anti-coronaviral properties in multiple infection models, including phBECs, reflecting a primary site of HCoV infection. In contrast, FK506 displayed cell-type specific effects, strongly affecting CoV replication in Huh7.5 and HEK293, but inconsistently and less pronounced in phBECs.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus 229E, Human , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus 229E, Human/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Cyclophilins , Cyclosporine/chemistry , Cyclosporine/pharmacology , Cyclosporine/therapeutic use , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Luciferases, Renilla , Pharmaceutical Preparations , RNA , Tacrolimus/chemistry , Tacrolimus/pharmacology , Tacrolimus/therapeutic use , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/pharmacology , Tacrolimus Binding Proteins/therapeutic use
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110130

ABSTRACT

Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a target of interest for both COVID-19 and cardiovascular disease management. Even though lower ACE2 levels may be beneficial in SARS-CoV-2 infectivity, maintaining the ACE1/ACE2 balance is also crucial for cardiovascular health. So far, reports describing conditions capable of altering ACE2 protein levels, especially via dietary components, are limited. In this study, the effects of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3-PUFA) on the protein levels of ACE1 and ACE2 in rodent tissues, human endothelial and kidney cell lines, and human plasma were examined. The ability of n3-PUFA to affect the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus into cells was also tested. Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and in some cases eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not α-linoleic acid (ALA), reduced both ACE1 and ACE2 (non-glycosylated p100 and glycosylated p130 forms) in the heart, aorta, and kidneys of obese rats, as well as in human EA.hy926 endothelial and HEK293 kidney cells. Dietary supplementation with either DHA or ALA had no effect on plasma soluble ACE2 levels in humans. However, treatment of HEK293 cells with 80 and 125 µM DHA for 16 h inhibited the entry of the SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus. These results strongly suggest that DHA treatment may reduce the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect cells via a mechanism involving a decrease in the absolute level of ACE2 protein as well as its glycosylation. Our findings warrant further evaluation of long-chain n3-PUFA supplements as a novel option for restricting SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in the general population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Fatty Acids, Omega-3 , Humans , Rats , Animals , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , SARS-CoV-2 , HEK293 Cells , Fatty Acids, Omega-3/pharmacology , Virus Internalization , Docosahexaenoic Acids/pharmacology
6.
Nature ; 593(7857): 136-141, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2114170

ABSTRACT

Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncontrolled in many parts of the world; control is compounded in some areas by the higher transmission potential of the B.1.1.7 variant1, which has now been reported in 94 countries. It is unclear whether the response of the virus to vaccines against SARS-CoV-2 on the basis of the prototypic strain will be affected by the mutations found in B.1.1.7. Here we assess the immune responses of individuals after vaccination with the mRNA-based vaccine BNT162b22. We measured neutralizing antibody responses after the first and second immunizations using pseudoviruses that expressed the wild-type spike protein or a mutated spike protein that contained the eight amino acid changes found in the B.1.1.7 variant. The sera from individuals who received the vaccine exhibited a broad range of neutralizing titres against the wild-type pseudoviruses that were modestly reduced against the B.1.1.7 variant. This reduction was also evident in sera from some patients who had recovered from COVID-19. Decreased neutralization of the B.1.1.7 variant was also observed for monoclonal antibodies that target the N-terminal domain (9 out of 10) and the receptor-binding motif (5 out of 31), but not for monoclonal antibodies that recognize the receptor-binding domain that bind outside the receptor-binding motif. Introduction of the mutation that encodes the E484K substitution in the B.1.1.7 background to reflect a newly emerged variant of concern (VOC 202102/02) led to a more-substantial loss of neutralizing activity by vaccine-elicited antibodies and monoclonal antibodies (19 out of 31) compared with the loss of neutralizing activity conferred by the mutations in B.1.1.7 alone. The emergence of the E484K substitution in a B.1.1.7 background represents a threat to the efficacy of the BNT162b2 vaccine.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Neutralizing/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Viral/isolation & purification , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immune Evasion/genetics , Immune Evasion/immunology , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Molecular , Mutation , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
7.
Life Sci ; 301: 120624, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105537

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To study effects on cellular innate immune responses to ORF8, ORF10, and Membrane protein (M protein) from the Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that causes COVID-19, in combination with cannabidiol (CBD). MAIN METHODS: HEK293 cells transfected with plasmids expressing control vector, ORF8, ORF10, or M protein were assayed for cell number and markers of apoptosis at 24 h, and interferon and interferon-stimulated gene expression at 14 h, with or without CBD. Cells transfected with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly (I:C)) were also studied as a general model of RNA-type viral infection. KEY FINDINGS: Reduced cell number and increased early and late apoptosis were found when expression of viral genes was combined with 1-2 µM CBD treatment, but not in control-transfected cells treated with CBD, or in cells expressing viral genes but treated only with vehicle. In cells expressing viral genes, CBD augmented expression of IFNγ, IFNλ1 and IFNλ2/3, as well as the 2'-5'-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) family members OAS1, OAS2, OAS3, and OASL. CBD also augmented expression of these genes in control cells not expressing viral genes, but without enhancing apoptosis. CBD similarly enhanced the cellular anti-viral response to Poly (I:C). SIGNIFICANCE: Our results demonstrate a poor ability of HEK293 cells to respond to SARS-CoV-2 genes alone, but an augmented innate anti-viral response to these genes in the presence of CBD. Thus, CBD may prime components of the innate immune system, increasing readiness to respond to RNA-type viral infection without activating apoptosis, and could be studied for potential in prophylaxis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cannabidiol , Antiviral Agents , Apoptosis , Cannabidiol/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunity, Innate/genetics , Interferons/pharmacology , Membrane Proteins , Poly I-C/pharmacology , RNA , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Biomed Pharmacother ; 155: 113766, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2104426

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly transmissible coronavirus that has caused over 6 million fatalities. SARS-CoV-2 variants with spike mutations are frequently endowed with a strong capability to escape vaccine-elicited protection. Due to this characteristic, a broad-spectrum inhibitor against SARS-CoV-2 infection is urgently demanded. Ganoderma microsporum immunomodulatory protein (GMI) was previously reported to alleviate infection of SARS-CoV-2 through ACE2 downregulation whereas the impact of GMI on virus itself was less understood. Our study aims to determine the effects of GMI on SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and the more detailed mechanisms of GMI inhibition against SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus infection. METHODS: ACE2-overexpressing HEK293T cells (HEK293T/ACE2) and SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses carrying spike variants were used to study the effects of GMI in vitro. Infectivity was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry. Fusion rate mediated by SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was examined with split fluorescent protein /luciferase systems. The interactions of GMI with SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus and ACE2 were investigated by immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. RESULTS: GMI broadly blocked SARS-CoV-2 infection in various cell lines. GMI effectively inhibited the infection of pseudotyped viruses carrying different emerged spike variants, including Delta and Omicron strains, on HEK293T/hACE2 cells. In cell-free virus infection, GMI dominantly impeded the binding of spike-bearing pseudotyped viruses to ACE2-expressing cells. In cell-to-cell fusion model, GMI could efficiently inhibit spike-mediated syncytium without the requirement of ACE2 downregulation. CONCLUSIONS: GMI, an FDA-approved dietary ingredient, acts as a multifunctional broad-spectrum antiviral against SARS-CoV-2 and could become a promising candidate for preventing or treating SARS-CoV-2 associated diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Virus Attachment , COVID-19/drug therapy , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Cell Fusion , HEK293 Cells , Protein Binding
9.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 106(23): 7933-7948, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2103864

ABSTRACT

Serology assays are essential tools to mitigate the effect of COVID-19, help to identify previous SARS-CoV-2 infections or vaccination, and provide data for surveillance and epidemiologic studies. In this study, we report the production and purification process of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 in HEK293 cells, which allowed the design, optimization, and validation of an indirect ELISA (iELISA) for the detection of human anti-RBD antibodies. To find the optimal conditions of this iELISA, a multivariate strategy was performed throughout design of experiments (DoE) and response surface methodology (RSM), one of the main tools of quality by design (QbD) approach. The adoption of this strategy helped to reduce the time and cost during the method development stage and to define an optimum condition within the analyzed design region. The assay was then validated, exhibiting a sensitivity of 94.24 (86.01-98.42%; 95% CI) and a specificity of 95.96% (89.98-98.89%; 95% CI). Besides, the degree of agreement between quality results assessed using kappa's value was 0.92. Hence, this iELISA represents a high-throughput technique, simple to perform, reliable, and feasible to be scaled up to satisfy the current demands. Since RBD is proposed as the coating antigen, the intended use of this iELISA is not only the detection of previous exposure to the virus, but also the possibility of detecting protective immunity. KEY POINTS: • RBD was produced in 1-L bioreactor and highly purified. • An iELISA assay was optimized applying QbD concepts. • The validation procedure demonstrated that this iELISA is accurate and precise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , HEK293 Cells , Antibodies, Viral , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunoglobulin G , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
10.
Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol ; 323(5): L569-L577, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098031

ABSTRACT

Cleavage of the furin site in SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) protein accounts for increased transmissibility of COVID-19 by promoting the entry of virus into host cells through specific angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Plasmin, a key serine protease of fibrinolysis system, cleaves the furin site of γ subunit of human epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs). Sharing the plasmin cleavage by viral S and host ENaC proteins may competitively inter-regulate SARS-CoV-2 transmissibility and edema resolution via the ENaC pathway. To address this possibility, we analyzed single-cell RNA sequence (scRNA-seq) data sets and found that PLAU (encoding urokinase plasminogen activator), SCNN1G (γENaC), and ACE2 (SARS-CoV-2 receptor) were co-expressed in airway/alveolar epithelial cells. The expression levels of PLAU and FURIN were significantly higher compared with TMPRSS2 in healthy group. This difference was further amplified in both epithelial and immune cells in patients with moderate/severe COVID-19 and SARS-CoV-2 infected airway/alveolar epithelial cell lines. Of note, plasmin cleaved the S protein and facilitated the entry of pseudovirus in HEK293 cells. Conclusively, SARS-CoV-2 may expedite infusion by competing the fibrinolytic protease network with ENaC.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Furin/metabolism , Epithelial Sodium Channels/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Fibrinolysin/metabolism , HEK293 Cells
11.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(11): 2259-2270, 2022 Nov 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2096630

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, a coronavirus strain that started a worldwide pandemic in early 2020, attaches to human cells by binding its spike (S) glycoprotein to a host receptor protein angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Blocking the interaction between the S protein and ACE2 has emerged as an important strategy for preventing viral infection. We systematically developed and optimized an AlphaLISA assay to investigate binding events between ACE2 and the ectodomain of the SARS-CoV-2 S protein (S-614G: residues 1-1208 with a D614G mutation). Using S-614G permits discovering potential allosteric inhibitors that stabilize the S protein in a conformation that impedes its access to ACE2. Over 30,000 small molecules were screened in a high-throughput format for activity against S-614G and ACE2 binding using the AlphaLISA assay. A viral entry assay was used to validate hits using lentiviral particles pseudotyped with the full-length S protein of the Wuhan-1 strain. Two compounds identified in the screen, oleic acid and suramin, blocked the attachment of S-614G to ACE2 and S protein-driven cell entry into Calu-3 and ACE2-overexpressing HEK293T cells. Oleic acid inhibits S-614G binding to ACE2 far more potently than to the receptor-binding domain (RBD, residues 319-541 of SARS-CoV-2 S), potentially indicating a noncompetitive mechanism. The results indicate that using the full-length ectodomain of the S protein can be important for identifying allosteric inhibitors of ACE2 binding. The approach reported here represents a rapidly adaptable format for discovering receptor-binding inhibitors to S-proteins of future coronavirus strains.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Oleic Acid , HEK293 Cells , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism
12.
Dokl Biochem Biophys ; 506(1): 220-222, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2088453

ABSTRACT

Based on previous studies, two antibody-like molecules, monobodies, capable of high-affinity interaction with the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein (dissociation constant of tens of nM) were selected. For delivery to target cells, genetically engineered constructs containing monobody and TAT peptide, placed either at the N- or C-terminus of the resulting polypeptide, were produced and expressed in E. coli. The construct with the highest affinity to the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein was revealed with the use of thermophoresis technique. Cellular thermal shift assay demonstrated the ability of this construct to interact with the nucleocapsid protein within HEK293T cells transfected with the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein fused to the mRuby3 fluorescent protein. Replacement of TAT peptide to S10 shuttle peptide, containing endosomolytic peptide, significantly improved the penetration of the construct into the target cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Antibodies, Viral
13.
Curr Protoc ; 2(10): e575, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2085015

ABSTRACT

The Sleeping Beauty (SB) transposon system is an efficient non-viral tool for gene transfer into a variety of cells, including human cells. Through a cut-and-paste mechanism, your favorite gene (YFG) is integrated into AT-rich regions within the genome, providing stable long-term expression of the transfected gene. The SB system is evolving and has become a powerful tool for gene therapy. There are no safety concerns using this system, the handling is easy, and the time required to obtain a stable cell line is significantly reduced compared to other systems currently available. Here, we present a novel application of this system to generate, within 8 days, a stable producer HEK293T cell line capable of constitutively delivering enveloped virus-like particles (eVLPs) for vaccination. We provide step-by-step protocols for generation of the SB transposon constructs, transfection procedures, and validation of the produced eVLPs. We next describe a method to pseudotype the constitutively produced eVLPs using the Spike protein derived from the SARS-CoV-2 virus (by coating the eVLP capsid with the heterologous antigen). We also describe optimization methods to scale up the production of pseudotyped eVLPs in a laboratory setting (from 100 µg to 5 mg). © Published 2022. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA. Basic Protocol 1: Generation of the SB plasmids Basic Protocol 2: Generation of a stable HEK293T cell line constitutively secreting MLV-based eVLPs Basic Protocol 3: Evaluation of the SB constructs by immunofluorescence assay Basic Protocol 4: Validation of eVLPs by denaturing PAGE and western blot Alternate Protocol 1: Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein oligomerization using blue native gel electrophoresis and western blot Alternate Protocol 2: Evaluation of eVLP quality by electron microscopy (negative staining) Basic Protocol 5: Small-scale production of eVLPs Alternate Protocol 3: Large-scale production of eVLPs (up to about 1 to 3 mg VLPs) Alternate Protocol 4: Large-scale production of eVLPs (up to about 3 to 5 mg VLPs) Support Protocol: Quantification of total protein concentration by Bradford assay.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , HEK293 Cells , COVID-19/prevention & control , Vaccination , Antigens, Heterophile
14.
Cells ; 11(20)2022 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082060

ABSTRACT

The binding of SARS-CoV-2 spikes to the cell receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a crucial target both in the prevention and in the therapy of COVID-19. We explored the involvement of oxidoreductive mechanisms by investigating the effects of oxidants and antioxidants on virus uptake by ACE2-expressing cells of human origin (ACE2-HEK293). The cell uptake of pseudoviruses carrying the envelope of either Delta or Omicron variants of SARS-CoV-2 was evaluated by means of a cytofluorimetric approach. The thiol N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) inhibited the uptake of both variants in a reproducible and dose-dependent fashion. Ascorbic acid showed modest effects. In contrast, neither hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) nor a system-generating reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play an important role in the intracellular alterations produced by SARS-CoV-2, were able to affect the ability of either Delta or Omicron SARS-CoV-2 pseudoviruses to be internalized into ACE2-expressing cells. In addition, neither H2O2 nor the ROS generating system interfered with the ability of NAC to inhibit that mechanism. Moreover, based on previous studies, a preventive pharmacological approach with NAC would have the advantage of decreasing the risk of developing COVID-19, irrespective of its variants, and at the same time other respiratory viral infections and associated comorbidities.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Hydrogen Peroxide/pharmacology , Reactive Oxygen Species , Antioxidants/pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Ascorbic Acid/pharmacology , Oxidants/pharmacology , Sulfhydryl Compounds/pharmacology
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(20)2022 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082045

ABSTRACT

There has been an immense effort by global pharmaceutical companies to develop anti-COVID-19 drugs, including small molecule-based RNA replication inhibitors via drug repositioning and antibody-based spike protein blockers related to cell entry by SARS-CoV-2. However, several limitations to their clinical use have emerged in addition to a lack of progress in the development of small molecule-based cell entry inhibitors from natural products. In this study, we tested the effectiveness of kuwanon C (KC), which has mainly been researched using in silico docking simulation and can serve as an effective building block for developing anti-COVID-19 drugs, in blocking the spike S1 RBD:ACE2 receptor interaction. KC is a natural product derived from Morus alba L., commonly known as mulberry, which has known antiviral efficacy. Molecular interaction studies using competitive ELISA and the BLItz system revealed that KC targets both the spike S1 RBD and the ACE2 receptor, successfully disrupting their interaction, as supported by the in silico docking simulation. Furthermore, we established a mechanism of action by observing how KC prevents the infection of SARS-CoV-2 spike pseudotyped virus in ACE2/TPRSS2-overexpressing HEK293T cells. Finally, we demonstrated that KC inhibits clinical isolates of SARS-CoV-2 in Vero cells. Future combinations of small molecule-based cell entry inhibitors, such as KC, with the currently prescribed RNA replication inhibitors are anticipated to significantly enhance the efficacy of COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Biological Products , COVID-19 , Morus , Chlorocebus aethiops , Animals , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Morus/metabolism , Vero Cells , HEK293 Cells , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Protein Binding , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pharmaceutical Preparations , RNA/metabolism
16.
Cells ; 11(19)2022 Sep 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065727

ABSTRACT

Clinical success of Toll-Like receptor-4 (TLR-4) antagonists in sepsis therapy has thus far been lacking. As inhibition of a receptor can only be useful if the receptor is active, stratification of patients with active TLR-4 would be desirable. Our aim was to establish an assay to quantify phosphorylated TLR-4 using the proximity ligation assay (PLA). HEK293 TLR4/MD2/CD14 as well as THP-1 cells were stimulated with LPS and the activation of TLR-4 was measured using the PLA. Furthermore, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from 25 sepsis patients were used to show the feasibility of this assay in clinical material. Activation of TLR-4 in these samples was compared to the PBMCs of 11 healthy individuals. We could show a transient activation of TLR-4 in both cell lines. Five min after the LPS stimulation, the signal increased 6.7-fold in the HEK293 cells and 4.3-fold in the THP-1 cells. The assay also worked well in the PBMCs of septic patients. Phosphorylation of TLR-4 at study inclusion was 2.9 times higher in septic patients compared to healthy volunteers. To conclude, we established a diagnostic assay that is able to quantify the phosphorylation of TLR-4 in cell culture and in clinical samples of sepsis patients. This makes large-scale stratification of sepsis patients for their TLR-4 activation status possible.


Subject(s)
Sepsis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology
17.
J Nat Prod ; 85(11): 2583-2591, 2022 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062146

ABSTRACT

Dihydromaniwamycin E (1), a new maniwamycin derivative featuring an azoxy moiety, has been isolated from the culture extract of thermotolerant Streptomyces sp. JA74 along with the known analogue maniwamycin E (2). Compound 1 is produced only by cultivation of strain JA74 at 45 °C, and this type of compound has been previously designated a "heat shock metabolite (HSM)" by our research group. Compound 2 is detected as a production-enhanced metabolite at high temperature. Structures of 1 and 2 are elucidated by NMR and MS spectroscopic analyses. The absolute structure of 1 is determined after the total synthesis of four stereoisomers. Though the absolute structure of 2 has been proposed to be the same as the structure of maniwamycin D, the NMR and the optical rotation value of 2 are in agreement with those of maniwamycin E. Therefore, this study proposes a structural revision of maniwamycins D and E. Compounds 1 and 2 show inhibitory activity against the influenza (H1N1) virus infection of MDCK cells, demonstrating IC50 values of 25.7 and 63.2 µM, respectively. Notably, 1 and 2 display antiviral activity against SARS-CoV-2, the causative agent of COVID-19, when used to infect 293TA and VeroE6T cells, with 1 and 2 showing IC50 values (for infection of 293TA cells) of 19.7 and 9.7 µM, respectively. The two compounds do not exhibit cytotoxicity in these cell lines at those IC50 concentrations.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Azo Compounds , COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptomyces , Humans , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Azo Compounds/chemistry , Azo Compounds/metabolism , Azo Compounds/pharmacology , Heat-Shock Response , HEK293 Cells , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/drug effects , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Madin Darby Canine Kidney Cells , Orthomyxoviridae Infections/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Streptomyces/chemistry , Streptomyces/metabolism , Vero Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Dogs
18.
J Biol Chem ; 298(11): 102500, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2041895

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease represents a real threat to the global population, and understanding the biological features of the causative virus, that is, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is imperative for mitigating this threat. Analyses of proteins such as primary receptors and coreceptors (cofactors), which are involved in the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells, will provide important clues to help control the virus. Here, we identified host cell membrane protein candidates present in proximity to the attachment sites of SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins, using proximity labeling and proteomic analysis. The identified proteins represent key candidate factors that may be required for viral entry. We found SARS-CoV-2 host protein DPP4, cell adhesion protein Cadherin 17, and glycoprotein CD133 colocalized with cell membrane-bound SARS-CoV-2 spike proteins in Caco-2 cells and thus showed potential as candidate factors. Additionally, our analysis of the experimental infection of HEK293T cells with a SARS-CoV-2 pseudovirus indicated a 2-fold enhanced infectivity in the CD133-ACE2-coexpressing HEK293T cells compared to that in HEK293T cells expressing ACE-2 alone. The information and resources regarding these coreceptor labeling and analysis techniques could be utilized for the development of antiviral agents against SARS-CoV-2 and other emerging viruses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Membrane Proteins , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Virus Attachment , Humans , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Caco-2 Cells , HEK293 Cells , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , Protein Binding , Proteomics , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Virus Internalization , Receptors, Virus/metabolism
19.
Science ; 369(6511): 1586-1592, 2020 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038226

ABSTRACT

Intervention strategies are urgently needed to control the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic. The trimeric viral spike (S) protein catalyzes fusion between viral and target cell membranes to initiate infection. Here, we report two cryo-electron microscopy structures derived from a preparation of the full-length S protein, representing its prefusion (2.9-angstrom resolution) and postfusion (3.0-angstrom resolution) conformations, respectively. The spontaneous transition to the postfusion state is independent of target cells. The prefusion trimer has three receptor-binding domains clamped down by a segment adjacent to the fusion peptide. The postfusion structure is strategically decorated by N-linked glycans, suggesting possible protective roles against host immune responses and harsh external conditions. These findings advance our understanding of SARS-CoV-2 entry and may guide the development of vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Cryoelectron Microscopy , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/chemistry , Protein Domains , Protein Multimerization , Protein Structure, Secondary , Receptors, Virus/chemistry , Virus Internalization
20.
ACS Infect Dis ; 8(10): 2119-2132, 2022 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2036751

ABSTRACT

The engineering of virus-like particles (VLPs) is a viable strategy for the development of vaccines and for the identification of therapeutic targets without using live viruses. Here, we report the generation and characterization of quadruple-antigen SARS-CoV-2 VLPs. VLPs were generated by transient transfection of two expression cassettes in adherent HEK293T cells─one cassette containing Mpro for processing of three structural proteins (M, E, and N), and the second cassette expressing the Spike protein. Further characterization revealed that the VLPs retain close morphological and antigenic similarity with the native virus and also bind strongly to the SARS-CoV-2 receptor hACE-2 in an in vitro binding assay. Interestingly, the VLPs were found to internalize into U87-MG cells through cholesterol-rich domains in a dynamin-dependent process. Finally, our results showed that mice immunized with VLPs induce robust humoral and cellular immune responses mediated by enhanced levels of IL-4, IL-17, and IFNγ. Taken together, our results demonstrate that VLPs mimic the native virus and induce a strong immune response, indicating the possible use of these particles as an alternative vaccine candidate against SARS-CoV-2. VLPs can also be effective in mapping the initial stages of virus entry and screening inhibitors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Virus Internalization
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL