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2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 752965, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595569

ABSTRACT

Background: Solidarity, such as community connectedness and social cohesion, may be useful in improving HIV testing uptake among men who have sex with men (MSM). This study aimed to evaluate the impact of solidarity on HIV testing before the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and HIV testing willingness during COVID-19 among MSM in China. Materials and Methods: An online survey was conducted to collect sociodemographic, sexual behavioral, and solidarity items' information from the participants. We first used factor analysis to reveal the principal component of the solidarity items and then used logistic regression to study the impact of solidarity on HIV testing, by adjusting the possible confounding factors, such as age and education. Results: Social cohesion and community connectedness were revealed by the factor analysis. MSM with high community connectedness were more willing to undergo HIV testing before the epidemic adjusted by age [odds ratio (OR): 1.07, 95% CI: 1.01-1.13]. The community connectedness was also related to the willingness of HIV testing during the epidemic, with adjustments of 1.09 (95% CI: 1.03-1.15). People who did not test for HIV before the COVID-19 epidemic were more willing to have the HIV test during the epidemic, which was correlated with the community connectedness, and the OR value was 1.14 (95%: 1.03-1.25). Conclusion: A high level of community connectedness helped to increase the HIV testing rate before COVID-19 and the willingness of HIV testing during the epidemic among MSM. Strategies can strengthen the role of the community in the management and service of MSM.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Testing , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(3): 299-304, 2021 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574388

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We assessed the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on HIV suppression rates in people living with HIV (PLWH) attending a large Italian HIV clinic. SETTING: The HIV outpatient clinic of the Infectious Diseases Department of Luigi Sacco Hospital, Milan, Italy, which serves more than 5000 PLWH per year. METHODS: A before and after quasi-experimental study design was used to make a retrospective assessment of the monthly trend of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 among the PLWH attending our clinic, with "before" being the period from January 1, 2016 to February 20, 2020, and "after" being the period from February 21, 2020 to December 31, 2020 (the COVID-19 period). Interrupted time series analysis was used to evaluate any changes in the trend. RESULTS: During the study period, 70,349 HIV-RNA viral load determinations were made, and the percentage of HIV-RNA viral load determinations of <50 copies/mL increased from 88.4% in 2016 to 93.2% in 2020 (P < 0.0001). There was a significant monthly trend toward a decrease in the number of HIV-RNA determinations of ≥50 copies/mL before the pandemic (ß -0.084; standard error 0.015; P < 0.001), and this did not significantly change after it started (ß -0.039, standard error 0.161; P = 0.811). CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of viral suppression was maintained among the PLWH referring to our clinic, despite the structural barriers raised by the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of simplified methods of delivering care (such as teleconsultations and multiple antiretroviral treatment prescriptions) may have contributed to preserving this continuum.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anti-HIV Agents/administration & dosage , Delivery of Health Care/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1 , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Load/drug effects
6.
Cult Health Sex ; 23(11): 1500-1515, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1562058

ABSTRACT

Research increasingly considers how collective narratives/experiences of HIV influence understandings of and responses to COVID-19 among men who have sex with men and how these discussions articulate with the larger literature on the social significance of epidemics. Drawing on interviews with 30 men who have sex with men, as well as discussion of epidemics as dramaturgical events, this study aimed to determine how men living in the USA make sense of COVID-19 in the light of their collective knowledge and/or memories of the HIV pandemic. Participants experienced progressive revelations regarding COVID-19's seriousness and constructed frameworks with which to manage the unpredictability of infection. Participants also believed that the initial public response to COVID-19 on the part of the US federal government, health officials and the scientific community, although inadequate, was stronger and more extensive than the response had been to HIV. As communities and the USA negotiated their pandemic responses, participants negotiated their own personal responses with incomplete, uncertain, dynamic and conflicting information. This study provides evidence regarding the social organisation of a contemporary pandemic and how individuals perceive and guard against risk, assign responsibility for virus transmission and acquisition, and navigate the threat of a potentially deadly infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Cult Health Sex ; 23(11): 1516-1531, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561352

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we explore the relationship between "viral load" as a virological, immunological, epidemiological and social category and how it links the four decades-long global HIV pandemic to the ongoing response to COVID-19. We argue, metaphorically, that the response to SARS-CoV-2 contains 'genetic' material from HIV, which has (as a result of the digital age which reproduces error-filled data at incredible speed) mutated and is being transmitted into the social and political body. Using sexual health and substance use as focal points, we turn to Deleuzoguattarian theoretical insights about the assemblage of desire, affect and material factors that produce epidemics. Contrasting historical and contemporary scenes and issues, we explore the complex assemblage created by viral loads, medical and public health protocols, conceptions of risk, responsibility and fear that connect both pandemics. Finally, we consider the goal of viral eradication and related militaristic metaphors, alongside the increasing convergence of medicine, public health, the law and corporate interests, and contrast this with community responses that engage with what it means to be living and dying in viral times.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
8.
S Afr Med J ; 111(12): 1181-1189, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1560405

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To prevent the spread of SARS-CoV-2, many countries instituted lockdown measures. As the virus was initially slow to spread to rural areas in South Africa, Mopani district in Limpopo Province did not experience a high incidence of COVID-19 until the second wave in December 2020. Until then, lockdown measures were more likely than SARS-CoV-2 infections to have an adverse impact on health services. OBJECTIVES: To analyse HIV, tuberculosis (TB) and prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (PMTCT) indicator trends in Mopani during the COVID-19 lockdown and two COVID-19 waves. METHODS: Using monthly data from the District Health Information System from February 2019 to December 2020, we conducted a retrospective review of data elements and indicators that fall into the following domains: primary healthcare head count (HC), HIV, antiretroviral treatment (ART), PMTCT and TB. Aggregated data were analysed, and an interrupted time series analysis was conducted. We assessed percentage changes between the January - March 2020 and April - June 2020 periods, and differences in means for the period April - December 2019 v. the period April - December 2020 were assessed for statistical significance. RESULTS: At the start of the first wave in April 2020, a statistically significant decline of 10% was recorded for total HC utilisation rates (p=0.1). We also found declines of 665 HIV tests (from 1 608 to 942) and 22 positive HIV tests (from 27 to 4) for children between the ages of 18 months and 14 years (p=0.05), with no recovery. Significant declines were also recorded for children aged <15 years starting (change from 35 to 21) and remaining (change from 4 032 to 3 986) on ART, as well as for adults starting ART (change from 855 to 610) at the onset of the first wave (p=0.01). No significant change was detected in PMTCT and TB indicators during the first wave. Pronounced decreases in HC were recorded in December, during the country's second wave (change from 237 965 to 227 834). CONCLUSION: Declines were recorded for most indicators in Mopani, with HC being affected the most at the start of the first wave and not showing any significant recovery between waves. Strategies are required to mitigate the effects of future COVID-19 waves and encourage positive health-seeking behaviour.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Delivery of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Young Adult
9.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 89(1): 1-8, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561815

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms among people living with HIV (PLWH) are not well described. SETTING: Longitudinal survey within the MACS/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS) of PLWH compared with similar HIV-seronegative (SN) individuals. METHODS: Telephone-administered survey of MWCCS participants at 13 clinical research sites across the United States addressing COVID-19 symptoms, SARS-CoV-2 testing, and pandemic impact on social distancing and antiretroviral therapy (ART) use. Primary data collection occurred during May (wave 1), June-July (wave 2), and August-September, 2020 (wave 3). RESULTS: One-third of MWCCS participants were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection; 10% was tested ≥2 times. Similar proportions of PLWH and SN participants were tested, but SARS-CoV-2 positivity was higher among PLWH than among SN individuals (9.4% vs 4.8%, P = 0.003). Odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity remained higher among PLWH after adjusting for age, sex, race/ethnicity, and study site (adjusted odds ratio = 2.0, 95% confidence interval = 1.2 to 3.2). SARS-CoV-2 positivity was not associated with CD4 cell counts among PLWH. Among SARS-CoV-2 positive participants, 9% had no symptoms, 7% had 1-2 mild symptoms, and 84% had ≥3 symptoms. Most of the (98%) participants reported physical distancing during all survey waves; self-reported ART adherence among PLWH was not adversely affected during the pandemic compared with the previous year (similar adherence in 89% of participants, improved in 9% of participants, and decreased in 2% of participants). CONCLUSIONS: Despite similar SARS-CoV-2 testing and physical distancing profiles by HIV serostatus among MWCCS participants, PLWH who reported SARS-CoV-2 testing were more likely to have a positive test result. Additional studies are needed to determine whether and why PLWH are at increased risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Fever/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Pharyngitis/etiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Cough , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence
10.
S Afr Med J ; 111(12): 1174-1180, 2021 12 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1561763

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection in pregnant women living with HIV (PLHIV) has not been described previously. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical presentation and outcomes of a cohort of women with high-risk pregnancies with confirmed COVID-19 to determine whether risk factors for disease severity and adverse outcomes of COVID-19 differed in pregnant women without HIV compared with PLHIV. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled pregnant women with COVID-19 attending the high-risk obstetric service at Tygerberg Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, from 1 May to 31 July 2020, with follow-up until 31 October 2020. Women were considered high risk if they required specialist care for maternal, neonatal and/or anaesthetic conditions. Common maternal or obstetric conditions included hypertensive disorders, morbid obesity (body mass index (BMI) ≥40 kg/m2) and diabetes. Information on demographics, clinical features, and maternal and neonatal outcomes was collected and compared for PLHIV v. pregnant women without HIV. RESULTS: One hundred women (72 without HIV and 28 PLHIV) with high-risk pregnancies had laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. Among the 28 PLHIV, the median (interquartile range) CD4 count was 441 (317 - 603) cells/µL, and 19/26 (73%) were virologically suppressed. COVID-19 was diagnosed predominantly in the third trimester (81%). Obesity (BMI ≥30 in n=61/81; 75%) and hypertensive disorders were frequent comorbidities. Of the 100 women, 40% developed severe or critical COVID-19, 15% required intensive care unit admission and 6% needed invasive ventilation. Eight women died, 1 from advanced HIV disease complicated by bacteraemia and urosepsis. The crude maternal mortality rate was substantially higher in women with COVID-19 compared with all other deliveries at our institution during this period (8/91 (9%) v. 7/4 058 (0.2%); p<0.001). Neonatal outcomes were favourable. No significant differences in COVID-19 risk factors, disease severity, and maternal/neonatal outcome were noted for PLHIV v. those without HIV. CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of high-risk pregnant women, the impact of COVID-19 was severe, significantly increasing maternal mortality risk compared with baseline rates. Virally suppressed HIV infection was not associated with worse COVID-19 outcomes in pregnancy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , Pregnancy Outcome , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Maternal Mortality , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Pregnancy, High-Risk , Prospective Studies , South Africa
11.
AIDS ; 35(14): 2401-2404, 2021 11 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541608

ABSTRACT

Among 582 participants in Western Kenya who were retrospectively tested from January through March 2020, 19 (3.3%) had detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. The prevalence of detectable SARS-CoV-2 antibodies was similar between participants with and without HIV (3.1% vs. 4%, P = 0.68). One participant reported a cough in the preceding week but others denied symptoms. These may represent cross-reactivity or asymptomatic infections that predated the first reported COVID-19 cases in Kenya.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Kenya/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
12.
Lancet HIV ; 8(11): e661-e662, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541052
13.
Lancet HIV ; 8(11): e701-e710, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541051

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Factors affecting outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection in people living with HIV are unclear. We assessed the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis and severe outcomes among people living with HIV. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study using data from the PISCIS cohort of people with HIV in Catalonia (Spain) between March 1 and Dec 15, 2020. We linked PISCIS data with integrated health-care, clinical, and surveillance registries through the Public Data Analysis for Health Research and Innovation Program of Catalonia (PADRIS) to obtain data on SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis, chronic comorbidities, as well as clinical and mortality outcomes. Participants were aged at least 16 years in care at 16 hospitals in Catalonia. Factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 diagnoses and severe outcomes were assessed using univariable and multivariable Cox regression models. We estimated the effect of immunosuppression on severe outcomes (hospital admission for >24 h with dyspnoea, tachypnoea, hypoxaemia, asphyxia, or hyperventilation; or death) using Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. FINDINGS: We linked 20 847 (72·8%) of 28 666 participants in the PISCIS cohort with PADRIS data; 13 142 people had HIV. 749 (5·7%) people with HIV were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2: their median age was 43·5 years (IQR 37·0-52·7), 131 (17·5%) were female, and 618 (82·5%) were male. 103 people with HIV (13·8%) were hospitalised, seven (0·9%) admitted to intensive care, and 13 (1·7%) died. SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis was more common among migrants (adjusted hazard ratio 1·55, 95% CI 1·31-1·83), men who have sex with men (1·42, 1·09-1·86), and those with four or more chronic comorbidities (1·46, 1·09-1·97). Age at least 75 years (5·2, 1·8-15·3), non-Spanish origin (2·1, 1·3-3·4), and neuropsychiatric (1·69, 1·07-2·69), autoimmune disease (1·92, 1·14-3·23), respiratory disease (1·84, 1·09-3·09), and metabolic disease (2·59, 1·59-4·23) chronic comorbidities were associated with increased risk of severe outcomes. A Kaplan-Meier estimator showed differences in the risk of severe outcomes according to CD4 cell count in patients with detectable HIV RNA (p=0·039) but no differences were observed in patients with undetectable HIV RNA (p=0·15). INTERPRETATION: People living with HIV with detectable HIV viraemia, chronic comorbidities, and some subpopulations could be at increased risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19. These groups should be prioritised in clinical management and SARS-CoV-2 vaccination programmes. FUNDING: Fundació "la Caixa". TRANSLATIONS: For the Catalan, Spanish and Russian translations of the Summary see Supplementary Materials section.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/blood , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Immunologic Factors , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Severity of Illness Index , Socioeconomic Factors , Spain/epidemiology
14.
Lancet HIV ; 8(11): e690-e700, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1541050

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence of whether people living with HIV are at elevated risk of adverse COVID-19 outcomes is inconclusive. We aimed to investigate this association using the population-based National COVID Cohort Collaborative (N3C) data in the USA. METHODS: We included all adult (aged ≥18 years) COVID-19 cases with any health-care encounter from 54 clinical sites in the USA, with data being deposited into the N3C. The outcomes were COVID-19 disease severity, hospitalisation, and mortality. Encounters in the same health-care system beginning on or after January 1, 2018, were also included to provide information about pre-existing health conditions (eg, comorbidities). Logistic regression models were employed to estimate the association of HIV infection and HIV markers (CD4 cell count, viral load) with hospitalisation, mortality, and clinical severity of COVID-19 (multinomial). The models were initially adjusted for demographic characteristics, then subsequently adjusted for smoking, obesity, and a broad range of comorbidities. Interaction terms were added to assess moderation effects by demographic characteristics. FINDINGS: In the harmonised N3C data release set from Jan 1, 2020, to May 8, 2021, there were 1 436 622 adult COVID-19 cases, of these, 13 170 individuals had HIV infection. A total of 26 130 COVID-19 related deaths occurred, with 445 among people with HIV. After adjusting for all the covariates, people with HIV had higher odds of COVID-19 death (adjusted odds ratio 1·29, 95% CI 1·16-1·44) and hospitalisation (1·20, 1·15-1·26), but lower odds of mild or moderate COVID-19 (0·61, 0·59-0·64) than people without HIV. Interaction terms revealed that the elevated odds were higher among older age groups, male, Black, African American, Hispanic, or Latinx adults. A lower CD4 cell count (<200 cells per µL) was associated with all the adverse COVID-19 outcomes, while viral suppression was only associated with reduced hospitalisation. INTERPRETATION: Given the COVID-19 pandemic's exacerbating effects on health inequities, public health and clinical communities must strengthen services and support to prevent aggravated COVID-19 outcomes among people with HIV, particularly for those with pronounced immunodeficiency. FUNDING: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, National Institutes of Health, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cohort Studies , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology
18.
AIDS Res Ther ; 18(1): 87, 2021 11 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526645

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Events associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, such as physical distancing, closure of community services, postponement of health appointments, and loss of employment can lead to social isolation, financial uncertainty, and interruption of antiretroviral adherence, resulting in additional health-related challenges (disability) experienced among adults living with chronic illness such as HIV. 'Living strategies' is a concept derived from the perspectives of people living with HIV, defined as behaviors, attitudes and beliefs adopted by people living with HIV to help deal with disability associated with HIV and multi-morbidity. Our aim was to describe disability among adults living with HIV and self-care living strategies used during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Adults living with HIV in Toronto, Ontario, Canada, including some with pre-pandemic HIV Disability Questionnaire (HDQ) data, completed a cross-sectional web-based survey between June-August 2020. The survey included the HDQ and questions about self-care living strategy use during the pandemic. We compared disability (HDQ) scores prior to versus during the pandemic using paired t-tests. We reported the proportion of participants who engaged in various living strategies at least 'a few times a week' or 'everyday' during the pandemic. RESULTS: Of the 63 respondents, 84% were men, median age 57 years, and 62% lived alone. During the pandemic the greatest disability severity was in the uncertainty [median 30; Interquartile range (IQR): 16, 43] and mental-emotional (25; IQR: 14, 41) domains. Among the 51 participants with pre-pandemic data, HDQ severity scores were significantly greater (worse) during the pandemic (vs prior) in all domains. Greatest change from prior to during the pandemic was in the mental-emotional domain for presence (17.7; p < 0.001), severity (11.4; p < 0.001), and episodic nature (9.3; p < 0.05) of disability. Most participants (> 60%) reported engaging a 'few times a week' or 'everyday' in self-care strategies associated with maintaining sense of control and adopting positive attitudes and beliefs. CONCLUSIONS: People living with HIV reported high levels of uncertainty and mental-emotional health challenges during the pandemic. Disability increased across all HDQ dimensions, with the greatest worsening in the mental-emotional health domain. Results provide an understanding of disability and self-care strategy use during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disability Evaluation , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Care , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1127-1138, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525996

ABSTRACT

In 2010, the US health insurance system underwent one of its most substantial transformations with the passage of the Affordable Care Act, which increased coverage for millions of people in the USA, including those with and at risk of HIV. Even so, the system of HIV care and prevention services in the USA is a complex patchwork of payers, providers, and financing mechanisms. People with HIV are primarily covered by Medicaid, Medicare, private insurance, or a combination of these; many get care through other programmes, particularly the Ryan White HIV/AIDS Program, which serves as the nation's safety net for people with HIV who remain uninsured or underinsured but offers modest to no support for prevention services. While uninsurance has drastically declined over the past decade, the USA trails other high-income countries in key HIV-specific metrics, including rates of viral suppression. In this paper in the Series, we provide an overview of the coverage and financing landscape for HIV treatment and prevention in the USA, discuss how the Affordable Care Act has changed the domestic health-care system, examine the major programmes that provide coverage and services, and identify remaining challenges.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , COVID-19/economics , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Insurance Coverage/legislation & jurisprudence , Insurance, Health/legislation & jurisprudence , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Female , Gender Identity , HIV Infections/economics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Incidence , Male , Medicaid/statistics & numerical data , Medically Uninsured/statistics & numerical data , Medicare/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
20.
Lancet ; 397(10279): 1116-1126, 2021 03 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1525995

ABSTRACT

Men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA were the first population to be identified with AIDS and continue to be at very high risk of HIV acquisition. We did a systematic literature search to identify the factors that explain the reasons for the ongoing epidemic in this population, using a social-ecological perspective. Common features of the HIV epidemic in American MSM include role versatility and biological, individual, and social and structural factors. The high-prevalence networks of some racial and ethnic minority men are further concentrated because of assortative mixing, adverse life experiences (including high rates of incarceration), and avoidant behaviour because of negative interactions with the health-care system. Young MSM have additional risks for HIV because their impulse control is less developed and they are less familiar with serostatus and other risk mitigation discussions. They might benefit from prevention efforts that use digital technologies, which they often use to meet partners and obtain health-related information. Older MSM remain at risk of HIV and are the largest population of US residents with chronic HIV, requiring culturally responsive programmes that address longer-term comorbidities. Transgender MSM are an understudied population, but emerging data suggest that some are at great risk of HIV and require specifically tailored information on HIV prevention. In the current era of pre-exposure prophylaxis and the undetectable equals untransmittable campaign, training of health-care providers to create culturally competent programmes for all MSM is crucial, since the use of antiretrovirals is foundational to optimising HIV care and prevention. Effective control of the HIV epidemic among all American MSM will require scaling up programmes that address their common vulnerabilities, but are sufficiently nuanced to address the specific sociocultural, structural, and behavioural issues of diverse subgroups.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/psychology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/virology , Comorbidity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Incidence , Male , Middle Aged , Minority Groups/psychology , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Sexual Partners/psychology , Transgender Persons/psychology , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
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