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1.
Int Immunopharmacol ; 102: 108383, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1521087

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDS: To date, the effects of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on people living with HIV (PLWH) were mainly focused on messenger RNA (mRNA) and adenovirus vector-based vaccines, and little is known about the effects of inactivated virus-based vaccine. This study was designed to determine the effects of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines on PLWH. METHODS: Twenty-four HIV-positive individuals and 24 healthy donors (HD) were respectively recruited from Malipo Country People's Hospital and community in Kunming city. Enumeration of lymphocyte and CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells were evaluated by flow cytometry. Competitive ELISA was used to measure the level of Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralization antibody. Spearman or Pearson correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between laboratory indicators and neutralization antibodies in PLWH. T-cell responses (Th1, Th2, Th17, Treg) and intracellular expression of cytokines (IL-2 and TNF-α) in CD4 or CD8 were induced by spike protein in SARS-CoV-2 (SARS-2-S) and further measured by intracellular staining. RESULTS: CD4, B cells, CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells in peripheral blood of PLWH are dramatically decreased in comparison with HD. Importantly, PLWH display comparable neutralizing antibody positive rate to HD after inoculation with inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. However, PLWH showed weaker responses to vaccines exhibited by lower levels of neutralizing antibodies. Correlation analysis shows that this is possibly caused by low number of CD4 and B cells. Furthermore, SARS-2-S-induced Th2 and Th17 responses are also decreased in PLWH, while no influences on Treg and other cytokines (IL-2, TNF-α and IFN-γ) observed. CONCLUSIONS: PLWH and HD have comparable neutralizing antibodies positive rates, but PLWH display weaker responses to inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in magnitude, which suggests that a booster dose or dose adjustment are required for HIV-infected individuals, especially for those with lower counts of CD4 T and B cells.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/complications , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Th17 Cells/immunology , Th2 Cells/immunology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage
2.
Nutrients ; 13(10)2021 Oct 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463781

ABSTRACT

To date, vitamin D seems to have a significant role in affecting the prevention and immunomodulation in COVID-19 disease. Nevertheless, it is important to highlight that this pro-hormone has other several activities, such as affecting drug concentrations, since it regulates the expression of cytochrome P450 (CYP) genes. Efavirenz (EFV) pharmacokinetics is influenced by CYPs, but no data are available in the literature concerning the association among vitamin D levels, seasonality (which affects vitamin D concentrations) and EFV plasma levels. For this reason, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25(OH)D3) levels on EFV plasma concentrations in different seasons. We quantified 25(OH)D3 by using chemiluminescence immunoassay, whereas EFV plasma concentrations were quantified with the HPLC-PDA method. A total of 316 patients were enrolled in Turin and Rome. Overall, 25(OH)D3levels resulted in being inversely correlated with EFV concentrations. Some patients with EFV levels higher than 4000 ng/mL showed a deficient 25(OH)D3 concentration in Turin and Rome cohorts and together. EFV concentrations were different in patients without vitamin D supplementation, whereas, for vitamin D-administered individuals, no difference in EFV exposure was present. Concerning seasonality, EFV concentrations were associated with 25(OH)D3 deficiency only in winter and in spring, whereas a significant influence was highlighted for 25(OH)D3 stratification for deficient, insufficient and sufficient values in winter, spring and summer. A strong and inverse association between 25(OH)D3and EFV plasma concentrations was suggested. These data suggest that vitamin D is able to affect drug exposure in different seasons; thus, the achievement of the clinical outcome could be improved by also considering this pro-hormone.


Subject(s)
Alkynes/blood , Alkynes/therapeutic use , Benzoxazines/blood , Benzoxazines/therapeutic use , Cyclopropanes/blood , Cyclopropanes/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Vitamin D/pharmacology , Vitamins/pharmacology , Adult , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/blood , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Seasons , Treatment Outcome , Vitamin D/blood , Vitamins/blood
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5839, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1454764

ABSTRACT

There is an urgent need to understand the nature of immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, to inform risk-mitigation strategies for people living with HIV (PLWH). Here we show that the majority of PLWH with ART suppressed HIV viral load, mount a detectable adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2. Humoral and SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses are comparable between HIV-positive and negative subjects and persist 5-7 months following predominately mild COVID-19 disease. T cell responses against Spike, Membrane and Nucleoprotein are the most prominent, with SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells outnumbering CD8 T cells. We further show that the overall magnitude of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses relates to the size of the naive CD4 T cell pool and the CD4:CD8 ratio in PLWH. These findings suggest that inadequate immune reconstitution on ART, could hinder immune responses to SARS-CoV-2 with implications for the individual management and vaccine effectiveness in PLWH.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Immunity, Humoral , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Formation/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Cohort Studies , Female , Genome, Human , HIV Infections/blood , Humans , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Phenotype , Species Specificity , Tissue Donors
4.
FEBS Lett ; 595(17): 2257-2270, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1439663

ABSTRACT

HIV preferentially infects α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells, forming latent reservoirs that contribute to HIV persistence during antiretroviral therapy. However, the properties of α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells in blood and mucosal compartments remain understudied. Employing two distinct models of HIV infection, HIV-infected humans and simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV)-infected rhesus macaques, we show that α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells in blood are enriched for genes regulating cell cycle progression and cellular metabolism. Unlike their circulating counterparts, rectal α4 ß7 + CD4 T cells exhibited a core tissue-residency gene expression program. These features were conserved across primate species, indicating that the environment influences memory T-cell transcriptional networks. Our findings provide an important molecular foundation for understanding the role of α4 ß7 in HIV infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , HIV Infections/blood , Integrins/metabolism , Adult , Animals , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/virology , Cell Cycle , Cell Proliferation , Gastric Mucosa/cytology , Gastric Mucosa/virology , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Immunization , Macaca mulatta , Male , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/blood , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology
5.
Cell Rep ; 37(1): 109793, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415261

ABSTRACT

The mortality risk of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients has been linked to the cytokine storm caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Understanding the inflammatory responses shared between COVID-19 and other infectious diseases that feature cytokine storms may therefore help in developing improved therapeutic strategies. Here, we use integrative analysis of single-cell transcriptomes to characterize the inflammatory signatures of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from patients with COVID-19, sepsis, and HIV infection. We identify ten hyperinflammatory cell subtypes in which monocytes are the main contributors to the transcriptional differences in these infections. Monocytes from COVID-19 patients share hyperinflammatory signatures with HIV infection and immunosuppressive signatures with sepsis. Finally, we construct a "three-stage" model of heterogeneity among COVID-19 patients, related to the hyperinflammatory and immunosuppressive signatures in monocytes. Our study thus reveals cellular and molecular insights about inflammatory responses to SARS-CoV-2 infection and provides therapeutic guidance to improve treatments for subsets of COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Sepsis/blood , Transcriptome , COVID-19/virology , Cytokine Release Syndrome/blood , Cytokine Release Syndrome/immunology , Cytokines/blood , Data Analysis , Datasets as Topic , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , Sepsis/immunology , Single-Cell Analysis
7.
Lancet HIV ; 8(6): e334-e341, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210023

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most cohorts show similar or lower COVID-19 incidence among people living with HIV compared with the general population. However, incidence might be affected by lower testing rates among vulnerable populations. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence, disease severity, and neutralising antibody activity after infection among people with and without HIV receiving care in a county hospital system over a 3-month period. METHODS: In this matched case-control observational study, remnant serum samples were collected between Aug 1 and Oct 31, 2020, from all people living with HIV who underwent routine outpatient laboratory testing in a municipal health-care system (San Francisco General Hospital, CA, USA). Samples from people living with HIV were date of collection-matched (same day) and age-matched (±5 years) to samples from randomly selected adults (aged 18 years or older) without HIV receiving care for chronic conditions at the same hospital. We compared seroprevalence by HIV status via mixed-effects logistic regression models, accounting for the matched structure of the data (random effects for the matched group), adjusting for age, sex, race or ethnicity, and clinical factors (ie, history of cardiovascular or pulmonary disease, and type 2 diabetes). Severe COVID-19 was assessed in participants with past SARS-CoV-2 (IgG or PCR) infection by chart review and compared with multivariable mixed-effects logistic regression, adjusting for age and sex. SARS-CoV-2 IgG, neutralising antibody titres, and antibody avidity were measured in serum of participants with previous positive PCR tests and compared with multivariable mixed-effects models, adjusting for age, sex, and time since PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. FINDINGS: 1138 samples from 955 people living with HIV and 1118 samples from 1062 people without HIV were tested. SARS-CoV-2 IgG seroprevalence was 3·7% (95% CI 2·4 to 5·0) among people with HIV compared with 7·4% (5·7 to 9·2) among people without HIV (adjusted odds ratio 0·50, 95% CI 0·30 to 0·83). Among 31 people with HIV and 70 people without HIV who had evidence of past infection, the odds of severe COVID-19 were 5·52 (95% CI 1·01 to 64·48) times higher among people living with HIV. Adjusting for time since PCR-confirmed infection, SARS-CoV-2 IgG concentrations were lower (percentage change -53%, 95% CI -4 to -76), pseudovirus neutralising antibody titres were lower (-67%, -25 to -86), and avidity was similar (7%, -73 to 87) among people living with HIV compared with those without HIV. INTERPRETATION: Although fewer infections were detected by SARS-CoV-2 IgG testing among people living with HIV than among those without HIV, people with HIV had more cases of severe COVID-19. Among people living with HIV with past SARS-CoV-2 infection, lower IgG concentrations and pseudovirus neutralising antibody titres might reflect a diminished serological response to infection, and the similar avidity could be driven by similar time since infection. FUNDING: US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, US National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Case-Control Studies , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , San Francisco/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Severity of Illness Index
8.
J Infect Dis ; 224(Supplement_6): S631-S641, 2021 Dec 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1195718

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) binding receptor ACE2 and the spike protein priming protease TMPRSS2 are coexpressed in human placentae. It is unknown whether their expression is altered in the context of HIV infection and antiretroviral therapy (ART). METHODS: We compared mRNA levels of SARS-CoV-2 cell-entry mediators ACE2, TMPRSS2, and L-SIGN by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in 105 placentae: 45 from pregnant women with HIV (WHIV) on protease inhibitor (PI)-based ART, 17 from WHIV on non-PI-based ART, and 43 from HIV-uninfected women. RESULTS: ACE2 levels were lower, while L-SIGN levels were higher, in placentae from WHIV on PI-based ART compared to those on non-PI-based ART and to HIV-uninfected women. TMPRSS2 levels were similar between groups. Black race was significantly associated with lower expression of ACE2 and higher expression of L-SIGN. ACE2 levels were significantly higher in placentae of female fetuses. CONCLUSIONS: We identified pregnant women of black race and WHIV on PI-based ART to have relatively lower expression of placental ACE2 than those of white race and HIV-uninfected women. This may potentially contribute to altered susceptibility to COVID-19 in these women, favorably by reduced viral entry or detrimentally by loss of ACE2 protection against hyperinflammation.


Subject(s)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , COVID-19 , Cell Adhesion Molecules/metabolism , HIV Infections/blood , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Placenta/metabolism , Receptors, Cell Surface/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Serine Endopeptidases/genetics , Adult , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , COVID-19/diagnosis , Case-Control Studies , Cell Adhesion Molecules/genetics , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Humans , Lectins, C-Type/genetics , Pregnancy , RNA, Messenger , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Receptors, Cell Surface/genetics
9.
Clin Immunol ; 227: 108727, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193258

ABSTRACT

With the global spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the important role of natural killer (NK) cells in the control of various viral infections attracted more interest, via non-specific activation, such as antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) and activating receptors, as well as specific activation, such as memory-like NK generation. In response to different viral infections, NK cells fight viruses in different ways, and different NK subsets proliferate. For instance, cytomegalovirus (CMV) induces NKG2C + CD57 + KIR+ NK cells to expand 3-6 months after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT), but human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) induces KIR3DS1+/KIR3DL1 NK cells to expand in the acute phase of infection. However, the similarities and differences among these processes and their molecular mechanisms have not been fully discussed. In this article, we provide a summary and comparison of antiviral mechanisms, unique subset expansion and time periods in peripheral blood and tissues under different conditions of CMV, HIV, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), COVID-19 and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections. Accordingly, we also discuss current clinical NK-associated antiviral applications, including cell therapy and NK-related biological agents, and we state the progress and future prospects of NK cell antiviral treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , Antibody-Dependent Cell Cytotoxicity , COVID-19/blood , Cytomegalovirus/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/blood , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/virology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/blood , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/virology , HIV/immunology , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepatitis B/blood , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/virology , Hepatitis B virus/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Toll-Like Receptors/metabolism
10.
Sex Transm Infect ; 97(3): 209-214, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189914

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We comparatively evaluated two HIV and syphilis blood sampling kits (dried blood spot (DBS) and mini tube (MT)) as part of an online STI postal sampling service that included tests for chlamydia and gonorrhoea. We aimed to see how the blood collection systems compared regarding sample return rates and result rates. Additionally, we aimed to observe differences in false-positive results and describe a request-to-result ratio (RRR)-the required number of kit requests needed to obtain one successful result. METHODS: We reviewed data from an online postal STI kit requesting service for a client transitioning from MT to DBS blood collection systems. We described service user baseline characteristics and compared kit requests, kit and blood sample return rates, and the successful resulting rates for HIV and syphilis for MT and DBS. Pearson's χ2 and Fisher's exact test were used to determine statistical differences, and statistical formulae were applied to produce CIs for differences in proportions. RESULTS: 5670 STI postal kit requests from a Midlands region were reviewed from 6 September 2016-2 January 2019 (1515 MT and 4155 DBS). Baseline characteristics between the two groups were comparable (68.0% female, 74.0% white British and 87.5% heterosexual, median age 26 years). Successful processing rates for DBS were 94.6% and 54.4% for MT (p<0.001) with a percentage difference of 40.2% (95% CI 36.9% to 43.4%). The RRR for MT was 2.9 cf. 1.6 for DBS. False-positive results for MT samples were 5.2% (HIV) and 0.4% (syphilis), and those for DBS were 0.4% (HIV) and 0.0% (syphilis). CONCLUSIONS: This comparative analysis demonstrated the superior successful processing rates for postal DBS collection systems compared with MT. Reasons for this included insufficient volumes, high false-positive rates and degradation of blood quality in MT samples. A postal sampling service using DBS to screen for HIV, syphilis and other blood-borne viruses could be a viable alternative.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection/methods , Dried Blood Spot Testing/methods , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Syphilis/diagnosis , Adult , Blood Specimen Collection/instrumentation , Dried Blood Spot Testing/instrumentation , False Positive Reactions , Female , HIV Infections/blood , Humans , Male , Syphilis/blood , Syphilis Serodiagnosis , Young Adult
11.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167410

ABSTRACT

Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a ß-galactoside-binding lectin capable of promoting or suppressing the progression of infectious diseases. This protein is susceptible to cleavage of its linker-peptides by several proteases, and the resulting cleaved forms, N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and C-terminal CRD, bind to various glycans. It has been suggested that full-length (FL)-Gal-9 and the truncated (Tr)-Gal-9s could exert different functions from one another via their different glycan-binding activities. We propose that FL-Gal-9 regulates the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, HIV co-infected with opportunistic infection (HIV/OI), dengue, malaria, leptospirosis, and tuberculosis (TB). We also suggest that the blood levels of FL-Gal-9 reflect the severity of dengue, malaria, and HIV/OI, and those of Tr-Gal-9 markedly reflect the severity of HIV/OI. Recently, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) was suggested to be an indicator of respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as useful for differentiating pulmonary from extrapulmonary TB. The protease cleavage of FL-Gal-9 may lead to uncontrolled hyper-immune activation, including a cytokine storm. In summary, Gal-9 has potential to reflect the disease severity for the acute and chronic infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/blood , Galectins/blood , Acute Disease , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Galectins/genetics , Galectins/metabolism , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Leptospirosis/blood , Leptospirosis/physiopathology , Malaria/blood , Malaria/physiopathology , Tuberculosis/blood , Tuberculosis/physiopathology
12.
AIDS ; 34(15): 2328-2331, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087867

ABSTRACT

: The COVID-19 pandemic is expected to hinder US End the HIV Epidemic goals. We evaluated viral suppression and retention-in-care before and after telemedicine was instituted, in response to shelter-in-place mandates, in a large, urban HIV clinic. The odds of viral nonsuppression were 31% higher postshelter-in-place (95% confidence interval = 1.08-1.53) in spite of stable retention-in-care and visit volume, with disproportionate impact on homeless individuals. Measures to counteract the effect of COVID-19 on HIV outcomes are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Public Policy , Sustained Virologic Response , Telemedicine , Adult , African Americans , Age Factors , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Female , HIV Infections/blood , Health Services Accessibility , Homeless Persons/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , No-Show Patients/statistics & numerical data , Odds Ratio , Retention in Care/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety-net Providers , San Francisco , Viral Load
13.
J Infect Dis ; 223(3): 403-408, 2021 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082007

ABSTRACT

We performed a retrospective study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). PWH with COVID-19 demonstrated severe lymphopenia and decreased CD4+ T cell counts. Levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α were commonly elevated. In all, 19 of 72 hospitalized individuals (26.4%) died and 53 (73.6%) recovered. PWH who died had higher levels of inflammatory markers and more severe lymphopenia than those who recovered. These findings suggest that PWH remain at risk for severe manifestations of COVID-19 despite antiretroviral therapy and that those with increased markers of inflammation and immune dysregulation are at risk for worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
14.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 296-299, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009200

ABSTRACT

We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient, treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for a B-cell lymphoma previously treated by autologous stem cell transplant. He suffered from chronic COVID19 and we monitored by plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA by highly sensitive droplet-based digital PCR technology (ddPCR). Under tocilizumab therapy and despite a first clinical improvement biologically associated with decreasing inflammatory markers, a slight increase of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia quantified by ddPCR was highlighted, confirming the absence of viral efficacy of this treatment and predicting the subsequent observed deterioration. As expected, his complete recovery, finally achieved after COVID-19 convalescent plasmatherapy, strictly paralleled plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. With these results, we confirmed the interest of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia monitoring by ddPCR in COVID-19 patients, particularly during treatment, and firstly showed that this new and specific biomarker could be helpful to select eligible patient for anti-IL6 receptors therapy considering the variable levels of efficacy recently observed with such therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/genetics , Lymphoma, B-Cell/virology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load/drug effects
15.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 3-10, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927142

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In response to the HIV-AIDS pandemic, great strides have been made in developing molecular methods that accurately quantify nucleic acid products of HIV-1 at different stages of viral replication and to assess HIV-1 sequence diversity and its effect on susceptibility to small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. Here, we review how knowledge gained from these approaches, including viral RNA quantification and sequence analyses, have been rapidly applied to study SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood of infected individuals by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR); and, as in HIV-1 infection, there is growing evidence that the level of viral RNA in plasma may be related to COVID disease severity. Unlike HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2 sequences are highly conserved limiting SARS-CoV-2 sequencing applications to investigating interpatient genetic diversity for phylogenetic analysis. Sensitive sequencing technologies, originally developed for HIV-1, will be needed to investigate intrapatient SARS-CoV-2 genetic variation in response to antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. SUMMARY: Methods used for HIV-1 have been rapidly applied to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 to understand pathogenesis and prognosis. Further application of such methods should improve precision of therapy and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
JAMA ; 324(16): 1651-1669, 2020 10 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-865967

ABSTRACT

Importance: Data on the use of antiretroviral drugs, including new drugs and formulations, for the treatment and prevention of HIV infection continue to guide optimal practices. Objective: To evaluate new data and incorporate them into current recommendations for initiating HIV therapy, monitoring individuals starting on therapy, changing regimens, preventing HIV infection for those at risk, and special considerations for older people with HIV. Evidence Review: New evidence was collected since the previous International Antiviral (formerly AIDS) Society-USA recommendations in 2018, including data published or presented at peer-reviewed scientific conferences through August 22, 2020. A volunteer panel of 15 experts in HIV research and patient care considered these data and updated previous recommendations. Findings: From 5316 citations about antiretroviral drugs identified, 549 were included to form the evidence basis for these recommendations. Antiretroviral therapy is recommended as soon as possible for all individuals with HIV who have detectable viremia. Most patients can start with a 3-drug regimen or now a 2-drug regimen, which includes an integrase strand transfer inhibitor. Effective options are available for patients who may be pregnant, those who have specific clinical conditions, such as kidney, liver, or cardiovascular disease, those who have opportunistic diseases, or those who have health care access issues. Recommended for the first time, a long-acting antiretroviral regimen injected once every 4 weeks for treatment or every 8 weeks pending approval by regulatory bodies and availability. For individuals at risk for HIV, preexposure prophylaxis with an oral regimen is recommended or, pending approval by regulatory bodies and availability, with a long-acting injection given every 8 weeks. Monitoring before and during therapy for effectiveness and safety is recommended. Switching therapy for virological failure is relatively rare at this time, and the recommendations for switching therapies for convenience and for other reasons are included. With the survival benefits provided by therapy, recommendations are made for older individuals with HIV. The current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic poses particular challenges for HIV research, care, and efforts to end the HIV epidemic. Conclusion and Relevance: Advances in HIV prevention and management with antiretroviral drugs continue to improve clinical care and outcomes among individuals at risk for and with HIV.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/drug therapy , Age Factors , Anti-Retroviral Agents/economics , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Drug Administration Schedule , Drug Costs , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Drug Substitution/standards , Drug Therapy, Combination/methods , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , International Agencies , Male , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Polypharmacy , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Societies, Medical , United States , Viral Load/genetics
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