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1.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 117(5): 317-325, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the maternal mental health status during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is necessary to prevent the occurrence of severe mental disorders. Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress disorders are prominent in pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and highly associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Therefore this study aimed to assess the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referral hospitals from 17 October 2020 to 1 March 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 eligible women. A structured, pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was implemented to identify factors associated with women's depression, anxiety and stress. Statistical association was certain based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values ≤0.05. RESULTS: Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women were 37.6% (95% CI 33 to 42.3), 42.1 (95% CI 37.7 to 46.7) and 34.8% (95% CI 30.3 to 39.2), respectively. Having an HIV-negative sexual partner (AOR 1.91 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.15]) and being on antiretroviral therapy >1 year (AOR 2.18 [95% CI 1.41 to 3.36]) were found to be statistically significant with women's antenatal depression, while unplanned pregnancy (AOR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02 to 2.33]) and did not discuss with the sexual partner about HIV (AOR 3.21 [95% CI 2.12 to 7.07]) were the factors associated with prenatal anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more than one in three HIV-positive pregnant women had depression and anxiety. Thus, implementing strategies to prevent unplanned pregnancy and advocating open discussion with sexual partners about HIV will play a large role in reducing pregnancy-related depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240084

ABSTRACT

Globally, the coexistence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and HIV has become an important public health problem, putting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients at risk for severe manifestations and higher mortality. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients using secondary data from the Department of Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study included 15,151 patient clinical records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Data on MetS was extracted in the form of a cluster of metabolic factors. These included abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and impaired fasting glucose captured on an information sheet. Spatial distribution of mortality among patients was observed; overall (21-33%), hypertension (32-43%), diabetes (34-47%), and HIV (31-45%). A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Mortality among COVID-19 patients was associated with being older (≥50+ years), male, and HIV positive. Having hypertension and diabetes reduced the duration from admission to death. Being transferred from a primary health facility (PHC) to a referral hospital among COVID-19 patients was associated with ventilation and less chance of being transferred to another health facility when having HIV plus MetS. Patients with MetS had a higher mortality rate within seven days of hospitalization, followed by those with obesity as an individual component. MetS and its components such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity should be considered a composite predictor of COVID-19 fatal outcomes, mostly, increased risk of mortality. The study increases our understanding of the common contributing variables to severe manifestations and a greater mortality risk among COVID-19 hospitalized patients by investigating the influence of MetS, its components, and HIV coexistence. Prevention remains the mainstay for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The findings underscore the need for improvement of critical care resources across South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity , Hospitalization , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Risk Factors
3.
AIDS Res Ther ; 20(1): 36, 2023 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the interconnected relationship between HIV and mental health were heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed whether there were temporal changes in the mental health status of people living with HIV presenting for care in Shinyanga region, Tanzania. Specifically, we compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety before and during COVID-19, with the goal of describing the changing needs, if any, to person-centered HIV services. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from two randomized controlled trials of adults initiating ART in Shinyanga region, Tanzania between April-December 2018 (pre-COVID-19 period, n = 530) and May 2021-March 2022 (COVID-19 period, n = 542), respectively. We compared three mental health indicators that were similarly measured in both surveys: loss of interest in things, hopelessness about the future, and uncontrolled worrying. We also examined depression and anxiety which were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 in the pre-COVID-19 period and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 in the COVID-19 period, respectively, and classified as binary indicators per each scale's threshold. We estimated prevalence differences (PD) in adverse mental health status before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, using stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for underlying differences in the two study populations. RESULTS: We found significant temporal increases in the prevalence of feeling 'a lot' and 'extreme' loss of interest in things ['a lot' PD: 38, CI 34,41; 'extreme' PD: 9, CI 8,12)], hopelessness about the future [' a lot' PD: 46, CI 43,49; 'extreme' PD: 4, CI 3,6], and uncontrolled worrying [' a lot' PD: 34, CI 31,37; 'extreme' PD: 2, CI 0,4] during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also found substantially higher prevalence of depression [PD: 38, CI 34,42] and anxiety [PD: 41, CI 37,45]. CONCLUSIONS: After applying a quasi-experimental weighting approach, the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms among those starting ART during COVID-19 was much higher than before the pandemic. Although depression and anxiety were measured using different, validated scales, the concurrent increases in similarly measured mental health indicators lends confidence to these findings and warrants further research to assess the possible influence of COVID-19 on mental health among adults living with HIV. Trial Registration NCT03351556, registered November 24, 2017; NCT04201353, registered December 17, 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Tanzania/epidemiology
4.
Lancet HIV ; 10(6): e412-e420, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242778

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women of reproductive age globally. The burden of this disease is highest in low-income and middle-income countries, especially among women living with HIV. In 2018, WHO launched a global strategy to accelerate cervical cancer elimination through rapid scale-up of prophylactic vaccination, cervical screening, and treatment of precancers and cancers. This initiative was key in raising a call for action to address the stark global disparities in cervical cancer burden. However, achieving elimination of cervical cancer among women with HIV requires consideration of biological and social issues affecting this population. This Position Paper shows specific challenges and uncertainties on the way to cervical cancer elimination for women living with HIV and highlights the scarcity of evidence for the effect of interventions in this population. We argue that reaching equity of outcomes for women with HIV will require substantial advances in approaches to HPV vaccination and improved understanding of the long-term effectiveness of HPV vaccines in settings with high HIV burden cervical cancer, just as HIV, is affected by social and structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and gender discrimination, that place the elimination strategy at risk. Global efforts must, therefore, be galvanised to ensure women living with HIV have optimised interventions, given their substantial risk of this preventable malignancy.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Poverty
5.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235239

ABSTRACT

Acute SARS-CoV-2 infection has been associated with false-positive HIV screening tests. The underlying mechanism is unclear, and for clinical cases, evidence beyond a temporal connection is missing. However, several experimental studies point toward SARS-CoV-2 spike/HIV-1 envelope (Env) cross-reactive antibodies (Abs) as a cause. Here, we present the first case of an individual with convalescent SARS-CoV-2 infection testing false positive in both an HIV screening and confirmatory test. Longitudinal sampling showed that the phenomenon was temporary but lasted for at least 3 months before waning. After excluding a multitude of common determinants for assay interference, we further show by antibody depletion studies that SARS-CoV-2-spike-specific Abs did not cross-react with HIV-1 gp120 in the patient sample. No additional case of HIV test interference was identified in a cohort of 66 individuals who presented to a post-COVID-19 outpatient clinic. We conclude the SARS-CoV-2-associated HIV test interference to be a temporary process capable of disturbing both screening and confirmatory assays. The assay interference is short-lived and/or rare but should be considered by physicians as a possible explanation for unexpected HIV diagnostic results in patients with a recent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , COVID-19 Testing
6.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235103

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a fatal respiratory illness. The associated risk factors for COVID-19 are old age and medical comorbidities. In the current combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, a significant portion of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) with controlled viremia is older and with comorbidities, making these people vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-associated severe outcomes. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 is neurotropic and causes neurological complications, resulting in a health burden and an adverse impact on PLWH and exacerbating HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity on neuroinflammation, the development of HAND and preexisting HAND is poorly explored. In the present review, we compiled the current knowledge of differences and similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1, the conditions of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and HIV-1/AIDS syndemic and their impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Risk factors of COVID-19 on PLWH and neurological manifestations, inflammatory mechanisms leading to the neurological syndrome, the development of HAND, and its influence on preexisting HAND are also discussed. Finally, we have reviewed the challenges of the present syndemic on the world population, with a particular emphasis on PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology
7.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242115

ABSTRACT

Tenofovir has been hypothesized to be effective against COVID-19 and is available as two prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) and tenofovir alafenamide (TAF), both part of antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) might be at higher risk for COVID-19 progression; however, information about the impact of tenofovir on COVID-19 clinical outcomes remains controversial. The COVIDARE is a prospective observational multicentric study in Argentina. PLWH with COVID-19 were enrolled from September 2020 to mid-June 2022. Patients were stratified according to baseline ART into those with tenofovir (TDF or TAF) and those without. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed to evaluate the impact of tenofovir vs. non-tenofovir-containing regimens on major clinical outcomes. Of the 1155 subjects evaluated, 927 (80%) received tenofovir-based ART (79% TDF, 21% TAF) whilst the remaining population was under non-tenofovir regimens. The non-tenofovir group had older age and a higher prevalence of heart and kidney disease. Regarding the prevalence of symptomatic COVID-19, tomographic findings, hospitalization, and mortality, no differences were observed. The oxygen therapy requirement was higher in the non-tenofovir group. In the multivariate analyses, a first model with adjustment for viral load, CD4 T-cell count, and overall comorbidities showed that oxygen requirement was associated with non-tenofovir ART. In a second model with adjustment by chronic kidney disease, tenofovir exposure was not statistically significant.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Humans , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/pharmacology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
8.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 78: 100223, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2328222

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate clinical characteristics and outcomes of COVID-19 patients infected with HIV, and to compare with a paired sample without HIV infection. METHODS: This is a substudy of a Brazilian multicentric cohort that comprised two periods (2020 and 2021). Data was obtained through the retrospective review of medical records. Primary outcomes were admission to the intensive care unit, invasive mechanical ventilation, and death. Patients with HIV and controls were matched for age, sex, number of comorbidities, and hospital of origin using the technique of propensity score matching (up to 4:1). They were compared using the Chi-Square or Fisher's Exact tests for categorical variables and the Wilcoxon for numerical variables. RESULTS: Throughout the study, 17,101 COVID-19 patients were hospitalized, and 130 (0.76%) of those were infected with HIV. The median age was 54 (IQR: 43.0;64.0) years in 2020 and 53 (IQR: 46.0;63.5) years in 2021, with a predominance of females in both periods. People Living with HIV (PLHIV) and their controls showed similar prevalence for admission to the ICU and invasive mechanical ventilation requirement in the two periods, with no significant differences. In 2020, in-hospital mortality was higher in the PLHIV compared to the controls (27.9% vs. 17.7%; p = 0.049), but there was no difference in mortality between groups in 2021 (25.0% vs. 25.1%; p > 0.999). CONCLUSIONS: Our results reiterate that PLHIV were at higher risk of COVID-19 mortality in the early stages of the pandemic, however, this finding did not sustain in 2021, when the mortality rate is similar to the control group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Male , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Intensive Care Units
10.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 1-5, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323677

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Given the magnitude of the global COVID-19 pandemic, persons living with HIV (PLWH) may become coinfected with SARS-CoV-2. SETTING: We conducted a survey in Wuhan, China, to characterize the status of coinfected PLWH, their time to clinical improvement, and clinical prognoses. METHODS: Using a Wuhan shipping service for antiretroviral medications, the Wuhan LGBT Center screened 2900 PLWH shipping addresses and cross-referenced 36 of them to quarantine sites or hospitals, suggesting possible COVID-19 cases. Through telephone calls and WeChat (social media) messaging, we conducted a survey after obtaining online informed consent. RESULTS: We had 12 HIV-infected respondents (10 men and 2 women) who also reported COVID-19. The median age was 36 years (interquartile range: 33.0-56.3), mean age 42.4 years, and range 25-66 years of age. Nine of 10 persons on antiretroviral therapy (ART) presented with only mild COVID-19 symptoms. The 10th person on ART was a 56-year-old man who died at home early in the outbreak when health care services were overwhelmed. Two additional cases who had been in intensive care with acute COVID-19 were both men, aged 25 and 37 years; both were ART-naive until this hospitalization. Excluding the deceased man, 6 of 11 coinfected persons reported feeling depressed even after clinical improvements. CONCLUSION: Twelve coinfected persons were identified in Wuhan; 9 of 10 were on long-term ART and had favorable outcomes. Two men identified as having started ART only recently were found to have severe symptoms. Our case series suggests the value of ART for potential mitigation of COVID-19 coinfection.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
11.
AIDS ; 37(10): 1565-1571, 2023 Aug 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2327070

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Data supporting dementia as a risk factor for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) mortality relied on ICD-10 codes, yet nearly 40% of individuals with probable dementia lack a formal diagnosis. Dementia coding is not well established for people with HIV (PWH), and its reliance may affect risk assessment. METHODS: This retrospective cohort analysis of PWH with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) PCR positivity includes comparisons to people without HIV (PWoH), matched by age, sex, race, and zipcode. Primary exposures were dementia diagnosis, by International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 codes, and cognitive concerns, defined as possible cognitive impairment up to 12 months before COVID-19 diagnosis after clinical review of notes from the electronic health record. Logistic regression models assessed the effect of dementia and cognitive concerns on odds of death [odds ratio (OR); 95% CI (95% confidence interval)]; models adjusted for VACS Index 2.0. RESULTS: Sixty-four PWH were identified out of 14 129 patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection and matched to 463 PWoH. Compared with PWoH, PWH had a higher prevalence of dementia (15.6% vs. 6%, P  = 0.01) and cognitive concerns (21.9% vs. 15.8%, P  = 0.04). Death was more frequent in PWH ( P  < 0.01). Adjusted for VACS Index 2.0, dementia [2.4 (1.0-5.8), P  = 0.05] and cognitive concerns [2.4 (1.1-5.3), P  = 0.03] were associated with increased odds of death. In PWH, the association between cognitive concern and death trended towards statistical significance [3.92 (0.81-20.19), P  = 0.09]; there was no association with dementia. CONCLUSION: Cognitive status assessments are important for care in COVID-19, especially among PWH. Larger studies should validate findings and determine long-term COVID-19 consequences in PWH with preexisting cognitive deficits.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dementia , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 Testing , Retrospective Studies , HIV Infections/complications , Risk Factors , Cognition
12.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 23(1): 494, 2023 May 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2324349

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental health and substance use disorders disproportionately affect people with HIV (PWH), and may have been exacerbated during COVID-19. The Promoting Access to Care Engagement (PACE) trial was designed to assess the effectiveness of electronic screening for mental health and substance use in HIV primary care and enrolled PWH from October 2018 to July 2020. Our objective here was to compare screening rates and results for PWH before (October 2018 - February 2020) and early in the COVID-19 pandemic (March-July 2020). METHODS: Adult (≥ 18 years) PWH from 3 large HIV primary care clinics in a US-based integrated healthcare system were offered electronic screening online or via in-clinic tablet computer every 6 months. Screening completion and results (for depression, suicidal ideation, anxiety, and substance use) were analyzed using logistic regression with generalized estimating equations to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) before and after the start of the regional COVID-19 shelter-in-place orders on March 17, 2020. Models adjusted for demographics (age, sex, race/ethnicity), HIV risk factors (men who have sex with men, injection drug use, heterosexual, other), medical center, and modality of screening completion (online or tablet). We conducted qualitative interviews with providers participating in the intervention to evaluate how the pandemic impacted patient care. RESULTS: Of 8,954 eligible visits, 3,904 completed screenings (420 during COVID, 3,484 pre-COVID), with lower overall completion rates during COVID (38% vs. 44%). Patients completing screening during COVID were more likely to be White (63% vs. 55%), male (94% vs. 90%), and MSM (80% vs., 75%). Adjusted PRs comparing COVID and pre-COVID (reference) were 0.70 (95% CI), 0.92 (95% CI), and 0.54 (95% CI) for tobacco use, any substance use, and suicidal ideation, respectively. No significant differences were found by era for depression, anxiety, alcohol, or cannabis use. These results were in contrast to provider-reported impressions of increases in substance use and mental health symptoms. CONCLUSION: Findings suggest PWH had modest declines in screening rates early in the COVID-19 pandemic which may have been affected by the shift to telemedicine. There was no evidence that mental health problems and substance use increased for PWH in primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: NCT03217058 (First registration date: 7/13/2017); https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03217058.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance-Related Disorders , Adult , Humans , Male , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Primary Health Care , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
13.
BMJ Open ; 13(5): e070693, 2023 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323455

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: In order to enable long-term follow-up of the natural course of HIV infection in the central nervous system, a longitudinal cohort study with repeated cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analyses at intervals over time was initiated in 1985. When antiretrovirals against HIV were introduced in the late 1980s, short-term and long-term effects of various antiretroviral treatment (ART) regimens were added to the study. PARTICIPANTS: All adult people living with HIV (PLWH) who were diagnosed at or referred to the Department of Infectious Diseases, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Gothenburg, Sweden were asked to participate in the Gothenburg HIV CSF Study Cohort. PLWH with neurological symptoms or other clinical symptoms of HIV, as well as those with no symptoms of HIV infection, were included. Most participants were asymptomatic, which distinguishes this cohort from most other international HIV CSF studies. In addition, HIV-negative controls were recruited. These included people on HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis who served as lifestyle-matched controls to HIV-infected men who have sex with men. Since lumbar puncture (LP) is an invasive procedure, some PLHW only consented to participate in one examination. Furthermore, at the beginning of the study, several participants were lost to follow-up having died from AIDS. Of 662 PLWH where an initial LP was done, 415 agreed to continue with follow-up. Among the 415, 56 only gave permission to be followed with LP for less than 1 year, mainly to analyse the short-term effect of ART. The remaining 359 PLWH were followed up with repeated LP for periods ranging from >1 to 30 years. This group was defined as the 'longitudinal cohort'. So far, on 7 April 2022, 2650 LP and samplings of paired CSF/blood had been performed, providing a unique biobank. FINDINGS TO DATE: A general finding during the 37-year study period was that HIV infection in the central nervous system, as mirrored by CSF findings, appears early in the infectious course of the disease and progresses slowly in the vast majority of untreated PLWH. Combination ART has been highly effective in reducing CSF viral counts, inflammation and markers of neural damage. Minor CSF signs of long-term sequels or residual inflammatory activity and CSF escape (viral CSF blips) have been observed during follow-up. The future course of these changes and their clinical impact require further studies. FUTURE PLANS: PLWH today have a life expectancy close to that of non-infected people. Therefore, our cohort provides a unique opportunity to study the long-term effects of HIV infection in the central nervous system and the impact of ART and is an ongoing study.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adult , Male , Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/complications , Longitudinal Studies , Homosexuality, Male , Central Nervous System , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
14.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 61(261): 432-436, 2023 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326198

ABSTRACT

Introduction: HIV affects mental health in multiple ways, including its direct pathophysiological effects, associated stigma, impacts on social, and economic dimensions, medications used for long durations and multiple secondary physical health issues that affect the clients and comorbid substance use. In the post-COVID era, in our socio-cultural and geographical context, depression among these populations needs assessment to evaluate their mental health care needs. The objective of this study was to find out the prevalence of depression among people living with HIV/AIDS undergoing antiretroviral therapy at a tertiary care centre. Methods: This was a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at a tertiary care centre from December 2021 to November 2022 after taking ethical approval from Institutional Review Committee (Reference number: 078/79-006) from the same institute. Convenience sampling method was used. Clients 18 years and above under antiretroviral therapy were included and those acutely medically ill were excluded. The PHQ-9 was used as a self-administered, valid, screening tool for the assessment of depressive symptoms. Point estimate and 95% Confidence Interval were calculated. Results: Among 183 participants, the prevalence of depression was 19 (10.4%) (5.98-14.82, 95% Confidence Interval). Conclusions: Depression was found higher among people living with HIV/AIDS as compared to the other studies done in similar settings. Assessment and timely management of depression could be an important step in improving lives and the effectiveness of HIV/AIDS intervention efforts, ultimately improving access to mental health care and universal health coverage. Keywords: depression; HIV; prevalence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Cross-Sectional Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology
15.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285310, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mental disorders are common in people living with HIV (PLHIV) but they are often unrecognized and untreated. Furthermore, the COVID-19 pandemic has disrupted the already limited mental health services in low resource countries such as Uganda, and yet the extent to which the COVID-19 mitigation measures have affected the mental health of PLHIV is not fully known. We aimed to determine the burden of depression, suicidality, substance use and associated factors among adult PLHIV who were seeking care at two HIV clinics in northern and southwestern Uganda. METHODS: We conducted a phenomenological qualitative and quantitative cross-sectional study among 431 PLHIV to determine the burden of depression, suicidality and substance-use disorders at two HIV clinics, at Lira Regional Referral Hospital and Mbarara Regional Referral Hospital in northern and southwestern Uganda respectively, during the COVID-19 lockdown. We used the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9) to assess for depression and suicidality, and the Michigan Assessment-Screening Test for Alcohol and drugs (MAST-AD) to assess for substance use disorder. We conducted descriptive statistics analysis to determine the burden of the disorders, and logistic regression to determine the associated factors. For the qualitative method we conducted in-depth interviews with 30 PLHIV and did thematic analysis. RESULTS: Of the 431 PLHIV surveyed, mean age was 40.31 ± 12.20 years; 53.1% (n = 229) had depression; 22.0% (n = 95) had suicidality; and 15.1% (n = 65) had substance-use disorder. Female gender (PR = 1.073, 95%CI 1.004-1.148, P = 0.038), lack of formal education (PR = 1.197, 95% CI 1.057-1.357, P = 0.005), substance-use disorder (PR = 0.924, 95%CI 0.859-0.994, P = 0.034) and suicidality (PR = 0.757, 95%CI 0.722-0.794, p = 0.000) were associated with depression after adjusting for confounders. Further analysis showed that being female (PR = 0.843, 95% CI 0.787-0.903, P = 0.000*) and having depression (PR = 0.927, 95% CI 0.876-0.981, P = 0.009) and owning a large business (PR = 0.886, 95% CI 0.834-0.941, p = 0.000*) were significantly associated with having a substance-use disorder. Only depression was independently associated with suicidality after adjusting for confounding factors (PR 0.108, 95%CI 0.054-0.218, p = 0.000*). For the qualitative results, there were three apriori themes: a) Burden of depression, b) substance-use, and c) suicidality among the PLHIV during the COVID-19 containment measures. CONCLUSION: There was high prevalence of depression, suicidality and substance-use disorder in adult PLHIV in Uganda during the COVID-19 pandemic and the associated lockdown measures. The three mental health problems seem to have bidirectional relationships and gender has a lot of contribution to the relationships. Interventions aimed at any of the disorders should consider these bidirectional relationships.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Suicide , Adult , Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Male , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Depression/epidemiology , Uganda/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Communicable Disease Control , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
16.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 18(3): 126-134, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318099

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: It is now recognized that SARS-CoV-2 infection can have a long-term impact on health. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding Long COVID in people living with HIV (PLWH). RECENT FINDINGS: PLWH may be at elevated risk of experiencing Long COVID. Although the mechanisms contributing to Long COVID are incompletely understood, there are several demographic and clinical factors that might make PLWH vulnerable to developing Long COVID. SUMMARY: PLWH should be aware that new or worsening symptoms following SARS-CoV-2 infection might represent Long COVID. HIV providers should be aware of this clinical entity and be mindful that their patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection may be at higher risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV Infections/complications , Awareness
17.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 18(3): 119-125, 2023 05 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317247

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the intersection between the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics, particularly the impact of HIV infection on the development of severe COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Studies early in the COVID-19 pandemic did not find a clear link between HIV infection and increased COVID-19 severity or mortality. People with HIV (PWH) were more likely to have severe COVID-19, but much of the risk for worse outcomes was related to high rates of comorbidities and social determinants of health. Although comorbidities and social determinants of health are certainly critically important reasons for severe COVID-19 among PWH, recent large studies have found HIV infection - particularly when the CD4 cell count is low or HIV RNA is not suppressed - is an independent risk factor for COVID-19 severity. The link between HIV and severe COVID-19 highlights the need to diagnose and treat HIV as well as the importance of COVID-19 vaccination and treatment among PWH. SUMMARY: People with HIV have faced increased challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic because of high rates of comorbidities and social determinants of health as well as the impact of HIV on COVID-19 severity. Information on the intersection of the two pandemics has been crucial to improving care for people with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Pandemics , Risk Factors
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(9)2023 Apr 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313623

ABSTRACT

Antiviral protease inhibitors are peptidomimetic molecules that block the active catalytic center of viral proteases and, thereby, prevent the cleavage of viral polyprotein precursors into maturation. They continue to be a key class of antiviral drugs that can be used either as boosters for other classes of antivirals or as major components of current regimens in therapies for the treatment of infections with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, sustained/lifelong treatment with the drugs or drugs combined with other substance(s) often leads to severe hepatic side effects such as lipid abnormalities, insulin resistance, and hepatotoxicity. The underlying pathogenic mechanisms are not fully known and are under continuous investigation. This review focuses on the general as well as specific molecular mechanisms of the protease inhibitor-induced hepatotoxicity involving transporter proteins, apolipoprotein B, cytochrome P450 isozymes, insulin-receptor substrate 1, Akt/PKB signaling, lipogenic factors, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, pregnane X receptor, hepatocyte nuclear factor 4α, reactive oxygen species, inflammatory cytokines, off-target proteases, and small GTPase Rab proteins related to ER-Golgi trafficking, organelle stress, and liver injury. Potential pharmaceutical/therapeutic solutions to antiviral drug-induced hepatic side effects are also discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury , HIV Infections , HIV Protease Inhibitors , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Protease Inhibitors/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/adverse effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
20.
Viruses ; 15(2)2023 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310176

ABSTRACT

To evaluate a decentralised testing model and simplified treatment protocol of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection to facilitate treatment scale-up in Myanmar, this prospective, observational study recruited HIV-HCV co-infected outpatients receiving sofosbuvir/daclatasvir in Yangon, Myanmar. The study examined the outcomes and factors associated with a sustained virological response (SVR). A decentralised "hub-and-spoke" testing model was evaluated where fingerstick capillary specimens were transported by taxi and processed centrally. The performance of the Xpert HCV VL Fingerstick Assay in detecting HCV RNA was compared to the local standard of care ( plasma HCV RNA collected by venepuncture). Between January 2019 and February 2020, 162 HCV RNA-positive individuals were identified; 154/162 (95%) initiated treatment, and 128/154 (84%) returned for their SVR12 visit. A SVR was achieved in 119/154 (77%) participants in the intent-to-treat population and 119/128 (93%) participants in the modified-intent-to-treat population. Individuals receiving an antiretroviral therapy were more likely to achieve a SVR (with an odds ratio (OR) of 7.16, 95% CI 1.03-49.50), while those with cirrhosis were less likely (OR: 0.26, 95% CI 0.07-0.88). The sensitivity of the Xpert HCV VL Fingerstick Assay was 99.4% (95% CI 96.7-100.0), and the specificity was 99.2% (95% CI 95.9-99.9). A simplified treatment protocol using a hub-and-spoke testing model of fingerstick capillary specimens can achieve an SVR rate in LMIC comparable to well-resourced high-income settings.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C , Humans , Hepacivirus/genetics , Myanmar/epidemiology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/diagnosis , Hepatitis C/drug therapy
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