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1.
Elife ; 112022 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2164143

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV infection dysregulates the B cell compartment, affecting memory B cell formation and the antibody response to infection and vaccination. Understanding the B cell response to SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV (PLWH) may explain the increased morbidity, reduced vaccine efficacy, reduced clearance, and intra-host evolution of SARS-CoV-2 observed in some HIV-1 coinfections. Methods: We compared B cell responses to COVID-19 in PLWH and HIV negative (HIV-ve) patients in a cohort recruited in Durban, South Africa, during the first pandemic wave in July 2020 using detailed flow cytometry phenotyping of longitudinal samples with markers of B cell maturation, homing, and regulatory features. Results: This revealed a coordinated B cell response to COVID-19 that differed significantly between HIV-ve and PLWH. Memory B cells in PLWH displayed evidence of reduced germinal centre (GC) activity, homing capacity, and class-switching responses, with increased PD-L1 expression, and decreased Tfh frequency. This was mirrored by increased extrafollicular (EF) activity, with dynamic changes in activated double negative (DN2) and activated naïve B cells, which correlated with anti-RBD-titres in these individuals. An elevated SARS-CoV-2-specific EF response in PLWH was confirmed using viral spike and RBD bait proteins. Conclusions: Despite similar disease severity, these trends were highest in participants with uncontrolled HIV, implicating HIV in driving these changes. EF B cell responses are rapid but give rise to lower affinity antibodies, less durable long-term memory, and reduced capacity to adapt to new variants. Further work is needed to determine the long-term effects of HIV on SARS-CoV-2 immunity, particularly as new variants emerge. Funding: This work was supported by a grant from the Wellcome Trust to the Africa Health Research Institute (Wellcome Trust Strategic Core Award [grant number 201433/Z/16/Z]). Additional funding was received from the South African Department of Science and Innovation through the National Research Foundation (South African Research Chairs Initiative [grant number 64809]), and the Victor Daitz Foundation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , South Africa , Antibodies, Viral
2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 945448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163165

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has imposed severe challenges on global health care systems. The roll-out and widespread administration of COVID-19 vaccines has been deemed a major milestone in the race to restrict the severity of the infection. Vaccines have as yet not entirely suppressed the relentless progression of the pandemic, due mainly to the emergence of new virus variants, and also secondary to the waning of protective antibody titers over time. Encouragingly, an increasing number of antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir and the newly developed drug combination, Paxlovid® (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir), as well as molnupiravir, have shown significant benefits for COVID-19 patient outcomes. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proven to be an effective preventive strategy in high-risk uninfected people exposed to HIV. Building on knowledge from what is already known about the use of PrEP for HIV disease, and from recently gleaned knowledge of antivirals used against COVID-19, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 PrEP, using specific antiviral and adjuvant drugs against SARS-CoV-2, may represent a novel preventive strategy for high-risk populations, including healthcare workers, immunodeficient individuals, and poor vaccine responders. Herein, we critically review the risk factors for severe COVID-19 and discuss PrEP strategies against SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we outline details of candidate anti-SARS-CoV-2 PrEP drugs, thus creating a framework with respect to the development of alternative and/or complementary strategies to prevent COVID-19, and contributing to the global armamentarium that has been developed to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity, and transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
5.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in South Africa. Despite the implementation of HIV/TB integration services at primary healthcare facility level, the effect of HIV on TB treatment outcomes has not been well investigated. To provide evidence base for TB treatment outcome improvement to meet End TB Strategy goal, we assessed the effect of HIV status on treatment outcomes of TB patients at a rural clinic in the Ugu Health District, South Africa. METHODS: We reviewed medical records involving a cohort of 508 TB patients registered for treatment between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 at rural public sector clinic in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Data were extracted from National TB Programme clinic cards and the TB case registers routinely maintained at study sites. The effect of HIV status on TB treatment outcomes was determined by using multinomial logistic regression. Estimates used were relative risk ratio (RRR) at 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: A total of 506 patients were included in the analysis. Majority of the patients (88%) were new TB cases, 70% had pulmonary TB and 59% were co-infected with HIV. Most of HIV positive patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (90% (n = 268)). About 82% had successful treatment outcome (cured 39.1% (n = 198) and completed treatment (42.9% (n = 217)), 7% (n = 39) died 0.6% (n = 3) failed treatment, 3.9% (n = 20) defaulted treatment and the rest (6.6% (n = 33)) were transferred out of the facility. Furthermore, HIV positive patients had a higher mortality rate (9.67%) than HIV negative patients (2.91%)". Using completed treatment as reference, HIV positive patients not on ART relative to negative patients were more likely to have unsuccessful outcomes [RRR, 5.41; 95%CI, 2.11-13.86]. CONCLUSIONS: When compared between HIV status, HIV positive TB patients were more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcome in rural primary care. Antiretroviral treatment seems to have had no effect on the likelihood of TB treatment success in rural primary care. The TB mortality rate in HIV positive patients, on the other hand, was higher than in HIV negative patients emphasizing the need for enhanced integrated management of HIV/TB in rural South Africa through active screening of TB among HIV positive individuals and early access to ART among HIV positive TB cases.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
6.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(10): 798-805, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151803

ABSTRACT

Antiretroviral therapy (ART) uptake continues to increase across sub-Saharan Africa and emergence of drug-resistant HIV mutations poses significant challenges to management of treatment-experienced patients with virologic failure. In Zambia, new third-line ART (TLART) guidelines including use of dolutegravir (DTG) were introduced in 2018. We assessed virologic suppression, immunologic response, and HIV drug-resistant mutations (DRMs) among patients on TLART at the University Teaching Hospital (UTH) in Lusaka, Zambia. We conducted a retrospective review of patients enrolled at UTH on TLART for >6 months between January 2010 and June 30, 2021. CD4 and HIV viral load (VL) at TLART initiation and post-initiation were assessed to determine virologic and immunologic outcomes. Regression analysis using bivariate and multivariate methods to describe baseline characteristics, virologic, and immunologic response to TLART was performed. A total of 345 patients met inclusion criteria; women comprised 57.6% (199/345) of the cohort. Median age at HIV diagnosis was 30 (interquartile range: 17.3-36.8). In 255 (73.8%) patients with at least two VLs, VL decreased from mean of 3.45 log10 copies/mL (standard deviation [SD]: 2.02) to 1.68 log10 copies/mL (SD: 1.79). Common ARVs prescribed included DTG (89.9%), tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (68.7%), and darunavir boosted with ritonavir (66.4%); 170 (49.3%) patients had genotypes; mutations consisted of 88.8% nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, 86.5% non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, and 55.9% protease inhibitor. VL suppression to <1,000 copies/mL was achieved in 225 (78.9%) patients. DRM frequency ranged from 56% to 89% depending on drug class. Treatment-experienced patients receiving TLART in Zambia achieved high rates of suppression despite high proportions of HIV mutations illustrating TLART effectiveness in the DTG era.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Male , Darunavir/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Retrospective Studies , Viral Load , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Universities , Zambia , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Hospitals, Teaching , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use
7.
Kidney Int ; 102(4): 740-749, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150236

ABSTRACT

Four decades after the first cases of HIV were reported, kidney disease remains an important comorbidity in people with HIV (PWH). Both HIV-associated nephropathy and immune complex kidney disease were recognized as complications of HIV infection in the early years before treatment was available. Although the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in the late 1990s resulted in dramatic improvements in survival and health in PWH, several commonly used antiretroviral agents have been associated with kidney injury. HIV infection and treatment may also promote the progression of comorbid chronic kidney disease due to traditional risk factors such as diabetes, and HIV is one of the strongest "second hits" for the high-risk APOL1 genotype. Unique considerations in the management of chronic kidney disease in PWH are largely related to the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy, with potential for toxicity, drug-drug interactions, and polypharmacy. PWH who develop progressive chronic kidney disease are candidates for all modalities of kidney replacement therapy, including kidney transplantation, and at some centers, PWH may be candidates to serve as donors for recipients with HIV. Transplantation of kidney allografts from donors with HIV also offers a unique opportunity to study viral dynamics in the kidney, with implications for kidney health and for research toward HIV cure. In addition, HIV-transgenic animal models have provided important insights into kidney disease pathogenesis beyond HIV, and experience with HIV and HIV-related kidney disease has provided important lessons for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Associated Nephropathy , HIV Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/epidemiology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/therapy , Animals , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
8.
MMW Fortschr Med ; 164(20): 20-21, 2022 Nov.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2149001
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143131

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused widespread disruption of activities for Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE). In this study we assessed public health perspectives on leveraging the COVID-19 response to advance the goals of EHE. We conducted a qualitative study with 33 public health partners in the Midwestern and Southern United States from October 2020 to February 2022. Participants were asked how the strategies developed for COVID-19 could be applied to the HIV epidemic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and examined using rapid qualitative analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) Rebuilding teams and adapting culture for success in EHE activities; (2) Recognizing and modernizing the role of disease intervention specialists (DIS); (3) Enhanced community awareness of the public health role in disease response and prevention; and (4) Leveraging COVID-19 data systems and infrastructure for EHE activities. The COVID-19 pandemic called attention to the dearth of public health funding and outdated information technology (IT) infrastructure used for HIV activities. It also led to greater public health knowledge, including increased familiarity with partner services and molecular epidemiology of HIV, and opportunities to develop new data systems for surveillance that can be applied to efforts for EHE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , United States , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Qualitative Research
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1033351, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142360

ABSTRACT

Background: HIV services were inevitably disrupted and affected due to COVID-19. There are many challenges in implementing appropriate HIV services, particularly in the provision of health care and the link between people living with HIV/AIDS and retention in care. The study investigated the impact of COVID-19 on HIV services and the anticipated benefit of the COVID-19 vaccination on HIV service restoration in North Shewa, Oromia, Ethiopia. Methods: A qualitative descriptive study approach was used to explore how healthcare delivery evolved during the outbreak of COVID-19 in Ethiopia. Sixteen antiretroviral therapy (ART) clinics were selected from 13 districts and one administrative town in Ethiopia. From them, 32 ART providers were purposively selected based on their experience in ART provision. Data were collected from June to July 2021 using in-depth interviews. A thematic analysis approach was used to analyze the data, based on themes and subthemes emerging from the data. ATLAS.ti software was used for coding. Results: Healthcare for people living with HIV was interrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical appointments, HIV testing and counseling services, opportunistic infection treatment, medicine supply, and routine viral load and CD4 T-cell count tests were interrupted. Due to a shortage of healthcare staff, outreach testing services and home index testing were discontinued and HIV testing was limited only to hospitals and health centers. This has substantially affected accessibility to HIV testing and reduced the quality of HIV service delivery. Telehealth and less frequent visits to health facilities were used as alternative ways of delivering HIV services. The COVID-19 vaccination campaign is expected to restore healthcare services. Vaccination may also increase the confidence of healthcare providers by changing their attitudes toward COVID-19. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has substantially impacted HIV services and reduced the quality of HIV care in Ethiopia. Health facilities could not provide routine HIV services as they prioritize the fight against COVID-19, leading to an increase in service discontinuation and poor adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethiopia/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Vaccination
11.
Front Public Health ; 10: 975117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142328

ABSTRACT

Theatre testing (TT) method demonstrates whole or portions of an evidence-based intervention to stakeholders to elicit feedback on context-specific adaptations and future implementation. The Peer Navigator Project (PNP) studied the adaptation and implementation of Peer Navigators in five urban sites to increase street-connected youth (SCY) access to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment in Canada and Kenya. TT was used with SCY, healthcare providers, and community stakeholders to collect feedback on the optimal characteristics of the PNs (e.g., social identities) and their professional activities and responsibilities in each site. Sites scripted unique scenarios of PNs supporting SCY and interacting with social service providers. Local actors were employed, and the scenarios were filmed and edited into videos alongside audience discussion questions. Videos were screened to separate audiences of SCY (n = 40), healthcare providers (n = 12), and community stakeholders (n = 59). Facilitated discussion about the scenarios were recorded as data, and transcripts were analyzed thematically by the research team. The scenario videos are presented as a unique adaptation to the TT method. The adaptations were time-consuming and limited the ability to present responsive changes while presenting the method to different audiences. They were also effective at maintaining presentation fidelity and eliciting diverse and meaningful responses from different stakeholder groups. One site successfully adapted the method for use in a physically distanced manner that complied with COVID-19 public health regulations. TT using video scenarios is an engaging approach that garners rich responses from diverse stakeholder groups about the adaptation of evidence-based interventions preparing for implementation in international settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Homeless Youth , Adolescent , Humans , Kenya , Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections/prevention & control
12.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277650, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140658

ABSTRACT

Lithuania has a long history of remunerated donations. The first steps towards voluntary, non-remunerated blood and blood component donations started in 2004. Lithuania achieved 99.98% voluntary non-remunerated donations (VNRDs) in 2020. This study aimed to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted infectious (TTI) disease markers for remunerated donations in comparison with VNRDs in Lithuania from 2013 to 2020. Data were obtained from the Lithuanian Blood Donor Register. The prevalence was calculated as the rate between the number of confirmed positive results for all TTI disease markers (serological anti-HCV, HBsAg, Ag/anti-HIV 1 and 2, and syphilis, and/or HCV, HBV, and HIV-1 NAT) per 100 donations. The relative risk of infectious disease markers for remunerated donations was then estimated. In total, 796310 donations were made. Altogether, 2743 donations were positive for TTI markers as follows: HCV, 1318; HBV, 768; syphilis, 583; and HIV 1 and 2, 74. The prevalence of confirmed TTI markers were 2.86, 0.97, 0.18, and 0.04 per 100 first-time remunerated donations, first-time VNRDs, repeat remunerated donations, and repeat VNRDs, respectively. Remunerated first-time and repeat donations had a statistically higher prevalence of TTI disease markers than VNRDs. First-time and repeat remunerated donations had statistically significantly higher relative risks of confirmed TTI disease markers than VNRD. In conclusion, the risks of TTI disease markers for remunerated first-time and repeat blood and its component donations are significantly higher than those for VNRDs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Syphilis , Transfusion Reaction , Humans , Blood Donors , Syphilis/epidemiology , Lithuania/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
13.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277606, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140654

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The main international guidelines indicate DTG/3TC therapy as one of the preferred regimens for people living with HIV (PLWH), due to its observed efficacy in randomized clinical trials. However, information in real-life cohorts is relatively scarce for first-line use. METHODS: A retrospective multicenter study of adult PLWH starting DTG+3TC as a first-line regimen before January 31st, 2020. Virological failure (VF) was defined as 2 consecutive HIV RNA viral load (VL) >50 copies/mL. RESULTS: 135 participants were included. Treatment was started without knowing baseline drug resistance testing (bDRT) results in 71.9% of cases, with baseline resistance mutations being later confirmed in 17 patients (12.6%), two of them with presence of M184V mutation. Effectiveness at week 48 was 85.2% (CI95%: 78.1-90.7%) (ITT missing = failure [M = F]) and 96.6% (CI 95%: 91.6-99.1%) (per-protocol analysis). Six patients (4.4%) discontinued treatment. One developed not confirmed VF after discontinuing treatment due to poor adherence; no resistance-associated mutations emerged. Three discontinued treatments due to central nervous system side effects (2.2%), and two due to a medical decision after determining the M184V mutation in bDRT. Finally, 14 (10.4%) were lost to follow-up, most of them due to the COVID-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: In a real-life multicenter cohort of ART-naïve PLWH, treatment initiation with DTG + 3TC showed high effectiveness and favorable safety results, comparable to those of randomized clinical trials, without treatment-emergent resistance being observed through week 48. Starting treatment before receiving the results of baseline drug resistance testing did not have an impact on the regimen's effectiveness.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Adult , Humans , Lamivudine/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Pandemics , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Virol J ; 19(1): 174, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139345

ABSTRACT

Since its discovery in the 1990s, the DNA vaccine has been of great interest because of its ability to elicit both humoral and cellular immune responses while showing relative advantages regarding producibility, stability and storage. However, when applied to human subjects, inadequate immunogenicity remains as the greatest challenge for the practical use of DNA vaccines. In this study, we generated a DNA vaccine Δ42PD1-P24 encoding a fusion protein comprised of the HIV-1 Gag p24 antigen and the extracellular domain of murine Δ42PD1, a novel endogenous Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) agonist. Using a mouse model, we found that Δ42PD1-P24 DNA vaccine elicited a higher antibody response and an increased number of IFN-γ-producing CD4 and CD8 T cells. Moreover, mice with Δ42PD1-P24 DNA vaccination were protected from a subcutaneous challenge with murine mesothelioma cells expressing the HIV-1 p24 antigen. Importantly, the Δ42PD1-mediated enhancement of immune responses was not observed in TLR4 knockout mice. Collectively, these data demonstrate that the immunogenicity and efficacy of DNA vaccines could be improved by the fusion of the extracellular domain of Δ42PD1 to target the immunogen to dendritic cells.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Vaccines, DNA , Animals , Mice , Humans , HIV-1/genetics , Toll-Like Receptor 4 , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Immunity, Cellular , HIV Core Protein p24
15.
BMC Prim Care ; 23(1): 297, 2022 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139156

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sustained, routine care is vital to the health of people with HIV (PWH) and decreasing transmission of HIV. We evaluated whether the identification of PWH at-risk of falling out of care and prompts for outreach were effective in retaining PWH in care in the United States. METHODS: In this cluster randomized controlled trial, 20 AIDS Healthcare Foundation Healthcare Centers (HCCs) were randomized to the intervention (n = 10) or control (n = 10) arm; all maintained existing retention efforts. The intervention included daily automated flags in CHORUS™, a mobile app and web-based reporting solution utilizing electronic health record data, that identified PWH at-risk of falling out of care to clinic staff. Among flagged PWH, the association between the intervention and visits after a flag was assessed using logistic regression models fit with generalized estimating equations (independent correlation structure) to account for clustering. To adjust for differences between HCCs, models included geographic region, number of PWH at HCC, and proportions of PWH who self-identified as Hispanic or had the Ryan White Program as a payer. RESULTS: Of 15,875 PWH in care, 56% were flagged; 76% (intervention) and 75% (control) resulted in a visit, of which 76% were within 2 months of the flag. In adjusted analyses, flags had higher odds of being followed by a visit (odds ratio [OR]: 1.08, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.97, 1.21) or a visit within 2 months (OR: 1.07, 95% CI: 0.97, 1.17) at intervention than control HCCs. Among at-risk PWH with viral loads at baseline and study end, the proportion with < 50 copies/mL increased in both study arms, but more so at intervention (65% to 74%) than control (62% to 67%) HCCs. CONCLUSION: Despite challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic, adding an intervention to existing retention efforts, and the reality that behavior change takes time, PWH flagged as at-risk of falling out of care were marginally more likely to return for care at intervention than control HCCs and a greater proportion achieved undetectability. Sustained use of the retention module in CHORUS™ has the potential to streamline retention efforts, retain more PWH in care, and ultimately decrease transmission of HIV. TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study was first registered at Clinical Trials.gov (NCT04147832, https://clinicaltrials.gov/show/NCT04147832 ) on 01/11/2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Carcinoma, Hepatocellular , HIV Infections , Liver Neoplasms , Retention in Care , Humans , United States/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities
16.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(11)2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137565

ABSTRACT

A man in his 50s presented to his doctor with a fever, sore throat, cough, dysgeusia and dyspnoea of several days' duration. Tests for HIV antigen, HIV antibody and HIV PCR were positive. He was referred to our hospital for initiation of antiretroviral therapy and bronchoscopy to clarify the cause of an abnormal lung shadow on chest CT. He was diagnosed with organising pneumonia, with concurrent HIV infection. His pulmonary lesions were remitted spontaneously, and he was administered a fixed-dose combination of tenofovir (50 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg) and bictegravir (25 mg) for HIV. This is a rare report of organising pneumonia with HIV infection. Physicians need to consider organising pneumonia when lung opacity is observed in a patient with HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia , HIV Infections , Pneumonia , Male , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/drug therapy
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 157-161, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir + rilpivirine long-acting (LA) is a novel antiretroviral therapy (ART) administered intramuscularly monthly or every 2 months by a health care provider. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential challenge to patients' ability to attend scheduled clinic visits for dosing administration. SETTING: This analysis evaluated implementation fidelity across 6 phase IIb/III/IIIb cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA clinical trials in 16 countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: COVID-19-impacted visits were defined as modified dosing visits for which oral therapy was provided to participants unable to attend the clinic or injection visits that were rescheduled. Data from December 1, 2019, to March 1, 2021, were aggregated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of 2127 participants in cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA trials, 1997 (94%) had LA dosing visits proceed as planned during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of 130 (6%) participants with injection visits affected by COVID-19, most were from North America (57%) and Europe (26%). Most participants with COVID-19-impacted visits used oral therapy with cabotegravir + rilpivirine (75%) or alternative oral standard-of-care ART (21%) to maintain continuous ART. The most common reasons for missed visits were clinic closure/staffing constraints (48%) and COVID-19-related travel restrictions (23%). Most (98%) participants who used oral ART maintained virologic suppression; 2 participants had viral load between 50 and 100 copies/mL. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most trial participants maintained their LA dosing schedules. Flexibility of the LA dosing regimen, with the ability to switch to oral therapy, facilitated continuous ART provision and implementation fidelity.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diketopiperazines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pyridones , Rilpivirine/therapeutic use
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