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2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595569

ABSTRACT

Background: Solidarity, such as community connectedness and social cohesion, may be useful in improving HIV testing uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of solidarity on HIV testing before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and HIV testing willingness during COVID-19 among MSM in China. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted to collect sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and solidarity items' information from the participants. We first used factor analysis to reveal the principal component of the solidarity items and then used logistic regression to study the impact of solidarity on HIV testing, by adjusting the possible confounding factors, such as age and education. Results: Social cohesion and community connectedness were revealed by the factor analysis. MSM with high community connectedness were more willing to undergo HIV testing before the epidemic adjusted by age [odds ratio (OR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.13]. The community connectedness was also related to the willingness of HIV testing during the epidemic, with adjustments of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03-1.15). People who did not test for HIV before the COVID-19 epidemic were more willing to have the HIV test during the epidemic, which was correlated with the community connectedness, and the OR value was 1.14 (95%: 1.03-1.25). Conclusion: A high level of community connectedness helped to increase the HIV testing rate before COVID-19 and the willingness of HIV testing during the epidemic among MSM. Strategies can strengthen the role of the community in the management and service of MSM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(11): e26480, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547113

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The need for strategies to encourage user-initiated reporting of results after HIV self-testing (HIVST) persists. Smartphone-based electronic readers (SERs) have been shown capable of reading diagnostics results accurately in point-of-care diagnostics and could bridge the current gaps between HIVST and linkage to care. OBJECTIVE: Our study aimed to assess the willingness of Chinese men who have sex with men (MSM) in the Jiangsu province to use an SER for HIVST through a web-based cross-sectional study. METHODS: From February to April 2020, we conducted a convenience web-based survey among Chinese MSM by using a pretested structured questionnaire. Survey items were adapted from previous HIVST feasibility studies and modified as required. Prior to answering reader-related questions, participants watched a video showcasing a prototype SER. Statistical analysis included descriptive analysis, chi-squared test, and multivariable logistic regression. P values less than .05 were deemed statistically significant. RESULTS: Of 692 participants, 369 (53.3%) were aged 26-40 years, 456 (65.9%) had ever self-tested for HIV, and 493 (71.2%) were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Approximately 98% (483/493) of the willing participants, 85.3% (459/538) of ever self-tested and never self-tested, and 40% (46/115) of unwilling participants reported that SERs would increase their HIVST frequency. Engaging in unprotected anal intercourse with regular partners compared to consistently using condoms (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] 3.04, 95% CI 1.19-7.74) increased the odds of willingness to use an SER for HIVST. Participants who had ever considered HIVST at home with a partner right before sex compared to those who had not (AOR 2.99, 95% CI 1.13-7.90) were also more willing to use an SER for HIVST. Playing receptive roles during anal intercourse compared to playing insertive roles (AOR 0.05, 95% CI 0.02-0.14) was associated with decreased odds of being willing to use an SER for HIVST. The majority of the participants (447/608, 73.5%) preferred to purchase readers from local Centers of Disease Control and Prevention offices and 51.2% (311/608) of the participants were willing to pay less than US $4.70 for a reader device. CONCLUSIONS: The majority of the Chinese MSM, especially those with high sexual risk behaviors, were willing to use an SER for HIVST. Many MSM were also willing to self-test more frequently for HIV with an SER. Further research is needed to ascertain the diagnostic and real-time data-capturing capacity of prototype SERs during HIVST.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronics , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Internet , Male , Smartphone
5.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(9)2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504511

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Implementation data for digital unsupervised HIV self-testing (HIVST) are sparse. We evaluated the impact of an app-based, personalised, oral HIVST program offered by healthcare workers in Western Cape, South Africa. METHODS: In a quasirandomised study (n=3095), we recruited consenting adults with undiagnosed HIV infection from township clinics. To the HIVST arm participants (n=1535), we offered a choice of an offsite (home, office or kiosk based), unsupervised digital HIVST program (n=962), or an onsite, clinic-based, supervised digital HIVST program (n=573) with 24/7 linkages services.With propensity score analyses, we compared outcomes (ie, linkages, new HIV infections and test referrals) with conventional HIV testing (ConvHT) arm participants (n=1560), recruited randomly from geographically separated clinics. RESULTS: In both arms, participants were young (HIVST vs ConvHT) (mean age: 28.2 years vs 29.2 years), female (65.0% vs 76.0%) and had monthly income <3000 rand (80.8% vs 75%).Participants chose unsupervised HIVST (62.7%) versus supervised HIVST and reported multiple sex partners (10.88% vs 8.7%), exposure to sex workers (1.4% vs 0.2%) and fewer comorbidities (0.9% vs 1.9%). Almost all HIVST participants were linked (unsupervised HIVST (99.7%), supervised HIVST (99.8%) vs ConvHT (98.5%)) (adj RR 1.012; 95% CI 1.005 to 1.018) with new HIV infections: overall HIVST (9%); supervised HIVST (10.9%) and unsupervised HIVST (7.6%) versus ConvHT (6.79%) (adj RR 1.305; 95% CI 1.023 to 1.665); test referrals: 16.7% HIVST versus 3.1% ConvHT (adj RR 5.435; 95% CI 4.024 to 7.340). CONCLUSIONS: Our flexible, personalised, app-based HIVST program, offered by healthcare workers, successfully linked almost all HIV self-testers, detected new infections and increased referrals to self-test. Data are relevant for digital HIVST initiatives worldwide.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Mobile Applications , Adult , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing , Humans , Self-Testing , South Africa/epidemiology
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(41): e27418, 2021 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501202

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: The occurrence of COVID-19 pandemic had a significant negative effect on health care systems over the last year. Health care providers were forced to focus mainly on COVID-19 patients, neglecting in many cases equally important diseases, both acute and chronic. Therefore, also screening and diagnostic strategies for HIV could have been significantly impaired.This retrospective, multicenter, observational study aimed at assessing the number and characteristics of new HIV/AIDS diagnoses during COVID-19 pandemic in Italy and compared characteristics of people living with HIV at diagnosis between pre- and post-COVID-19 era (2019 vs 2020).Our results showed a significant reduction of HIV diagnoses during pandemic. By contrast, people living with HIV during pandemic were older and were diagnosed in earlier stage of disease (considering CD4+ T cell count) compared to those who were diagnosed the year before. Moreover, there was a significant decrease of new HIV diagnoses among men who have sex with men, probably for the impact of social distancing and restriction applied by the Italian Government. Late presentation incidence, if numbers in 2020 were lower than those in 2019, is still an issue.Routinely performing HIV testing in patients with suspected SARS-CoV-2 infection is identifying and linking to care underdiagnosed people living with HIV earlier. Thus, combined tests (HIV and SARS-CoV-2) should be implemented in patients with SARS-CoV-2 symptoms overlapping HIV's ones. Lastly, our results lastly showed how urgent implementation of a national policy for HIV screening is necessary.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Male , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
9.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 6: e25816, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487492

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Same-day antiretroviral therapy (SDART) initiation has been implemented at the Thai Red Cross Anonymous Clinic (TRCAC) in Bangkok, Thailand, since 2017. HIV-positive, antiretroviral therapy (ART)-naïve clients who are willing and clinically eligible start ART on the day of HIV diagnosis. In response to the first wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in March 2020, telehealth follow-up was established to comply with COVID-19 preventive measures and allow service continuation. Here, we evaluate its implementation. METHODS: Pre-COVID-19 (until February 2020) clients who initiated SDART received a 2-week ART supply and returned to the clinic for evaluation before being referred to long-term ART maintenance facilities. If no adverse events (AEs) occurred, another 8-week ART supply was provided while referral was arranged. During the first wave of COVID-19 (March-May 2020), clients received a 4-week ART supply and the option of conducting follow-up consultation and physical examination via video call. Clients with severe AEs were required to return to TRCAC; those without received another 6-week ART supply by courier to bridge transition to long-term facilities. This adaptation continued post-first wave (May-August 2020). Routine service data were analysed using data from March to August 2019 for the pre-COVID-19 period. Interviews and thematic analysis were conducted to understand experiences of clients and providers, and gain feedback for service improvement. RESULTS: Of 922, 183 and 321 eligible clients from the three periods, SDART reach [89.9%, 96.2% and 92.2% (p = 0.018)] and ART initiation rates [88.1%, 90.9% and 94.9% (p<0.001)] were high. ART uptake, time to ART initiation and rates of follow-up completion improved over time. After the integration, 35.3% received the telehealth follow-up. The rates of successful referral to a long-term facility (91.8% vs. 95.3%, p = 0.535) and retention in care at months 3 (97.5% vs. 98.0%, p = 0.963) and 6 (94.1% vs. 98.4%, p = 0.148) were comparable for those receiving in-person and telehealth follow-up. Six clients and nine providers were interviewed; six themes on service experience and feedback were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth follow-up with ART delivery for SDART clients is a feasible option to differentiate ART initiation services at TRCAC, which led to its incorporation into routine service.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Telemedicine , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Thailand
10.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 6: e25809, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1487488

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Providing more convenient and patient-centred options for service delivery is a priority within global HIV programmes. These efforts improve patient satisfaction and retention and free up time for providers to focus on new HIV diagnoses or severe illness. Recently, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic precipitated expanded eligibility criteria for these differentiated service delivery (DSD) models to decongest clinics and protect patients and healthcare workers. This has resulted in dramatic scale-up of DSD for antiretroviral therapy, cotrimoxazole and tuberculosis (TB) preventive treatment. While TB treatment among people living with HIV (PLHIV) has traditionally involved frequent, facility-based management, TB treatment can also be adapted within DSD models. Such adaptations could include electronic tools to ensure appropriate clinical management, treatment support, adherence counselling and adverse event (AE) monitoring. In this commentary, we outline considerations for DSD of TB treatment among PLHIV, building on best practices from global DSD model implementation for HIV service delivery. DISCUSSION: In operationalizing TB treatment in DSD models, we consider the following: what activity is being done, when or how often it takes place, where it takes place, by whom and for whom. We discuss considerations for various programme elements including TB screening and diagnosis; medication dispensing; patient education, counselling and support; clinical management and monitoring; and reporting and recording. General approaches include multi-month dispensing for TB medications during intensive and continuation phases of treatment and standardized virtual adherence and AE monitoring. Lastly, we provide operational examples of TB treatment delivery through DSD models, including a conceptual model and an early implementation experience from Zambia. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has catalysed the rapid expansion of differentiated patient-centred service delivery for PLHIV. Expanding DSD models to include TB treatment can capitalize on existing platforms, while providing high-quality, routine treatment, follow-up and patient education and empowerment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/drug therapy
11.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 78, 2021 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1486584

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Symptoms of primary HIV infection, including fever, rash, and headache, are nonspecific and are often described as flu-like. COVID-19 vaccination side effects, such as fever, which occur in up to 10% of people following COVID-19 vaccination, can make the diagnosis of acute HIV infection even more challenging. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-year-old man presented with fever and headache following COVID-19 vaccination. The symptoms were initially thought to be vaccine side effects. A diagnostic workup was conducted due to persisting fever and headache > 72 h following vaccination, and he was diagnosed with Fiebig stage II acute HIV infection, 3 weeks after having unprotected anal intercourse with another man. CONCLUSION: Thorough anamnesis is key to estimating the individual risk of primary HIV infection, in patients presenting with flu-like symptoms. Early diagnosis and initiation of antiretroviral therapy is associated with better prognosis and limits transmission of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination/adverse effects
12.
Afr J Prim Health Care Fam Med ; 13(1): e1-e4, 2021 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478197

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Paediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) often manifests with hearing loss (HL). Given the impact of HL, early detection is critical to prevent its associated effects. Yet, the majority of children living with HIV/AIDS (CLWHA) cannot access hearing healthcare services because of the scarcity of audiologists and expensive costs of purchasing screening equipment. Alternative solutions for early detection of HL are therefore necessary. AIM: The overall aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of using self-administered smartphone-based audiometry for early HL detection amongst CLWHA. SETTING: This study was conducted at the paediatrics department of a state hospital in the Eastern Cape province, South Africa. METHODS: This was a feasibility study conducted amongst twenty-seven (27) CLWHA who were in the age group of 6-12 years. The participants self-administered hearing screening tests using a smartphone-based audiometric test. The primary end-points of this study were to determine the sensitivity, specificity and test-retest reliability of self-administered hearing screening. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity for self-administered screening were 82% and 94%, respectively, with positive and negative predictive values of 90% and 88%, respectively. Moreover, a strong positive test-retest reliability (r = 0.97) was obtained when participants self-administered the screening test. CONCLUSION: Six- to 12-year-old CLWHA were able to accurately self-administer hearing screening tests using smartphone-based audiometry. These findings show that self-administered smartphone audiometry can be used for serial hearing monitoring in at-risk paediatric patients.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hearing Loss , Audiometry, Pure-Tone , Child , Feasibility Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Hearing Loss/diagnosis , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Smartphone
13.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(Suppl 4)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476481

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV self-testing (HIVST) has been shown to be acceptable, feasible and effective in increasing HIV testing uptake. Novel testing strategies are critical to achieving the UNAIDS target of 95% HIV-positive diagnosis by 2025 in South Africa and globally. METHODS: We modelled the impact of six HIVST kit distribution modalities (community fixed-point, taxi ranks, workplace, partners of primary healthcare (PHC) antiretroviral therapy (ART) patients), partners of pregnant women, primary PHC distribution) in South Africa over 20 years (2020-2039), using data collected alongside the Self-Testing AfRica Initiative. We modelled two annual distribution scenarios: (A) 1 million HIVST kits (current) or (B) up to 6.7 million kits. Incremental economic costs (2019 US$) were estimated from the provider perspective; assumptions on uptake and screening positivity were based on surveys of a subset of kit recipients and modelled using the Thembisa model. Cost-effectiveness of each distribution modality compared with the status-quo distribution configuration was estimated as cost per life year saved (estimated from life years lost due to AIDS) and optimised using a fractional factorial design. RESULTS: The largest impact resulted from secondary HIVST distribution to partners of ART patients at PHC (life years saved (LYS): 119 000 (scenario A); 393 000 (scenario B)). However, it was one of the least cost-effective modalities (A: $1394/LYS; B: $4162/LYS). Workplace distribution was cost-saving ($52-$76 million) and predicted to have a moderate epidemic impact (A: 40 000 LYS; B: 156 000 LYS). An optimised scale-up to 6.7 million tests would result in an almost threefold increase in LYS compared with a scale-up of status-quo distribution (216 000 vs 75 000 LYS). CONCLUSION: Optimisation-informed distribution has the potential to vastly improve the impact of HIVST. Using this approach, HIVST can play a key role in improving the long-term health impact of investment in HIVST.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Self-Testing , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mass Screening , Pregnancy , South Africa/epidemiology
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(20)2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470849

ABSTRACT

Australia introduced a national lockdown on 22 March 2020 in response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Melbourne, but not Sydney, had a second COVID-19 lockdown between July and October 2020. We compared the number of HIV post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) prescriptions, HIV tests, and new HIV diagnoses during these lockdown periods. The three outcomes in 2020 were compared to 2019 using incidence rate ratio. There was a 37% and 46% reduction in PEP prescriptions in Melbourne and Sydney, respectively, with a larger reduction during lockdown (68% and 57% reductions in Melbourne's first and second lockdown, 60% reduction in Sydney's lockdown). There was a 41% and 32% reduction in HIV tests in Melbourne and Sydney, respectively, with a larger reduction during lockdown (57% and 61% reductions in Melbourne's first and second lockdowns, 58% reduction in Sydney's lockdown). There was a 44% and 47% reduction in new HIV diagnoses in Melbourne and Sydney, respectively, but no significant reductions during lockdown. The reduction in PEP prescriptions, HIV tests, and new HIV diagnoses during the lockdown periods could be due to the reduction in the number of sexual partners during that period. It could also result in more HIV transmission due to substantial reductions in HIV prevention measures during COVID-19 lockdowns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Australia/epidemiology , Cities , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS-CoV-2
16.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 1066, 2021 Oct 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1468049

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 and HIV epidemics have exacerbated existing inequities among vulnerable groups and severely impacted communities of color. People living with HIV (PLWH), who may already face stigma or discrimination, are at risk of experiencing further stigma as a result of COVID-19, which can result in medical mistrust. METHODS: We performed qualitative interviews between June and August 2020 among 32 PLWH, including 10 individuals diagnosed with COVID-19. A majority of participants perceived themselves as having an increased risk of contracting COVID-19 due to their HIV status. RESULTS: Of those who tested positive for COVID-19, the majority regarded their HIV diagnosis as having a more profound impact on their lives but found similarities between COVID-19 stigma and HIV-related stigma. Many participants also expressed mistrust. CONCLUSIONS: These results can be used to better understand the perspectives of PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic and have important implications for potential COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy and future health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Stigma , Trust
17.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(5 Suppl 1): S16-S25, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1453987

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2019, the District of Columbia recorded a 20-year low rate in new HIV infections but also had near-record numbers of gonorrhea and chlamydia infections. District of Columbia Department of Health has supported numerous forms of community-based in-person screening but not direct at-home testing. METHODS: In summer 2020, the District of Columbia Department of Health launched GetCheckedDC.org for District of Columbia residents to order home-based oral HIV antibody test and urogenital, pharyngeal, and rectal chlamydia and gonorrhea tests. Initial and follow-up surveys were completed by individuals for both test modalities. RESULTS: A retrospective analysis was conducted for the first 5 months of the program. During that period, 1,089 HIV and 1,262 gonorrhea and chlamydia tests (535 urogenital, 520 pharyngeal, 207 rectal) were ordered by 1,245 District of Columbia residents. The average age was 33.1 (median=31, range=14-78) years; 51.6% of requestors identified as Black; 39.3% identified as men who have sex with men; 16.2% reported no form of insurance; and 8.1% and 10.4% reported never being testing for HIV and sexually transmitted infections, respectively. More than half of people requesting tests reported convenience and COVID-19 as the reasons. In total, 39.5% of sexually transmitted infection tests were returned; 7.22% of people testing for sexually transmitted infections received a positive result, and 10.35% of rectal tests were positive. No individuals reported a positive HIV self-test that was confirmed; 98.5% of respondents said that they would recommend the HIV self-test kit. CONCLUSIONS: Mail-out HIV and sexually transmitted infection testing was readily taken up among high-priority demographics within a diverse, urban, high-morbidity jurisdiction during the COVID-19 pandemic. Extragenital testing for gonorrhea and chlamydia should be included in all at-home screening tests given the high positivity rate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Chlamydia Infections , Gonorrhea , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , Chlamydia Infections/diagnosis , Chlamydia Infections/epidemiology , District of Columbia/epidemiology , Gonorrhea/diagnosis , Gonorrhea/epidemiology , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Mass Screening , Pandemics , Postal Service , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
18.
Syst Rev ; 9(1): 160, 2020 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456000

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: More than eight in ten of the world's 1.65 million adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV) live in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and poor viral suppression are reported among ALHIV which may in turn compromise the gains achieved so far. The evidence on whether knowing one's own human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and self-disclosure to others benefit adherence to ART or not is inconclusive. This review aims to estimate the association between knowing one's HIV status and self-disclosure on adherence to ART among ALHIV in SSA. METHODS: Comprehensive search strings will be used to identify relevant observational studies published in English up to May 2020 in major databases: Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), PubMed, and Ovid/MEDLINE. To access African studies and also to freely access subscription-based articles, the African Index Medicus (AIM) and the WHO HINARI databases will be searched. The AfroLib database will be searched to access the gray literature of African studies. We will use the COVIDENCE software for title/abstract screening, full-text screening, quality assessment, and data extraction. Two authors will independently screen retrieved articles, and a third author authorized to resolve conflicts will handle disagreements. The Joanna Briggs Institute's (JBI) critical appraisal tools will be used to assess study quality. Appropriate statistical tests will be conducted to quantify the between studies heterogeneity and for the assessment of publication bias. We will check individual study influence analysis and also do subgroup analysis. The STATA version 14.2 will be used for statistical analysis. DISCUSSION: A high-level adherence to ART is required to achieve adequate viral suppression and improve quality of life. Consequently, the evidence on how adherence to ART differs with knowledge of one's own HIV status and self-disclosure may help guide interventions aimed at improving adherence to ART.


Subject(s)
Disclosure , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Africa South of the Sahara , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Medication Adherence , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Quality of Life , Review Literature as Topic , Self Disclosure
19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 20(1): 65, 2020 03 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455916

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Sero- prevalence studies often have a problem of missing data. Few studies report the proportion of missing data and even fewer describe the methods used to adjust the results for missing data. The objective of this review was to determine the analytical methods used for analysis in HIV surveys with missing data. METHODS: We searched for population, demographic and cross-sectional surveys of HIV published from January 2000 to April 2018 in Pub Med/Medline, Web of Science core collection, Latin American and Caribbean Sciences Literature, Africa-Wide Information and Scopus, and by reviewing references of included articles. All potential abstracts were imported into Covidence and abstracts screened by two independent reviewers using pre-specified criteria. Disagreements were resolved through discussion. A piloted data extraction tool was used to extract data and assess the risk of bias of the eligible studies. Data were analysed through a quantitative approach; variables were presented and summarised using figures and tables. RESULTS: A total of 3426 citations where identified, 194 duplicates removed, 3232 screened and 69 full articles were obtained. Twenty-four studies were included. The response rate for an HIV test of the included studies ranged from 32 to 96% with the major reason for the missing data being refusal to consent for an HIV test. Complete case analysis was the primary method of analysis used, multiple imputations 11(46%) was the most advanced method used, followed by the Heckman's selection model 9(38%). Single Imputation and Instrumental variables method were used in only two studies each, with 13(54%) other different methods used in several studies. Forty-two percent of the studies applied more than two methods in the analysis, with a maximum of 4 methods per study. Only 6(25%) studies conducted a sensitivity analysis, while 11(46%) studies had a significant change of estimates after adjusting for missing data. CONCLUSION: Missing data in survey studies is still a problem in disease estimation. Our review outlined a number of methods that can be used to adjust for missing data on HIV studies; however, more information and awareness are needed to allow informed choices on which method to be applied for the estimates to be more reliable and representative.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Research Design , Bias , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Prevalence
20.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 24 Suppl 5: e25779, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442008

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Over the past 20 years, the response to the HIV epidemic has achieved remarkable results. These results have often been motivated by targets adopted by countries through United Nations (UN) Political Declarations on HIV. The 2016 political declaration included two impact targets, to achieve a 75% decline in new HIV infections and AIDS-related deaths between 2010 and 2020, and to reach the 90-90-90 testing and treatment targets by 2020. Our objective is to summarize progress towards these targets using robust and comparable HIV estimates released by UNAIDS in July 2021. In addition, we comment on the importance of targets and the modelled estimates required to quantify those targets. DISCUSSION: The UNAIDS estimates indicate that at the global and regional levels, the 2020 targets were missed: new infections declined by 31% and AIDS-related deaths declined by 47% between 2010 and 2020, compared to a target of 75% decline for both indicators. Similarly, no region achieved the 90-90-90 testing and treatment targets. Some countries, in diverse settings, achieved these targets showing that the targets were not overly ambitious if the right funding, policies and evidence-informed interventions at the right scale were in place. The 2021 UN Political Declaration on HIV, adopted on 8 June 2021, has set out a new set of ambitious but achievable targets for 2025. The 2025 targets and the required actions to reach those targets are described in the Global AIDS Strategy 2021-2026, which provides a framework to reprioritize HIV responses by reducing inequalities and building on the achievements of multiple Sustainable Development Goals. The Strategy encourages countries to monitor progress against targets for different geographic areas and populations to maximize equitable services and ensure accountability and also to understand why targets are being missed. CONCLUSIONS: The UNAIDS epidemiological estimates provide information that promote accountability and estimate progress towards global targets at the national level. Additional strategic information and analyses are required to identify the populations that are furthest from the targets and the programmes and policies that are keeping countries from meeting their targets.


Subject(s)
Epidemics , HIV Infections , Global Health , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Sustainable Development , United Nations
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