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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1853-1862, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238966

ABSTRACT

This essay reflects on sexual practices and prevention in the contexts of the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics. It analyses data collected between July and October 2020 through participant observation, as part of an ethnographic research project on HIV vulnerability and prevention among men who have sex with men in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, state of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. The results point to the relevance of physical appearance and the affective bond between partners in engendering emotions that mediate coping with the risk of infection during both pandemics. It indicates the need to incorporate those communicational dimensions into informational materials to make them more effective.


Este ensaio reflete sobre práticas sexuais e prevenção nos contextos das pandemias de AIDS e da COVID-19. Analisa dados coletados entre julho e outubro de 2020, por meio de observação participante, no âmbito de uma pesquisa etnográfica sobre vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens da Região Metropolitana do Recife. Os resultados apontam para a relevância da aparência corporal e da vinculação afetiva entre os parceiros no engendramento de emoções que medeiam a lida com risco de infecção em ambas as pandemias. Sinaliza para a necessidade de incorporar essas dimensões comunicacionais em materiais informativos, de modo a torná-los mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexuality
2.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244607

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis C/genetics , Humans , Needle Sharing/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Zoonoses
4.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0287061, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238333

ABSTRACT

During the pandemic, the capacity of medical resources focused on testing, diagnosing and treating COVID-19 has severely limited public access to health care. In particular, HIV screening, for which homosexual males in Korea received free and anonymous testing at public health centers, was completely halted. This study investigated behavioral predictors related to the HIV screening needs of Korean male homosexuals during the pandemic. Data were collected by conducting a web survey targeting members of the largest homosexual portal site in Korea with support from the National Research Foundation of Korea (n = 1,005). The key independent variables are COVID-19-related characteristics and sexual risk behavior. The moderating variable is health information search behavior, and the dependent variable is the need for HIV screening. For a statistical analysis, a hierarchical multiple logistic regression analysis was conducted while controlling for potential confounding variables. According to the results of this study, the need for HIV screening was 0.928 times lower for older people (p<0.05, 95% CI = 0.966-0.998). However, if the respondent had a primary partner, the need for HIV screening was 1.459 times higher (p<0.01, 95% CI = 1.071-1.989). In addition, the need for screening was 1.773 times higher for those who preferred anal intercourse (p<0.01, 95% CI = 1.261-2.494) and 2.034 times higher (p<0.01, 95% CI = 1.337-3.095) if there was a history of being diagnosed with an STD. Finally, health information-seeking behavior was marginally significant. This study revealed that male Korean homosexuals who were young, preferred anal sex with a primary partner, and who had a history of a sexually transmitted disease had a high need for HIV screening at public health centers. They are more likely to be susceptible to HIV infection because they are usually consistent with gay men, characterized by risky behavior. Therefore, an intervention strategy that provides health information using a communication campaign is needed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Homosexuality, Male , Information Seeking Behavior , Republic of Korea
5.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 May 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238279

ABSTRACT

Conducting violence and mental health research during the COVID-19 pandemic with vulnerable groups such as female sex workers (FSWs) required care to ensure that participants and the research team were not harmed. Potential risks and harm avoidance needed to be considered as well as ensuring data reliability. In March 2020, COVID-19 restrictions were imposed in Kenya during follow-up data collection for the Maisha Fiti study (n = 1003); hence data collection was paused. In June 2020, the study clinic was re-opened after consultations with violence and mental health experts and the FSW community. Between June 2020 and January 2021, data were collected in person and remotely following ethical procedures. A total of 885/1003 (88.2%) FSWs participated in the follow-up behavioural-biological survey and 47/47 (100%) participated in the qualitative in-depth interviews. A total of 26/885 (2.9%) quantitative surveys and 3/47 (6.4%) qualitative interviews were conducted remotely. Researching sensitive topics like sex work, violence, and mental health must guarantee study participants' safety and privacy. Collecting data at the height of COVID-19 was crucial in understanding the relationships between the COVID-19 pandemic, violence against women, and mental health. Relationships established with study participants during the baseline survey-before the pandemic-enabled us to complete data collection. In this paper, we discuss key issues involved in undertaking violence and mental health research with a vulnerable population such as FSWs during a pandemic. Lessons learned could be useful to others researching sensitive topics such as violence and mental health with vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Female , Humans , Sex Workers/psychology , Mental Health , Pandemics , Kenya/epidemiology , Reproducibility of Results , COVID-19/epidemiology , Violence
6.
PLoS One ; 18(6): e0286295, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237690

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aimed to determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic had an impact on essential primary healthcare services at public primary healthcare facilities. METHODS: The number of weekly consultations for antenatal care (ANC), outpatient (OPD), immunisations (EPI), family planning (FP) and HIV services, between January 2018 and December 2020, were collected from 25 facilities in Masaka district, Uganda, 21 in Goma, and 29 in Kambia district, Sierra Leone. Negative binomial regression models accounting for clustering and season were used to analyse changes in activity levels between 2018, 2019 and 2020. RESULTS: In Goma, we found no change in OPD, EPI or ANC consultations, FP was 17% lower in March-July 2020 compared to 2019, but this recovered by December 2020. New diagnoses of HIV were 34% lower throughout 2020 compared to 2019. In Sierra Leone, compared to the same periods in 2019, facilities had 18-29% fewer OPD consultations throughout 2020, and 27% fewer DTP3 doses in March-July 2020. There was no evidence of differences in other services. In Uganda there were 20-35% fewer under-5 OPD consultations, 21-66% fewer MCV1 doses, and 48-51% fewer new diagnoses of HIV throughout 2020, compared to 2019. There was no difference in the number of HPV doses delivered. CONCLUSIONS: The level of disruption varied across the different settings and qualitatively appeared to correlate with the strength of lockdown measures and reported attitudes towards the risk posed by COVID-19. Mitigation strategies such as health communications campaigns and outreach services may be important to limit the impact of lockdowns on primary healthcare services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Pregnancy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Sierra Leone/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Democratic Republic of the Congo , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Prenatal Care , Primary Health Care
7.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 18(4): 191-208, 2023 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Passive administration of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bNAbs) is being evaluated as a therapeutic approach to prevent or treat HIV infections. However, a number of challenges face the widespread implementation of passive transfer for HIV. To reduce the need of recurrent administrations of bNAbs, gene-based delivery approaches have been developed which overcome the limitations of passive transfer. RECENT FINDINGS: The use of DNA and mRNA for the delivery of bNAbs has made significant progress. DNA-encoded monoclonal antibodies (DMAbs) have shown great promise in animal models of disease and the underlying DNA-based technology is now being tested in vaccine trials for a variety of indications. The COVID-19 pandemic greatly accelerated the development of mRNA-based technology to induce protective immunity. These advances are now being successfully applied to the delivery of monoclonal antibodies using mRNA in animal models. Delivery of bNAbs using viral vectors, primarily adeno-associated virus (AAV), has shown great promise in preclinical animal models and more recently in human studies. Most recently, advances in genome editing techniques have led to engineering of monoclonal antibody expression from B cells. These efforts aim to turn B cells into a source of evolving antibodies that can improve through repeated exposure to the respective antigen. SUMMARY: The use of these different platforms for antibody delivery has been demonstrated across a wide range of animal models and disease indications, including HIV. Although each approach has unique strengths and weaknesses, additional advances in efficiency of gene delivery and reduced immunogenicity will be necessary to drive widespread implementation of these technologies. Considering the mounting clinical evidence of the potential of bNAbs for HIV treatment and prevention, overcoming the remaining technical challenges for gene-based bNAb delivery represents a relatively straightforward path towards practical interventions against HIV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Animals , Humans , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies , HIV Antibodies , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Pandemics , HIV-1/genetics , COVID-19/therapy , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics
8.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 716, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral medication coverage remains sub-optimal in much of the United States, particularly the Sothern region, and Non-Hispanic Black or African American persons (NHB) continue to be disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. The "Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S." (EHE) initiative seeks to reduce HIV incidence nationally by focusing resources towards the most highly impacted localities and populations. This study evaluates the impact of hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage to estimate the levels of coverage needed to achieve EHE goals in the South. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based network model of 500,000 individuals to simulate the HIV epidemic and hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage. RESULTS: New infections declined by 78.6% at 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 94.3% at 100%/50% ART/PrEP. Declines in annual incidence rates surpassed 75% by 2025 with 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 90% by 2030 with 100%/50% ART/PrEP coverage. Increased ART coverage among NHB MSM was associated with a linear decline in incidence among all MSM. Declines in incidence among Hispanic/Latino and White/Other MSM were similar regardless of which MSM race group increased their ART coverage, while the benefit to NHB MSM was greatest when their own ART coverage increased. The incidence rate among NHB women declined by over a third when either NHB heterosexual men or NHB MSM increased their ART use respectively. Increased use of PrEP was associated with a decline in incidence for the groups using PrEP. MSM experienced the largest absolute declines in incidence with increasing PrEP coverage, followed by NHB women. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reach EHE goals. The largest reductions in HIV incidence can be achieved by increasing ART coverage among MSM and all race groups benefit regardless of differences in ART initiation by race. Improving ART coverage to > 90% should be prioritized with a particular emphasis on reaching NHB MSM. Such a focus will reduce the largest number of incident cases, reduce racial HIV incidence disparities among both MSM and women, and reduce racial health disparities among persons with HIV. NHB women should also be prioritized for PrEP outreach.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Disease Eradication , HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Goals , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data
9.
AIDS Res Ther ; 20(1): 34, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health and medical follow-up of people living with HIV (PLWH) have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives of this study were to assess anxiety, depression and substance use in Mexican PLWH during the pandemic; to explore the association of these symptoms with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and to compare patients with and without vulnerability factors (low socioeconomic level, previous psychological and/or psychiatric treatment). METHODS: We studied 1259 participants in a cross-sectional study, PLWH receiving care at the HIV clinic in Mexico City were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in the study. We included PLWH were receiving ART; answered a structured interview on sociodemographic data and adherence to ART; and completed the psychological instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use risk. Data collection was performed from June 2020 to October 2021. RESULTS: 84.7% were men, 8% had inadequate ART adherence, 11% had moderate-severe symptoms of depression, and 13% had moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety. Adherence was related to psychological symptoms (p < 0.001). Vulnerable patients were more likely to be women, with low educational level and unemployed (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to address mental health of PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic, with special attention to the most vulnerable individuals. Future studies are needed to understand the relationship between mental health and ART adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
10.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1146704, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236263

ABSTRACT

Knowledge of aging biology needs to be expanded due to the continuously growing number of elderly people worldwide. Aging induces changes that affect all systems of the body. The risk of cardiovascular disease and cancer increases with age. In particular, the age-induced adaptation of the immune system causes a greater susceptibility to infections and contributes to the inability to control pathogen growth and immune-mediated tissue damage. Since the impact of aging on immune function, is still to be fully elucidated, this review addresses some of the recent understanding of age-related changes affecting key components of immunity. The emphasis is on immunosenescence and inflammaging that are impacted by common infectious diseases that are characterized by a high mortality, and includes COVID-19, HIV and tuberculosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Humans , Aged , Inflammation , Aging
11.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1025, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations between COVID-19 related stigma and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); and the associations between PTSS and COVID-19 related stigma, HIV status, COVID-19 status and key HIV population status. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data of 12,355 study participants generated through an online survey that recruited adults from 152 countries between July and December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19-related stigma and PTSS. The independent variables were HIV status (positive/negative), transaction sex (yes/no), use of psychoactive drugs (yes/no), and vulnerability status (transaction sex workers, people who use psychoactive drugs, living with HIV, and COVID-19 status). The confounding variables were age, sex at birth (male/female), level of education, sexual minority individuals (yes/no) and country income level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: There were 835 (6.8%) participants who experienced COVID-19 related stigma during the pandemic and 3,824 (31.0%) participants reported PTSS. Respondents who were living with HIV (AOR: 1.979; 95%CI: 1.522-2.573), tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 3.369; 95%CI: 2.692-4.217), engaged in transactional sex (AOR: 1.428; 95%CI: 1.060-1.922) and used psychoactive drugs (AOR: 1.364; 95%CI: 1.053-1.767) had significantly higher odds of experiencing COVID-19 related stigma. Individuals with vulnerability status (AOR:4.610; 95%CI: 1.590-13.368) and who experienced COVID-19 related stigma (AOR: 2.218; 95%CI: 1.920-2.561) had significantly higher odds of PTSS. CONCLUSION: Individuals with vulnerability status may be at increased risk for COVID-19 related stigma. Key and vulnerable populations who were living with HIV and who experienced stigma may be at a higher risk of experiencing PTSS. Populations at risk for PTSS should be routinely screened and provided adequate support when they contract COVID-19 to reduce the risk for poor mental health during COVID-19 outbreaks and during future health crisis with similar magnitude as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Perception
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 90, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and COVID-19 preventive behaviours among people living with HIV during the pandemic has received little attention in the literature. To address this gap in knowledge, the present study assessed the associations between viral load, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and the use of COVID-19 prevention strategies during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a secondary analysis of data generated through an online survey recruiting participants from 152 countries. Complete data from 680 respondents living with HIV were extracted for this analysis. RESULTS: The findings suggest that detectable viral load was associated with lower odds of wearing facemasks (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI:0.28-0.69; p < 0.01) and washing hands as often as recommended (AOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.97; p = 0.03). Also, adherence to the use of antiretroviral drugs was associated with lower odds of working remotely (AOR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.94; p = 0.02). We found a complex relationship between HIV positive status biological parameters and adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures that may be partly explained by risk-taking behaviours. Further studies are needed to understand the reasons for the study findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Viral Load , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1167104, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Virtual and low-touch behavioral interventions are needed for African American/Black and Latino persons living with HIV (PLWH) with barriers to HIV viral suppression, particularly during COVID-19. Guided by the multiphase optimization strategy, we explored three components for PLWH without viral suppression, grounded in motivational interviewing and behavioral economics: (1) motivational interviewing counseling, (2) 21-weeks of automated text messages and quiz questions about HIV management, and (3) financial rewards for viral suppression (lottery prize vs. fixed compensation). Methods: This pilot optimization trial used sequential explanatory mixed methods to explore the components' feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary evidence of effects using an efficient factorial design. The primary outcome was viral suppression. Participants engaged in baseline and two structured follow-up assessments over an 8-month period, and provided laboratory reports to document HIV viral load. A subset engaged in qualitative interviews. We carried out descriptive quantitative analyses. Then, qualitative data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Data integration used the joint display method. Results: Participants (N = 80) were 49 years old, on average (SD = 9), and 75% were assigned male sex at birth. Most (79%) were African American/Black, and the remainder were Latino. Participants were diagnosed with HIV 20 years previously on average (SD = 9). Overall, components were feasible (>80% attended) and acceptability was satisfactory. A total of 39% (26/66) who provided laboratory reports at follow-up evidenced viral suppression. Findings suggested no components were entirely unsuccessful. The lottery prize compared to fixed compensation was the most promising component level. In qualitative analyses, all components were seen as beneficial to individual wellbeing. The lottery prize appeared more interesting and engaging than fixed compensation. However, structural barriers including financial hardship interfered with abilities to reach viral suppression. The integrated analyses yielded areas of convergence and discrepancy and qualitative findings added depth and context to the quantitative results. Conclusions: The virtual and/or low-touch behavioral intervention components tested are acceptable and feasible and show enough potential to warrant refinement and testing in future research, particularly the lottery prize. Results must be interpreted in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial registration: NCT04518241 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04518241).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Motivational Interviewing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Black or African American , Economics, Behavioral , Hispanic or Latino , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Viral Load , Adult , Female
14.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235357

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since limited data are available, we aimed to compare the efficacy and durability of dolutegravir and darunavir in advanced naïve patients. METHODS: Retrospective multicenter study including AIDS- or late-presenting (def. CD4 ≤ 200/µL) HIV-infected patients starting dolutegravir or ritonavir/cobicistat-boosted darunavir+2NRTIs. Patients were followed from the date of first-line therapy initiation (baseline, BL) to the discontinuation of darunavir or dolutegravir, or for a maximum of 36 months of follow-up. RESULTS: Overall 308 patients (79.2% males, median age 43 years, 40.3% AIDS-presenters, median CD4 66 cells/µL) were enrolled; 181 (58.8%) and 127 (41.2%) were treated with dolutegravir and darunavir, respectively. Incidence of treatment discontinuation (TD), virological failure (VF, defined as a single HIV-RNA > 1000 cp/mL or two consecutive HIV-RNA > 50 cp/mL after 6 months of therapy or after virological suppression had been achieved), treatment failure (the first of TD or VF), and optimal immunological recovery (defined as CD4 ≥ 500/µL + CD4 ≥ 30% + CD4/CD8 ≥ 1) were 21.9, 5.2, 25.6 and 1.4 per 100 person-years of follow-up, respectively, without significant differences between dolutegravir and darunavir (p > 0.05 for all outcomes). However, a higher estimated probability of TD for central nervous system (CNS) toxicity (at 36 months: 11.7% vs. 0%, p = 0.002) was observed for dolutegravir, whereas darunavir showed a higher probability of TD for simplification (at 36 months: 21.3% vs. 5.7%, p = 0.046). CONCLUSIONS: Dolutegravir and darunavir showed similar efficacy in AIDS- and late-presenting patients. A higher risk of TD due to CNS toxicity was observed with dolutegravir, and a higher probability of treatment simplification with darunavir.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Male , Humans , Adult , Female , Darunavir/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/adverse effects , RNA , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Viral Load
15.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235239

ABSTRACT

Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with false-positive HIV screening tests. The underlying mechanism is unclear, and for clinical cases, evidence beyond a temporal connection is missing. However, several experimental studies point toward SARS-CoV-2 spike/HIV-1 envelope (Env) cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) as a cause. Here, we present the first case of an individual with convalescent SARS-CoV-2 infection testing false positive in both an HIV screening and confirmatory test. Longitudinal sampling showed that the phenomenon was temporary but lasted for at least 3 months before waning. After excluding a multitude of common determinants for assay interference, we further show by antibody depletion studies that SARS-CoV-2-spike-specific Abs did not cross-react with HIV-1 gp120 in the patient sample. No additional case of HIV test interference was identified in a cohort of 66 individuals who presented to a post-COVID-19 outpatient clinic. We conclude the SARS-CoV-2-associated HIV test interference to be a temporary process capable of disturbing both screening and confirmatory assays. The assay interference is short-lived and/or rare but should be considered by physicians as a possible explanation for unexpected HIV diagnostic results in patients with a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19 Testing
16.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235103

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a fatal respiratory illness. The associated risk factors for COVID-19 are old age and medical comorbidities. In the current combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, a significant portion of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) with controlled viremia is older and with comorbidities, making these people vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-associated severe outcomes. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 is neurotropic and causes neurological complications, resulting in a health burden and an adverse impact on PLWH and exacerbating HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity on neuroinflammation, the development of HAND and preexisting HAND is poorly explored. In the present review, we compiled the current knowledge of differences and similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1, the conditions of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and HIV-1/AIDS syndemic and their impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Risk factors of COVID-19 on PLWH and neurological manifestations, inflammatory mechanisms leading to the neurological syndrome, the development of HAND, and its influence on preexisting HAND are also discussed. Finally, we have reviewed the challenges of the present syndemic on the world population, with a particular emphasis on PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology
17.
Virol J ; 20(1): 123, 2023 06 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234882

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Elite controllers are able to control viral replication without antiretroviral therapy. Exceptional elite controllers do not show disease progression for more than 25 years. Different mechanisms have been proposed and several elements of both innate and adaptive immunity are implicated. Vaccines are immune stimulating agents that can promote HIV-RNA transcription; transient plasma HIV-RNA detectability has been described within 7-14 days after different vaccinations. The most reliable mechanism involved in virosuppressed people living with HIV is a generalized inflammatory response that activates bystander cells harboring latent HIV. So far no data about viral load increase in elite controllers after SARS-CoV-2 vaccination are reported in literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 65-year-old woman of European ancestry, diagnosed with HIV-1/HCV co-infection more than 25 years ago. Since then, HIV-RNA remained undetectable and she never received ARV therapy. In 2021 she was vaccinated with mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech®). She was administered with three doses in June, July and October 2021, respectively. The last available viral load was undetectable in March 2021. We observed an increase of VL at 32 cp/ml and 124 cp/mL, two and seven months after the second vaccine dose, respectively. During monthly follow-up, HIV-RNA gradually and spontaneously dropped becoming undetectable without ARV intervention. COVID-19 serology was positive with IgG 535 BAU/mL, showing response to vaccination. We measured total HIV-DNA at different time-points and we found it detectable both at the time of the higher plasma HIV-RNA (30 cp/10^6 PBMCs) and when it was undetectable (13 cp/10^6 PBMCs), in reduction. CONCLUSIONS: This case is the first report, to our knowledge, describing a rebound of plasma HIV-RNA in an elite controller after three doses of mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine for SARS-CoV-2. Concomitantly with a spontaneous reduction of plasma HIV-RNA ten months after the third dose of mRNA-BNT162b2 vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech®) without antiretroviral therapy intervention, we observed a reduction of total HIV-DNA in peripheral mononuclear cells. The potential role of vaccinations in altering HIV reservoir, even in elite controllers when plasma HIV-RNA is undetectable, could be a valuable aspect to take into account for the future HIV eradication interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Female , Humans , Aged , HIV Infections/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , Virus Latency , Vaccination , Elite Controllers , RNA, Messenger
18.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e068988, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As COVID-19 continues to spread globally and within Mozambique, its impact among immunosuppressed persons, specifically persons living with HIV (PLHIV), and on the health system is unknown in the country. The 'COVid and hIV' (COVIV) study aims to investigate: (1) the seroprevalence and seroincidence of SARS-CoV-2 among PLHIV and healthcare workers providing HIV services; (2) knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection; (3) the pandemic's impact on HIV care continuum outcomes and (4) facility level compliance with national COVID-19 guidelines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multimethod study will be conducted in a maximum of 11 health facilities across Mozambique, comprising four components: (1) a cohort study among PLHIV and healthcare workers providing HIV services to determine the seroprevalence and seroincidence of SARS-CoV-2, (2) a structured survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices regarding COVID-19 disease, (3) analysis of aggregated patient data to evaluate retention in HIV services among PLHIV, (4) an assessment of facility implementation of infection prevention and control measures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the National Health Bioethics Committee, and institutional review boards of implementing partners. Study findings will be discussed with local and national health authorities and key stakeholders and will be disseminated in clinical and scientific forums. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05022407.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Mozambique/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
19.
J Med Virol ; 95(5): e28763, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234552

ABSTRACT

People are expected to have been previously vaccinated with a Vaccinia-based vaccine, as until 1980 smallpox vaccination was a standard protocol in China. It is unclear whether people with smallpox vaccine still have antibody against vaccinia virus (VACV) and cross-antibody against monkeypox virus (MPXV). Herein, we assessed the binding antibodies with antigen of VACV-A33 and MPXV-A35 in the general population and HIV-1 infected patients. Firstly, we detected VACV antibody with A33 protein to evaluate the efficiency of smallpox vaccination. The result show that 29% (23 of 79) of hospital staff (age ≥ 42 years) and 63% (60 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age ≥ 42 years) from Guangzhou Eighth People's Hospital were able to bind A33. However, among the subjects below 42 years of age, 1.5% (3/198) of the hospital volunteer samples and 1% (1/104) of the samples from HIV patients were positive for antibodies against A33 antigen. Then, we assessed the specific cross-reactive antibodies against MPXV A35 protein. 24% (19 of 79) hospital staff (age〉 = 42 years) and 44% (42 of 95) of HIV-positive patients (age〉 = 42 years) were positive. 98% (194/198) of the hospital staff and 99% (103/104) of the HIV patients had no A35-binding antibodies. Further, we found significant sex differences for the reactivity to A35 antigen were observed in HIV population, but no significant sex differences in hospital staff. Further, we analyzed the positivity rate of anti-A35 antibody of men who have sex with men (MSM) and non-MSM in HIV patients (age〉 = 42years). We found that 47% of no-MSM population and 40% of MSM population were positive for A35 antigen, with no significant difference. Lastly, we found only 59 samples were positive for anti-A33 IgG and anti-A35 IgG in all participants. Together, we demonstrated A33 and A35 antigens binding antibodies were detected in HIV patients and general population who were older than 42 years, and cohort studies only provided data of serological detection to support early response to monkeypox outbreak.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Smallpox Vaccine , Smallpox , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Antigens, Viral , Homosexuality, Male , Immunoglobulin G , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox virus , Vaccinia virus , Viral Proteins
20.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(Suppl 1): 971, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20245438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Partner-delivered HIV self-testing kits has previously been highlighted as a safe, acceptable and effective approach to reach men. However, less is known about its real-world implementation in reaching partners of people living with HIV. We evaluated programmatic implementation of partner-delivered self-testing through antenatal care (ANC) attendees and people newly diagnosed with HIV by assessing use, positivity, linkage and cost per kit distributed. METHODS: Between April 2018 and December 2019, antenatal care (ANC) clinic attendees and people or those newly diagnosed with HIV clients across twelve clinics in three cities in South Africa were given HIVST kits (OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test, OraSure Technologies) to distribute to their sexual partners. A follow-up telephonic survey was administered to all prior consenting clients who were successfully reached by telephone to assess primary outcomes. Incremental economic costs of the implementation were estimated from the provider's perspective. RESULTS: Fourteen thousand four hundred seventy-three HIVST kits were distributed - 10,319 (71%) to ANC clients for their male partner and 29% to people newly diagnosed with HIV for their partners. Of the 4,235 ANC clients successfully followed-up, 82.1% (3,475) reportedly offered HIVST kits to their male partner with 98.1% (3,409) accepting and 97.6% (3,328) using the kit. Among ANC partners self-testing, 159 (4.8%) reported reactive HIVST results, of which 127 (79.9%) received further testing; 116 (91.3%) were diagnosed with HIV and 114 (98.3%) initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). Of the 1,649 people newly diagnosed with HIV successfully followed-up; 1,312 (79.6%) reportedly offered HIVST kits to their partners with 95.8% (1,257) of the partners accepting and 95.9% (1,206) reported that their partners used the kit. Among these index partners, 297 (24.6%) reported reactive HIVST results of which 261 (87.9%) received further testing; 260 (99.6%) were diagnosed with HIV and 258 (99.2%) initiated ART. The average cost per HIVST distributed in the three cities was US$7.90, US$11.98, and US$14.81, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Partner-delivered HIVST in real world implementation was able to affordably reach many male partners of ANC attendees and index partners of people newly diagnosed with HIV in South Africa. Given recent COVID-19 related restrictions, partner-delivered HIVST provides an important strategy to maintain essential testing services.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Prenatal Care , Self-Testing , South Africa , Mass Screening/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy
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