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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30192, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in mental and sexual health among men having sex with men (MSM) due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remain unclear. METHODS: Design: Longitudinal analysis of an ongoing, multicentre, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohort (NCT03893188) in Switzerland. Participants: HIV-negative MSM aged ≥18 who completed at least one questionnaire before and one after the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Outcomes: Primary: mental health, defined as anxiety and depression scores assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. Secondary: sexual behaviour, well-being, PrEP use and disruption of care. Outcomes were assessed over seven periods corresponding to different SARS-CoV-2 prevention measures in Switzerland. We performed pairwise comparisons between periods (Wilcoxon signed rank test). RESULTS: Data from 1,043 participants were included. Whilst anxiety scores remained stable over time, depression scores worsened in the second wave and the second lockdown period compared to pre-pandemic scores. This was confirmed by pairwise comparisons (pre-SARS-CoV-2/second wave and pre-SARS-CoV-2/second lockdown: p <0.001). Downward trends in sexual activity,sexualized substance use, and a switch from daily to "event-driven" PrEP were found. Disruption of care affected 42.6% (790/1856) of daily PrEP users' follow-up visits. CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal analysis of a PrEP cohort enrolling MSM, depression scores worsened in the second wave and the second lockdown compared to the pre-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual Health , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
3.
J Int AIDS Soc ; 25(11): e26030, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2173088

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Zambia has made tremendous progress towards HIV epidemic control; however, gaps remain among key populations (KPs), such as female sex workers (FSWs), men who have sex with men (MSM), people who inject drugs (PWID) and people in prisons and enclosed settings due to cultural, social and legal barriers. The University of Maryland, Baltimore Zambia Community HIV Epidemic Control for Key Populations (Z-CHECK) project aimed to improve HIV case-finding, linkage and treatment adherence at the community level for KPs in Zambia. We describe Z-CHECK strategies and examine HIV positivity yield and antiretroviral therapy (ART) linkage among KPs to inform ongoing programme improvement. METHODS: Z-CHECK recruited, trained and deployed peer community health workers (CHWs) for KP groups, with ongoing mentorship in community engagement. CHWs offered HIV testing in safe spaces and escorted newly HIV-diagnosed clients for same-day ART initiation. Z-CHECK also reached out to KP community leaders and gatekeepers for KP mobilization and trained healthcare workers (HCWs) on KP services and sensitivity. We conducted a retrospective observational review of routinely collected aggregate data for KPs aged ≥15 years at high risk for HIV transmission across five districts in Zambia from January 2019 to December 2020. RESULTS: Z-CHECK provided HIV testing for 9211 KPs, of whom 2227 were HIV positive (positivity yield, 24%). Among these, 1901 (85%) were linked to ART; linkage for MSM, FSW, PWID and people in prisons and enclosed settings was 95%, 89%, 86% and 65%, respectively. Programme strategies that contributed to high positivity yield and linkage included the use of peer KP CHWs, social network testing strategies and opportunities for same-day ART initiation. Challenges to programme implementation included stigma and discrimination among HCWs, as well as KP CHW attrition, which may be explained by high mobility. CONCLUSIONS: Peer CHWs were highly effective at reaching KP communities, identifying persons living with HIV and linking them to care. Engaging KP community gatekeepers resulted in high diffusion of health messages and increased access to health resources. The mobility of CHWs and HCWs is a challenge for programme implementation. Innovative interventions are needed to support PWID and people in prisons and enclosed settings.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Male , Female , Humans , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Community Health Workers , Retrospective Studies , Zambia/epidemiology , HIV Testing
4.
HIV Med ; 23(10): 1108-1112, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2171100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In January 2021, 56 Dean Street, a London sexual health clinic, changed clinic policy so that all those attending for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) were offered quick-start opt-out pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) following completion of the 28-day PEP course. We assessed the uptake of this quick-start PrEP in service users attending for PEP. METHODS: We undertook a case note review of those who received PEP during the 2-week period from 17 February to 1 March 2021, assessing the data and comparing them to those from the same period in 2020 (15 February-28 February 2020) before quick-start opt-out PrEP was introduced. RESULTS: The number of service users receiving PEP was 82 in 2020 and 42 in 2021, of which an unmet PrEP need was demonstrated in 81.7% (67/82) in 2020 and 78.6% (33/42) in 2021 (p = 0.8106). Of those with an unmet need, a higher proportion (97.0% [32/33]) were offered PrEP in 2021 following the introduction of opt-out PrEP compared with the 85.1% (57/67) in 2020 (p = 0.0953). Of those eligible for PrEP who were offered it during their PEP consultation, 53.1% (17/32) in 2021 were dispensed PrEP compared with 17.5% (10/57) in 2020 (p = 0.0007). CONCLUSION: Since the introduction of quick-start opt-out PrEP, uptake in eligible candidates increased from 17.5% to 53.1%. This suggests that this strategy was acceptable to service users.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
5.
Front Public Health ; 10: 945448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163165

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has imposed severe challenges on global health care systems. The roll-out and widespread administration of COVID-19 vaccines has been deemed a major milestone in the race to restrict the severity of the infection. Vaccines have as yet not entirely suppressed the relentless progression of the pandemic, due mainly to the emergence of new virus variants, and also secondary to the waning of protective antibody titers over time. Encouragingly, an increasing number of antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir and the newly developed drug combination, Paxlovid® (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir), as well as molnupiravir, have shown significant benefits for COVID-19 patient outcomes. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proven to be an effective preventive strategy in high-risk uninfected people exposed to HIV. Building on knowledge from what is already known about the use of PrEP for HIV disease, and from recently gleaned knowledge of antivirals used against COVID-19, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 PrEP, using specific antiviral and adjuvant drugs against SARS-CoV-2, may represent a novel preventive strategy for high-risk populations, including healthcare workers, immunodeficient individuals, and poor vaccine responders. Herein, we critically review the risk factors for severe COVID-19 and discuss PrEP strategies against SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we outline details of candidate anti-SARS-CoV-2 PrEP drugs, thus creating a framework with respect to the development of alternative and/or complementary strategies to prevent COVID-19, and contributing to the global armamentarium that has been developed to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity, and transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0274549, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2154244

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Tuberculosis (TB) remains the leading cause of death among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in South Africa. Despite the implementation of HIV/TB integration services at primary healthcare facility level, the effect of HIV on TB treatment outcomes has not been well investigated. To provide evidence base for TB treatment outcome improvement to meet End TB Strategy goal, we assessed the effect of HIV status on treatment outcomes of TB patients at a rural clinic in the Ugu Health District, South Africa. METHODS: We reviewed medical records involving a cohort of 508 TB patients registered for treatment between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2015 at rural public sector clinic in KwaZulu-Natal province, South Africa. Data were extracted from National TB Programme clinic cards and the TB case registers routinely maintained at study sites. The effect of HIV status on TB treatment outcomes was determined by using multinomial logistic regression. Estimates used were relative risk ratio (RRR) at 95% confidence intervals (95%CI). RESULTS: A total of 506 patients were included in the analysis. Majority of the patients (88%) were new TB cases, 70% had pulmonary TB and 59% were co-infected with HIV. Most of HIV positive patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) (90% (n = 268)). About 82% had successful treatment outcome (cured 39.1% (n = 198) and completed treatment (42.9% (n = 217)), 7% (n = 39) died 0.6% (n = 3) failed treatment, 3.9% (n = 20) defaulted treatment and the rest (6.6% (n = 33)) were transferred out of the facility. Furthermore, HIV positive patients had a higher mortality rate (9.67%) than HIV negative patients (2.91%)". Using completed treatment as reference, HIV positive patients not on ART relative to negative patients were more likely to have unsuccessful outcomes [RRR, 5.41; 95%CI, 2.11-13.86]. CONCLUSIONS: When compared between HIV status, HIV positive TB patients were more likely to have unsuccessful treatment outcome in rural primary care. Antiretroviral treatment seems to have had no effect on the likelihood of TB treatment success in rural primary care. The TB mortality rate in HIV positive patients, on the other hand, was higher than in HIV negative patients emphasizing the need for enhanced integrated management of HIV/TB in rural South Africa through active screening of TB among HIV positive individuals and early access to ART among HIV positive TB cases.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Tuberculosis , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Primary Health Care , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
8.
Kidney Int ; 102(4): 740-749, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2150236

ABSTRACT

Four decades after the first cases of HIV were reported, kidney disease remains an important comorbidity in people with HIV (PWH). Both HIV-associated nephropathy and immune complex kidney disease were recognized as complications of HIV infection in the early years before treatment was available. Although the introduction of effective antiretroviral therapy in the late 1990s resulted in dramatic improvements in survival and health in PWH, several commonly used antiretroviral agents have been associated with kidney injury. HIV infection and treatment may also promote the progression of comorbid chronic kidney disease due to traditional risk factors such as diabetes, and HIV is one of the strongest "second hits" for the high-risk APOL1 genotype. Unique considerations in the management of chronic kidney disease in PWH are largely related to the need for lifelong antiretroviral therapy, with potential for toxicity, drug-drug interactions, and polypharmacy. PWH who develop progressive chronic kidney disease are candidates for all modalities of kidney replacement therapy, including kidney transplantation, and at some centers, PWH may be candidates to serve as donors for recipients with HIV. Transplantation of kidney allografts from donors with HIV also offers a unique opportunity to study viral dynamics in the kidney, with implications for kidney health and for research toward HIV cure. In addition, HIV-transgenic animal models have provided important insights into kidney disease pathogenesis beyond HIV, and experience with HIV and HIV-related kidney disease has provided important lessons for future pandemics.


Subject(s)
AIDS-Associated Nephropathy , HIV Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/epidemiology , AIDS-Associated Nephropathy/therapy , Animals , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antigen-Antibody Complex , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/therapy
9.
AIDS ; 35(10): 1704-1706, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135810

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is a highly pathogenic virus which can cause rapidly progressive liver disease in individuals with chronic hepatitis B virus and for which treatment options are limited. The incidence of sexually transmitted HDV infection is unknown. Here we report the case of a HDV seronegative man with pre-existent HIV/hepatitis B virus, taking effective tenofovir-containing antiretroviral therapy, who experienced a significant acute transaminitis with HDV antibody seroconversion and viraemia and no other identifiable cause.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , HIV Infections , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis D , Superinfection , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B virus , Hepatitis B, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis D/complications , Hepatitis D/diagnosis , Hepatitis Delta Virus , Humans , Male
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 15(11)2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2137565

ABSTRACT

A man in his 50s presented to his doctor with a fever, sore throat, cough, dysgeusia and dyspnoea of several days' duration. Tests for HIV antigen, HIV antibody and HIV PCR were positive. He was referred to our hospital for initiation of antiretroviral therapy and bronchoscopy to clarify the cause of an abnormal lung shadow on chest CT. He was diagnosed with organising pneumonia, with concurrent HIV infection. His pulmonary lesions were remitted spontaneously, and he was administered a fixed-dose combination of tenofovir (50 mg), emtricitabine (200 mg) and bictegravir (25 mg) for HIV. This is a rare report of organising pneumonia with HIV infection. Physicians need to consider organising pneumonia when lung opacity is observed in a patient with HIV infection.


Subject(s)
Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia , HIV Infections , Pneumonia , Male , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Pneumonia/drug therapy , Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia/drug therapy
11.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 157-161, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135814

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cabotegravir + rilpivirine long-acting (LA) is a novel antiretroviral therapy (ART) administered intramuscularly monthly or every 2 months by a health care provider. The COVID-19 pandemic presents a potential challenge to patients' ability to attend scheduled clinic visits for dosing administration. SETTING: This analysis evaluated implementation fidelity across 6 phase IIb/III/IIIb cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA clinical trials in 16 countries during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: COVID-19-impacted visits were defined as modified dosing visits for which oral therapy was provided to participants unable to attend the clinic or injection visits that were rescheduled. Data from December 1, 2019, to March 1, 2021, were aggregated and analyzed using descriptive statistics. RESULTS: Of 2127 participants in cabotegravir + rilpivirine LA trials, 1997 (94%) had LA dosing visits proceed as planned during the COVID-19 pandemic. Of 130 (6%) participants with injection visits affected by COVID-19, most were from North America (57%) and Europe (26%). Most participants with COVID-19-impacted visits used oral therapy with cabotegravir + rilpivirine (75%) or alternative oral standard-of-care ART (21%) to maintain continuous ART. The most common reasons for missed visits were clinic closure/staffing constraints (48%) and COVID-19-related travel restrictions (23%). Most (98%) participants who used oral ART maintained virologic suppression; 2 participants had viral load between 50 and 100 copies/mL. CONCLUSION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, most trial participants maintained their LA dosing schedules. Flexibility of the LA dosing regimen, with the ability to switch to oral therapy, facilitated continuous ART provision and implementation fidelity.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , Diketopiperazines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pyridones , Rilpivirine/therapeutic use
13.
Ann Intern Med ; 173(7): 536-541, 2020 10 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110869

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The incidence and severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) among HIV-positive persons receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) have not been characterized in large populations. OBJECTIVE: To describe the incidence and severity of COVID-19 by nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) use among HIV-positive persons receiving ART. DESIGN: Cohort study. SETTING: HIV clinics in 60 Spanish hospitals between 1 February and 15 April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART. MEASUREMENTS: Estimated risks (cumulative incidences) per 10 000 persons and 95% CIs for polymerase chain reaction-confirmed COVID-19 diagnosis, hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission, and death. Risk and 95% CIs for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospital admission by use of the NRTIs tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and others were estimated through Poisson regression models. RESULTS: Of 77 590 HIV-positive persons receiving ART, 236 were diagnosed with COVID-19, 151 were hospitalized, 15 were admitted to the ICU, and 20 died. The risks for COVID-19 diagnosis and hospitalization were greater in men and persons older than 70 years. The risk for COVID-19 hospitalization was 20.3 (95% CI, 15.2 to 26.7) among patients receiving TAF/FTC, 10.5 (CI, 5.6 to 17.9) among those receiving TDF/FTC, 23.4 (CI, 17.2 to 31.1) among those receiving ABC/3TC, and 20.0 (CI, 14.2 to 27.3) for those receiving other regimens. The corresponding risks for COVID-19 diagnosis were 39.1 (CI, 31.8 to 47.6), 16.9 (CI, 10.5 to 25.9), 28.3 (CI, 21.5 to 36.7), and 29.7 (CI, 22.6 to 38.4), respectively. No patient receiving TDF/FTC was admitted to the ICU or died. LIMITATION: Residual confounding by comorbid conditions cannot be completely excluded. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive patients receiving TDF/FTC have a lower risk for COVID-19 and related hospitalization than those receiving other therapies. These findings warrant further investigation in HIV preexposure prophylaxis studies and randomized trials in persons without HIV. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Instituto de Salud Carlos III and National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Dideoxynucleosides , Drug Combinations , Emtricitabine , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Lamivudine , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Tenofovir
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110129

ABSTRACT

This review explored the role of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in the synergy of preeclampsia (PE), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections. Downregulation of VEGFR-2 in PE promotes endothelial dysfunction and prevents endothelial cell (EC) migration, proliferation, and differentiation. The HIV-1 accessory protein, tat (trans-activator of transcription), prevents VEGFR-2 signaling via the vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A) ligand. Combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) may cause immune reconstitution, impaired decidualization, and endothelial injury, thus may be a risk factor for PE development. The VEGF/VEGFR-2 interaction may be associated with SARS-CoV-2-related pulmonary oedema. Endothelial dysfunction and heightened inflammation are both associated with PE, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection; therefore, it is plausible that both characteristics may be exacerbated in the synergy of these events. In addition, this review explored microRNAs (miR) regulating VEGFR-2. An overexpression of miR-126 is evident in PE, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection; thus, modulating the expression of miR-126 may be a therapeutic strategy. However, the involvement of microRNAs in PE, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection needs further investigating. Since these conditions have been evaluated independently, this review attempts to predict their clinical manifestations in their synergy, as well as independently; thereby providing a platform for early diagnosis and therapeutic potential in PE, HIV, and SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , MicroRNAs , Pre-Eclampsia , Female , Humans , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor-2/genetics , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Comorbidity , MicroRNAs/genetics , HIV
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19401, 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119426

ABSTRACT

People living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) in Korea demonstrate insufficient self-management behaviors. Especially during pandemics such as COVID-19, technology-based self-management programs are needed to overcome time and space limitations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of a self-management program using a mobile app (Health Manager) on self-management outcomes among PLWH in Korea. A randomized controlled pilot trial was performed and participants were enrolled in the infectious outpatient clinic of a single hospital. The intervention group used the mobile app for 4 weeks, while the control group received self-management education materials in a portable document format. The online self-report questionnaire assessed primary outcomes including self-efficacy for self-management, self-management behaviors, and medication adherence, and secondary outcomes including perceived health status, depression, and perceived stigma. Thirty-three participants were randomly assigned to the intervention (n = 17) or the control group (n = 16). In the intention-to-treat analysis, self-efficacy for self-management and self-management behaviors increased, while perceived stigma decreased. The app-based self-management program could be considered a helpful strategy to improve self-management outcomes among PLWH and reduce their perceived stigma during the pandemic. Further studies with larger samples and longer follow-ups are needed.Trial registration: Clinical Research Information Service, KCT0004696 [04/02/2020].


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Mobile Applications , Self-Management , Humans , Pandemics , Pilot Projects , HIV Infections/drug therapy
16.
J Addict Med ; 16(6): 678-683, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People who inject drugs (PWID) may experience high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and inadequate access to biomedical HIV prevention. Emerging data support integrating HIV post-exposure and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, PrEP) into services already accessed by PWID. We describe PEP/PrEP eligibility and receipt in a low-barrier substance use disorder bridge clinic located in an area experiencing an HIV outbreak among PWID at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of new patients at a substance use disorder bridge clinic in Boston, MA (January 15, 2020-May 15, 2020) to determine rates of PEP/PrEP eligibility and prescribing. RESULTS: Among 204 unique HIV-negative patients, 85.7% were assessed for injection-related and 23.0% for sexual HIV risk behaviors. Overall, 55/204 (27.0%) met CDC criteria for HIV exposure prophylaxis, including 7/204 (3.4%) for PEP and 48/204 (23.5%) for PrEP. Four of 7 PEP-eligible patients were offered PEP and all 4 were prescribed PEP. Thirty-two of 48 PrEP eligible patients were offered PrEP, and 7/48 (14.6%) were prescribed PrEP. Additionally, 6 PWID were offered PrEP who lacked formal CDC criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Bridge clinics patients have high rates of PEP/PrEP eligibility. The majority of patients with identified eligibility were offered PEP/PrEP, suggesting that upstream interventions that increase HIV risk assessment may support programs in initiating PEP/PrEP care. Additional work is needed to understand why patients declined PEP/PrEP. PrEP offers to PWID who did not meet CDC criteria also suggested provider concern regarding the sensitivity of CDC criteria among PWID. Overall, bridge clinics offer a potential opportunity to increase biomedical HIV prevention service delivery.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy
17.
AIDS ; 36(15): F17-F26, 2022 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116555

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: People with HIV were underrepresented in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine clinical trials. We estimated vaccine effectiveness (VE) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection for the BNT162b2, mRNA-1273, and ChAdOx1 vaccines among a population-based cohort of people with HIV in Ontario, Canada. DESIGN: Test-negative design. METHODS: We identified people with HIV aged ≥19 years who were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR between December 14, 2020 (first availability of COVID-19 vaccines) and November 21, 2021 (pre-Omicron circulation). Outcomes included any infection, symptomatic infection, and COVID-19-related hospitalization/death. We compared the odds of vaccination between test-positive cases and test-negative controls using multivariable logistic regression with adjustment for age, sex, region, calendar time, SARS-CoV-2 test histories, influenza vaccination, comorbidities, and neighborhood-level socio-economic status. VE was derived as (1 - adjusted odds ratio) × 100%. RESULTS: Among 21 023 adults living with HIV, there were 801 (8.3%) test-positive cases and 8,879 (91.7%) test-negative controls. 20.1% cases and 47.8% of controls received ≥1 COVID-19 vaccine dose; among two-dose recipients, 93.4% received ≥1 mRNA dose. Two-dose VE ≥7 days before specimen collection was 82% (95% confidence interval [CI] = 74-87%) against any infection, 94% (95% CI = 82-98%) against symptomatic infection, and 97% (95% CI = 85-100%) against hospitalization/death. Against any infection, VE declined from 86% (95% CI = 77-92%) within 7-59 days after the second dose to 66% (95% CI = -15-90%) after ≥180 days; we did not observe evidence of waning protection for other outcomes. CONCLUSION: Two doses of COVID-19 vaccine offered substantial protection against symptomatic illness and hospitalization/death in people with HIV prior to the emergence of the Omicron variant. Our findings do not support a broad conclusion that COVID-19 VE is lower among people with HIV in populations that, for the most part, are attending HIV care, taking antiretroviral medication, and are virally suppressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Adult , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , BNT162 Vaccine , Vaccine Efficacy , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Ontario/epidemiology
18.
AIDS ; 36(15): 2171-2179, 2022 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115651

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Effective, safe, and affordable antivirals are needed for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Several lines of research suggest that tenofovir may be effective against COVID-19, but no large-scale human studies with appropriate adjustment for comorbidities have been conducted. METHODS: We studied HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 2020 at 69 HIV clinics in Spain. We collected data on sociodemographics, ART, CD4+ cell count, HIV-RNA viral-load, comorbidities and the following outcomes: laboratory-confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, COVID-19 hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) admission and death. We compared the 48-week risks for individuals receiving tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF)/emtricitabine (FTC), tenofovir alafenamide (TAF)/FTC, abacavir (ABC)/lamivudine (3TC), and other regimes. All estimates were adjusted for clinical and sociodemographic characteristics via inverse probability weighting. RESULTS: Of 51 558 eligible individuals, 39.6% were on TAF/FTC, 11.9% on TDF/FTC, 26.6% on ABC/3TC, 21.8% on other regimes. There were 2402 documented SARS-CoV-2 infections (425 hospitalizations, 45 ICU admissions, 37 deaths). Compared with TAF/FTC, the estimated risk ratios (RR) (95% confidence interval) of hospitalization were 0.66 (0.43, 0.91) for TDF/FTC and 1.29 (1.02, 1.58) for ABC/3TC, the RRs of ICU admission were 0.28 (0.11, 0.90) for TDF/FTC and 1.39 (0.70, 2.80) for ABC/3TC, and the RRs of death were 0.37 (0.23, 1.90) for TDF/FTC and 2.02 (0.88-6.12) for ABC/3TC. The corresponding RRs of hospitalization for TDF/FTC were 0.49 (0.24, 0.81) in individuals ≥50 years and 1.15 (0.59, 1.93) in younger individuals. DISCUSSION: Compared with other antiretrovirals, TDF/FTC lowers COVID-19 severity among HIV-positive individuals with virological control. This protective effect may be restricted to individuals aged 50 years and older.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Emtricitabine/therapeutic use , Lamivudine/therapeutic use , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , Drug Combinations
19.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1008653, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119881

ABSTRACT

Background: The severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), which has resulted in the most devastating pandemic in modern history. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) destroys immune system cells and weakens the body's ability to resist daily infections and diseases. Furthermore, HIV-infected individuals had double COVID-19 mortality risk and experienced worse COVID-related outcomes. However, the existing research still lacks the understanding of the molecular mechanism underlying crosstalk between COVID-19 and HIV. The aim of our work was to illustrate blood transcriptome crosstalk between COVID-19 and HIV and to provide potential drugs that might be useful for the treatment of HIV-infected COVID-19 patients. Methods: COVID-19 datasets (GSE171110 and GSE152418) were downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, including 54 whole-blood samples and 33 peripheral blood mononuclear cells samples, respectively. HIV dataset (GSE37250) was also obtained from GEO database, containing 537 whole-blood samples. Next, the "Deseq2" package was used to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between COVID-19 datasets (GSE171110 and GSE152418) and the "limma" package was utilized to identify DEGs between HIV dataset (GSE37250). By intersecting these two DEG sets, we generated common DEGs for further analysis, containing Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Gene Ontology (GO) functional enrichment analysis, protein-protein interaction (PPI) analysis, transcription factor (TF) candidate identification, microRNAs (miRNAs) candidate identification and drug candidate identification. Results: In this study, a total of 3213 DEGs were identified from the merged COVID-19 dataset (GSE171110 and GSE152418), and 1718 DEGs were obtained from GSE37250 dataset. Then, we identified 394 common DEGs from the intersection of the DEGs in COVID-19 and HIV datasets. GO and KEGG enrichment analysis indicated that common DEGs were mainly gathered in chromosome-related and cell cycle-related signal pathways. Top ten hub genes (CCNA2, CCNB1, CDC20, TOP2A, AURKB, PLK1, BUB1B, KIF11, DLGAP5, RRM2) were ranked according to their scores, which were screened out using degree algorithm on the basis of common DEGs. Moreover, top ten drug candidates (LUCANTHONE, Dasatinib, etoposide, Enterolactone, troglitazone, testosterone, estradiol, calcitriol, resveratrol, tetradioxin) ranked by their P values were screened out, which maybe be beneficial for the treatment of HIV-infected COVID-19 patients. Conclusion: In this study, we provide potential molecular targets, signaling pathways, small molecular compounds, and promising biomarkers that contribute to worse COVID-19 prognosis in patients with HIV, which might contribute to precise diagnosis and treatment for HIV-infected COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Transcriptome , COVID-19/genetics , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Computational Biology/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/genetics
20.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(3): 522-527, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2102586

ABSTRACT

Comorbid conditions have a major impact on the health, quality of life, and survival of people with HIV, particularly as this population ages. The 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections (CROI) featured excellent science related to specific comorbidities, such as cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, cancer, and frailty. The role of systemic inflammation in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease was an important theme, with strong evidence regarding the impact of microbial translocation. Other studies examined functional impairment, frailty, and potential important contributors, such as concomitant medications and sleep disturbances. The ANCHOR (Anal Cancer/High-grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions Outcomes Research) study provided crucial evidence that treatment of high-risk anal lesions reduces the incidence of anal cancer, which has important implications in the prevention of this devastating comorbidity. In addition, numerous presentations demonstrated the importance of comorbid conditions in COVID-19 outcomes in people with HIV and described persistent symptoms after acute SARS-CoV-2 infection has resolved. This review focuses on the abstracts presented at CROI 2022 in these areas, highlighting those with the most clinical impact.


Subject(s)
Anus Neoplasms , COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Frailty , HIV Infections , Humans , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Frailty/complications , Quality of Life , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/complications , SARS-CoV-2
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