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1.
Cult Health Sex ; 24(11): 1531-1547, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506249

ABSTRACT

Gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men are disproportionately affected by HIV in Guatemala; interpersonal violence may increase behaviours that augment the risk of HIV in this group. Although 44% of Guatemalans identify as Indigenous, little information exists on the experiences of Indigenous sexual minority individuals. In this study, we sought to compare different forms of violence and HIV-related behaviours by Indigenous identity among gay, bisexual and other men who have sex with men; and determine if associations between violence and HIV-related behaviours differed by Indigenous identity. We used cross-sectional survey data from 716 Spanish-speaking, adult men recruited from urban centres to examine the prevalence of and relationship between different forms of interpersonal violence and HIV-related behaviours using logistic regression analyses, including the moderating effect of Indigenous identity. In general, fewer Indigenous participants reported interpersonal violence victimisation and HIV-related behaviours compared to their non-Indigenous counterparts. In weighted multivariable analyses, non-Indigenous participants who reported physical and/or sexual violence were over five times as likely to report transactional sex (OR = 5.17, 95% CI 2.11-12.68, p < 0.001), but the relationship was not significant for Indigenous participants. Findings suggest that Indigenous sexual minority men have unique contexts and that additional strengths-based research is needed to ensure that actions and efforts to promote violence and HIV prevention meet their needs.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , Guatemala , Risk-Taking , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Violence
2.
AIDS Care ; 34(10): 1234-1242, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581230

ABSTRACT

Understanding factors related to suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and detectable viral load (VL), especially among vulnerable populations, is needed to improve HIV outcomes. The Caribbean is highly impacted by HIV and socioeconomic inequalities, but few studies have been conducted there to explore food insecurity among people with HIV and factors associated with viral suppression in this vulnerable population. Using baseline data from a pilot intervention trial among people living with HIV and food insecurity in the Dominican Republic, we examined psychosocial and behavioral factors associated with viral suppression, ART adherence, and competing needs. Among participants (n = 115), 61% had a detectable VL; the strongest factor associated with detectable VL was having missed taking ART in the last six months due to not having food (OR = 2.68, p = 0.02). Greater odds of reporting missed ART doses due to not having food were associated with severe food insecurity (OR = 4.60, p = 0.006), clinical depression (OR = 2.76, p = 0.018), Haitian background (OR = 6.62 p = 0.017), and internalized HIV stigma (OR = 1.09, p = 0.041), while lower odds were associated with social support (OR = 0.89, p = 0.03) and having health insurance (OR = 0.27, p = 0.017). Ensuring that people with HIV and food insecurity have food to take with their ART is essential for viral suppression.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Dominican Republic/epidemiology , Food Insecurity , Food Supply , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Haiti/epidemiology , Humans , Medication Adherence , Pilot Projects , Viral Load
3.
AIDS Care ; 34(10): 1330-1337, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34581640

ABSTRACT

Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is common among people living with HIV. HIV and HCV coinfected patients have higher overall mortality rates compared with HIV mono-infected patients. With its high cure rate of HCV infection, direct-acting antiviral (DAA) treatment provides an opportunity to improve the survival of the HIV/HCV coinfected population. The objective of this study is to investigate the association between DAA treatment and all-cause mortality among HIV/HCV coinfected people. The study included 7103 Medicare beneficiaries in the United States who were infected with both HIV and HCV between 2014 and 2017. Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to estimate adjusted hazard ratios (aHRs) of death for patients with and without DAA treatment while controlling for patient characteristics. During the study period, 1675 patients initiated DAA treatment (23.6%). The adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of all-cause mortality between patients with and without DAA treatment was 0.37 (95% CI, 0.29-0.48), regardless of cirrhosis status. DAA treatment was associated with a smaller reduction in all-cause mortality for females (aHR, 0.50 [95% CI, 0.30-0.85]) compared with males (aHR, 0.34 [95% CI, 0.25-0.46]). DAA treatment was associated with improved survival among all HIV/HCV coinfected patients regardless of sex or HCV disease progression.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Hepatitis C , Aged , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/drug therapy , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepacivirus , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/complications , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Male , Medicare , United States/epidemiology
4.
AIDS Care ; 34(10): 1229-1233, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34533062

ABSTRACT

Among people who inject drugs (PWID), 60% have HCV and 50-90% of HIV-infected PWID are co-infected with HCV. Data comparing adherence to direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy among HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected PWID is limited. The impact of HCV treatment initiation on HIV antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence is also poorly understood. We assessed DAA adherence in HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected PWID and examined changes in ART adherence and HIV outcomes following HCV treatment. Study was conducted in three Medication for Opioid use Disorder (MOUD) programs in Bronx, New York. HCV treatment adherence was measured using electronic blister packs. 2-week DAA adherence rates were compared and controlled for study arm, psychiatric illness and alcohol intoxication within the past 30 days. ART adherence was measured using participant self-report and dichotomized to "excellent" or "other". ART adherence, CD4 count, and HIV viral load were identified six months prior to, during, and six months after HCV treatment. Statistical significance was assessed with mixed-effects regression linear or logistic models. Overall DAA adherence rates among HCV mono-infected and HIV/HCV co-infected PWID were 74% (95% CI=71-78%) and 76% (95%CI=70-83%), respectively (p=.55). There were no significant changes in ART adherence, CD4 counts, or HIV viral loads prior to, during, or after HCV treatment. This is the first study assessing the impact of DAA therapy on ART adherence and HIV treatment outcomes among PWID. It is one of the first to compare DAA adherence among HCV and HIV/HCV co-infected PWID. Our data demonstrate no significant difference in DAA adherence and no significant impact of HCV treatment on ART adherence or HIV outcomes.


Subject(s)
Drug Users , HIV Infections , Hepatitis C, Chronic , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Humans , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/drug therapy , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Treatment Outcome
5.
AIDS Care ; 34(10): 1282-1287, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499004

ABSTRACT

HIV and substance use interact synergistically to exacerbate disease progression and contribute to poorer engagement in treatment. There is a lack of qualitative research exploring the complexity of systems that impact HIV patients' linkage to and retention in both substance use and HIV care. Data from qualitative individual interviews with 16 HIV and 13 substance use providers were analyzed using applied thematic analysis. Four themes emerged as barriers to linkage to care providers limited knowledge with appropriate referrals; limited access to treatment options within the community; difficult admission criteria to substance use facilities; and communication challenges across providers including power differential. Emergent themes as barriers to treatment retention were: unstable life of people who use drugs; providers' negative attitude and stigma towards patients; and transportation challenges. Interventions are needed to increase provider cross-training in HIV and substance use disorders, reduce barriers to accessing treatment, and improve communication across providers are needed.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Qualitative Research , Social Stigma , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy
6.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(4): 288-299, 2022 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34569275

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 genetic diversity and resistance profile might change according to the risky sexual behavior of the host. To show this, we recruited 134 individuals between the years 2015 and 2017 identified as transgender women sex workers (TWSW, n = 73) and Heterosexual Military Officers (HET-MO, n = 61). After obtaining informed consent, we collected a blood sample to perform the HIV genotyping, CD4 cell count, and viral load. We used bioinformatics approaches for detecting resistance mutations and recombination events. Epidemiological data showed that both groups reported sexually transmitted diseases and they were widespread among TWSW, especially syphilis and herpes virus (35.6%). Illegal drugs consumption was higher among TWSW (71.2%), whereas condom use was inconsistent for both HET-MO (57.4%) and TWSW (74.0%). TWSW showed the shortest time exposition to antiretroviral therapy (ART) (3.5 years) and the lowest access to ART (34.2%) that conducted treatment failure (>4 logs). HIV-1 sequences from TWSW and HET-MO were analyzed to determine the genetic diversity and antiretroviral drug resistance. Phylogeny analysis revealed 125 (93%) cases of subtype B, 01 subtype A (0.76%), 07 (5.30%) BF recombinants, and 01 (0.76%) AG recombinant. Also, TWSW showed a higher recombination index (9.5%, 7/73) than HET-MO (1.5%, 1/68). HET-MO only showed acquired resistance (26.23%, 16/61), whereas TWSW showed both acquired as transmitted resistance (9.59% for each). In conclusion, TWSW and HET-MO showed significant differences considering the epidemiological characteristics, genetic diversity, recombination events, and HIV resistance profile.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Peru/epidemiology , Risk-Taking , Sexual Behavior
7.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(3): 181-187, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34465217

ABSTRACT

The Centers for AIDS Research (CFAR) program was established by the National Institutes of Health in 1988 to catalyze and support high-impact HIV research and to develop the next generation of HIV investigators at academic institutions throughout the United States. In 2014, the Penn CFAR, the Johns Hopkins University CFAR and the District of Columbia CFAR developed a partnership-the Mid-Atlantic CFAR Consortium (MACC)-to promote cross-CFAR scientific collaboration, mentoring, and communication and to address the regional HIV epidemic. Over the past 6 years, the creation of the MACC has resulted in a rich web of interconnectivity, which has fostered scientific collaboration through working groups on the black men who have sex with men (MSM) and Latinx regional HIV epidemics, joint peer-reviewed publications, and successful collaborative grant applications on topics ranging from HIV prevention in young MSM, transgender women, implementation science, and clinical epidemiology; supported developmental activities through the MACC Scholars program, cross-CFAR mentoring, joint symposia, cross-CFAR seminar participation, and keynote speakers; and promoted strategic communication through advisory committees, best practices consultations, and the social and behavioral science research network. The MACC has been highly impactful by promoting HIV science through regional collaboration, supporting a diverse network of scholars across three cities and focusing on the epidemic in underrepresented and marginalized communities. Lessons learned from this consortium may have implications for scientific research centers beyond the field of HIV.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Research Personnel , United States/epidemiology
8.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(3): 208-215, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34535613

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known regarding human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing preferences for location, staffing, and hours of operation among Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM) in the Southeastern United States, a population at high risk for HIV/STIs. We used a discrete choice experiment to explore these preferences. METHODS: Young Black men who have sex with men ages 16 to 35 years in Birmingham, AL and Jackson, MS completed online surveys evaluating their preferences (best/worst) for HIV/STI testing locations, staffing, hours, method of results notification, and cost. They also selected preferred combinations of these variables through choice tasks. Results were analyzed using joint best/worst and discrete choice experiment models. RESULTS: Between June 2018 and December 2019, participants in Alabama (n = 54) and Mississippi (n = 159) completed online surveys. Both groups preferred stationary testing locations over mobile testing vans, with the most significant difference favoring STI testing-only clinics in Mississippi and local health departments in Alabama (P < 0.001). Technician-performed tests or self-testing were significantly less preferred compared with clinician-performed testing for both groups (P < 0.0001 and P < 0.0001, respectively). Free testing and phone results notification (versus text) were preferred by both groups. The most desirable combination among all participants was weekday clinician-performed testing at the health department for $5. CONCLUSIONS: Young Black men who have sex with men in the Southeastern United States prefer traditional testing locations staffed by experienced personnel. Combination choices are influenced by services that are low or no cost. More research is needed to inform the best way(s) to provide affordable, high-quality HIV/STI testing services for YBMSM, particularly in the post-COVID-19 era when sexual health care delivery models are evolving toward home-based and remote health-focused strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adolescent , Adult , HIV , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Southeastern United States , Young Adult
9.
AIDS Care ; 34(2): 214-219, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495777

ABSTRACT

In settings with a high burden of HIV, pregnant women often experience a cluster of risk factors, including alcohol use and intimate partner violence (IPV). These interrelated risks are poorly understood among pregnant women at risk of HIV in sub-Saharan Africa. We aim to determine cross-sectional associations between pregnant women's alcohol use and victimization due to IPV in the HIV-Unexposed-Uninfected Mother-Infant Cohort Study in Cape Town, South Africa. Women who tested HIV-negative at first antenatal care (ANC) visit were followed to delivery. Trained interviewers collected demographic and psychosocial information, including recent alcohol use and experiences of IPV victimization. We assess the prevalence of alcohol use and associations with IPV using multivariable logistic regression. In 406 HIV-uninfected pregnant women (mean age = 28 years; mean gestational age = 21 weeks), 41 (10%) reported alcohol consumption in the past 12 months; 30/41 (73%) of these at hazardous levels. Any and hazardous alcohol use were associated with greater odds of reporting past year IPV (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] for hazardous use: 3.24, 95% CI = 1.11, 7.56; aOR for any alcohol use: 2.97, 95% CI = 1.19, 7.45). These data suggest the occurrence of overlapping HIV risk factors among pregnant women and may help design improved health interventions in this population.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Intimate Partner Violence , Adult , Alcohol Drinking/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Pregnancy , Pregnant Women/psychology , Prevalence , Risk Factors , South Africa/epidemiology
10.
Sex Transm Dis ; 49(2): 93-98, 2022 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475364

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disease intervention specialists (DIS) provide partner services for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). We assessed an expansion of DIS services for clients with HIV and/or syphilis, and contacts within their social and sexual networks. METHODS: Black and Latinx cisgender men and transgender women who have sex with men diagnosed with HIV and/or syphilis in 4 urban North Carolina counties were referred to designated DIS, who were trained to recruit clients as "seeds" for chain-referral sampling of sociosexual network "peers." All received HIV/STI testing and care; referrals for preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and social, behavioral, and non-STI medical services were offered. Participants completed baseline, 1-month, and 3-month computerized surveys. RESULTS: Of 213 cases referred to DIS from May 2018 to February 2020, 42 seeds (25 with syphilis, 17 with HIV) and 50 peers participated. Median age was 27 years; 93% were Black and 86% were cisgender men. Most peers came from seeds' social networks: 66% were friends, 20% were relatives, and 38% were cisgender women. Incomes were low, 41% were uninsured, and 10% experienced recent homelessness. More seeds than peers had baseline PrEP awareness; attitudes were favorable, but utilization was poor. Thirty-seven participants were referred for PrEP 50 times; 17 (46%) accessed PrEP by month 3. Thirty-nine participants received 129 non-PrEP referrals, most commonly for housing assistance, primary care, Medicaid navigation, and food insecurity. CONCLUSIONS: Chain-referral sampling from partner services clients allowed DIS to access persons with significant medical and social service needs, demonstrating that DIS can support marginalized communities beyond STI intervention.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Adult , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , North Carolina/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/diagnosis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
11.
J Urol ; 207(2): 324-332, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34555924

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The risk of prostate cancer among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) is not well understood and may be obscured by different opportunities for detection. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified 123,472 (37,819 PWH and 85,653 comparators) men enrolled in the Veterans Aging Cohort Study, a prospective national cohort of PWH and demographically matched, uninfected comparators in 2000-2015. We calculated rates of prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) status and fit multivariable Poisson models comparing the rates of PSA testing, prostate biopsy, and cancer incidence. RESULTS: The mean age at enrollment was 52 years. Rates of PSA testing were lower in PWH versus uninfected comparators (0.58 versus 0.63 tests per person-year). Adjusted rates of PSA screening and prostate biopsy were lower among PWH (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 0.87, 95% CI 0.75-0.84 and IRR 0.79 95% CI 0.74-0.83, respectively). The crude IRR for prostate cancer was lower in PWH versus controls (IRR 0.90, 95% CI 0.83-0.97). However, in a multivariable model adjusting for PSA testing, cancer incidence was similar by HIV status (IRR=0.93, 95% CI 0.86-1.01, p=0.08). Among patients who received a prostate biopsy, incidence of prostate cancer did not differ significantly by HIV status (IRR 1.06, 95% CI 0.98-1.15, p=0.15). Among incident cancers, there were significant differences in the distributions of Gleason grade (p=0.05), but not cancer stage (p=0.14) by HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: When accounting for less PSA testing among PWH, the incidence of prostate cancer was similar by HIV status. These findings suggest that less screening contributed to lower observed incidence of prostate cancer in PWH.


Subject(s)
Early Detection of Cancer/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Prostatic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Adult , Case-Control Studies , Early Detection of Cancer/methods , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Incidence , Kallikreins/blood , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasm Grading , Neoplasm Staging , Prospective Studies , Prostate-Specific Antigen/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/blood , Prostatic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Risk Factors
12.
AIDS ; 36(1): 117-125, 2022 01 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34586087

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Low BMI and hyperglycemia are each important risk factors for tuberculosis (TB). However, the contribution of synergy between low BMI and hyperglycemia to risk of TB among people living with HIV (PWH) is unexplored. We compared TB incidence among PWH with different exposure profiles to low BMI (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) and hyperglycemia (random blood glucose ≥140 mg/dl). DESIGN AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study using data of PWH (≥15 years) who enrolled in Myanmar's Integrated HIV Care Program between 2011 and 2017. We used their follow-up data until 2018 to determine TB incidence. RESULTS: Among 20 865 PWH included in this study, 7610 (36%) had low BMI only, 1324 (6%) had hyperglycemia only, and 465 (2%) patients had concurrent low BMI and hyperglycemia (joint exposure) at baseline. During a median follow-up of 2.2 years (interquartile range: 0.5, 4.2), 3628 (17%) developed TB [6.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 6.5,7.0 cases per 100 person-years (PY)]. TB incidence among PWH with joint exposure was 21.0 (95% CI: 18.0, 24.7), with low BMI only was 10.9 (95% CI: 10.4, 11.4), with hyperglycemia only was 5.2 (95% CI: 4.4, 6.3) and with no exposure was 4.6 (95% CI: 4.4, 4.9) cases per 100 PY. The attributable proportion of incident TB due to synergy between low BMI and hyperglycemia was 0.23 (95% CI: 0.06, 0.36). CONCLUSION: Synergy between low BMI and hyperglycemia was associated with increased excess TB incidence in PWH. TB preventive treatment, nutritional support, and hyperglycemia management should be evaluated as interventions to reduce TB risk in PWH with joint exposure.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hyperglycemia , Tuberculosis , Body Mass Index , Cohort Studies , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Hyperglycemia/complications , Hyperglycemia/epidemiology , Incidence , Risk Factors , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control
14.
Reprod Health ; 20(1): 25, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717914

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The intention of becoming pregnant has an evident impact on the prenatal and postnatal period. For female sex workers (FSWs) in West Africa, among whom pregnancies are frequent as are HIV and sexually transmitted infections, a better understanding of their pregnancy intention and its influence on pregnancy occurrence could help prevent unwanted pregnancies and adverse effects on wanted pregnancies. METHODS: We recruited 330 FSWs in Benin and 322 in Mali and followed them for 12 months. We evaluated their pregnancy intention at recruitment and 6-month follow-up, using a multidimensional prospective measure that we developed. We assessed pregnancy occurrence with a pregnancy test and a retrospective questionnaire at 6 and 12 months. A Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the association between intention and pregnancy. We carried out an analysis to take losses to follow-up into account using the inverse of probability of censoring weights and a cluster analysis to corroborate that the multidimensional measure of pregnancy intention fitted the data. RESULTS: 407 FSWs were included in the first 6-month analysis and 284 at 12 months. Mean age was 30.9 years. The pregnancy intention distribution was similar between the two periods: 15.2% in the first period and 16.3% in the second had a positive intention. One out of four were ambivalent and almost 60% (57.7% and 56.3%) had a negative intention. For 38.2% of the FSWs, the intention changed between the two periods. The global incidence rate (to first event) was 19.1 pregnancies per 100 person-years. There was a borderline significant trend (p = 0.0529) of decreased pregnancy incidence with decreasing intention. Compared to positive intention, the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) for ambivalent and negative intentions were 0.71 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 0.32-1.60] and 0.46 (95% CI 0.21-1.01), respectively. CONCLUSION: The level of pregnancy intention influences its occurrence among FSWs and nearly one out of six wants a baby despite working in the sex trade. Programmatically, early identification of these women could facilitate provision of quality antenatal and postnatal care. Given other health risks associated with sex work this care may decrease potential risks of adverse maternal, fetal and neonatal outcomes.


The intention of becoming pregnant has an evident impact on the prenatal and postnatal period. For female sex workers (FSWs) in West Africa, among whom pregnancies are frequent, a better understanding of their pregnancy intention and its influence on pregnancy occurrence could help prevent unwanted pregnancies and adverse effects of wanted pregnancies. We recruited 330 FSWs in Benin and 322 in Mali and we followed them for 12 months. We evaluated their pregnancy intention at recruitment and at 6-month follow-up. We assessed pregnancy occurrence with a pregnancy urine test and with a retrospective questionnaire asking on pregnancy occurrence at 6 and 12 months. With these data we estimated the association between intention and pregnancy. 407 FSWs were included in the first 6-month analysis and 284 at 12 months. Sixteen percent of the FSWs had a positive intention of having a pregnancy in the next 6 months in both the first 6-month and 12 months. One out of four were ambivalent and almost 60% had a negative intention. For 38.2% of the FSWs the intention changed between the two periods. Women with an ambivalent intention compared to those with positive intention, had 30% less pregnancies whereas for negative intention, women had 54% less pregnancies during the study follow-up. As for any woman, the level of pregnancy intention influences its occurrence. Moreover, nearly one out of six FSWs wants a baby despite working in the sex trade. Programmatically, early identification of these women could facilitate provision of quality antenatal and postnatal care.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sex Workers , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Intention , Benin/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Mali/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Pregnancy, Unwanted
15.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 22: 23259582231152041, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36718505

ABSTRACT

During public health crises, people living with HIV (PLWH) may become disengaged from care. The goal of this study was to understand the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic and recent flooding disasters on HIV care delivery in western Kenya. We conducted ten individual in-depth interviews with HIV providers across four health facilities. We used an iterative and integrated inductive and deductive data analysis approach to generate four themes. First, increased structural interruptions created exacerbating strain on health facilities. Second, there was increased physical and psychosocial burnout among providers. Third, patient uptake of services along the HIV continuum decreased, particularly among vulnerable patients. Finally, existing community-based programs and teleconsultations could be adapted to provide differentiated HIV care. Community-centric care programs, with an emphasis on overcoming the social, economic, and structural barriers will be crucial to ensure optimal care and limit the impact of public health disruptions on HIV care globally.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Natural Disasters , Humans , Pandemics , Kenya/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , Health Personnel/psychology , Qualitative Research
16.
Front Public Health ; 10: 938624, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36711354

ABSTRACT

Background: Intimate partner violence (IPV) toward women is a public health concern affecting many countries across the world. Globally, 30% of women experience lifetime physical, sexual, or psychological harm. HIV-positive women in discordant relationships are at higher risk of experiencing IPV than other women. This study aimed to determine the magnitude and factors associated with intimate partner violence among HIV-positive women in discordant relationships attending HIV care and treatment clinics in Dar es Salaam, Tanzania. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted among 411 HIV-positive women who were in discordant relationships attending HIV care and treatment clinics in eight selected healthcare facilities in Dar es Salaam from June 2021 to July 2021. A questionnaire with structured questions on social-demographic information and factors associated with intimate partner violence was used. Data were collected electronically using the Open Data Kit (ODK) system, cleaned, and stored. Descriptive analysis was done and presented in frequency distribution and cross-tabulation. A chi-square was used to determine the differences in variables, and the modified Poisson regression model was used to estimate adjusted prevalence risk ratios (APRRs) with 95% CI for factors associated with IPV. Variables were considered statistically significant at 95% CI and p < 0.05. All statistical analyses were conducted using STATA version 15. Results: The mean age of the participants was 36.2 (standard deviation [SD] ±7.8). The majority of women had attained primary education, i.e., 237 (57.7%). Over 65.7% of HIV-positive women in discordant relationships had ever experienced IPV. Women whose partners had primary and secondary education, were alcohol users, and were solely decision-makers in the family were strongly associated with IPV. Conclusion: Close to two-thirds of HIV-positive women who were in discordant relationships attending HIV care and treatment clinics in selected healthcare facilities in Dar es Salaam had ever experienced at least one form of IPV. Low level of education of the partner, alcohol use, and power relation in decision-making were significantly associated with IPV. We recommend routine screening of IPV for HIV-positive women who are in discordant relationships attending HIV care and treatment clinics. Joint efforts are needed in addressing the factors associated with IPV in discordant couples.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Intimate Partner Violence , Humans , Female , Tanzania/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Intimate Partner Violence/prevention & control , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Sexual Behavior , HIV Infections/epidemiology
17.
Front Public Health ; 10: 1082587, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36711391

ABSTRACT

Introduction: South Africa has the largest burden of HIV worldwide and has a growing burden of non-communicable diseases; the combination of which may lead to diseases clustering in ways that are not seen in other regions. This study sought to identify common disease classes and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors associated with each disease class. Methods: Data were analyzed from the South African Demographic and Health Survey 2016. A latent class analysis (LCA) was conducted using nine disease conditions. Sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with each disease cluster were explored. All analysis was conducted in Stata 15 and the LCA Stata plugin was used to conduct the latent class and regression analysis. Results: Multimorbid participants were included (n = 2 368). Four disease classes were identified: (1) HIV, Hypertension and Anemia (comprising 39.4% of the multimorbid population), (2) Anemia and Hypertension (23.7%), (3) Cardiovascular-related (19.9%) and (4) Diabetes and Hypertension (17.0%). Age, sex, and lifestyle risk factors were associated with class membership. In terms of age, with older adults were less likely to belong to the first class (HIV, Hypertension and Anemia). Males were more likely to belong to Class 2 (Anemia and Hypertension) and Class 4 (Diabetes and Hypertension). In terms of alcohol consumption, those that consumed alcohol were less likely to belong to Class 4 (Diabetes and Hypertension). Current smokers were more likely to belong to Class 3 (Cardiovascular-related). People with a higher body mass index tended to belong to Class 3 (Cardiovascular-related) or the Class 4 (Diabetes and Hypertension). Conclusion: This study affirmed that integrated care is urgently needed, evidenced by the largest disease class being an overlap of chronic infectious diseases and non-communicable diseases. This study also highlighted the need for hypertension to be addressed. Tackling the risk factors associated with hypertension could avert an epidemic of multimorbidity.


Subject(s)
Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Noncommunicable Diseases , Male , Humans , Aged , Multimorbidity , Latent Class Analysis , South Africa/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications
18.
BMC Nephrol ; 24(1): 23, 2023 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36717778

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, the World Health Organization ranks chronic kidney disease (CKD) as one of the top 10 causes of mortality. In South Africa, where noncommunicable diseases have become leading causes of mortality, the true population prevalence of CKD is unknown and associated risk factors remain understudied. This study aimed to describe the prevalence of kidney dysfunction and associated risk factors in a community from the North West province of South Africa. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included 1999 participants older than 30 years. Kidney dysfunction was defined as (i) estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 90 ml/min/1.73m2, or (ii) urine albuminuria-to-creatinine ratio (uACR) ≥ 3.0 mg/mmol, or a combination (i and ii). Risk factors included age, sex, urban/rural locality, body mass index (BMI), blood pressure (BP), lipid profile, haemoglobin A1c (HbA1C), C-reactive protein (CRP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), tobacco use, and HIV status. RESULTS: Mean age of participants was 48 (42;56) years, and 655/1999 (33%) had eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or uACR ≥ 3.0 mg/mmol. Compared to those with normal kidney function, participants with eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or uACR ≥ 3.0 mg/mmol were older, female, had higher measures of adiposity, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure, serum lipids and C-reactive protein (CRP) (all p ≤ 0.024). In multiple regression analyses eGFR was associated with systolic BP (ß = 0.11) and HIV infection (ß = -0.09), and albuminuria was associated with elevated CRP (ß = 0.12) and HIV infection (ß = 0.11) (all p < 0.026). In both groups (individuals with and without kidney dysfunction respectively), eGFR was associated with age (ß = -0.29, ß = -0.49), male sex (ß = 0.35, ß = 0.28), BMI (ß = -0.12, ß = -0.09), low-density/high-density lipoprotein cholesterol ratio (ß = -0.17, ß = -0.09) and CRP (ß = 0.10, ß = 0.09) (all p < 0.005); and uACR was associated with female sex (ß = 0.10, ß = -0.14), urban locality (ß = -0.11, ß = -0.08), BMI (ß = -0.11, ß-0.11), and systolic BP (ß = 0.27, ß = 0.14) (all p < 0.017). CONCLUSION: In this study from the North West province, South Africa, eGFR < 90 ml/min/1.73m2 and/or uACR ≥ 3.0 mg/mmol was prevalent and associated with modifiable risk factors. The findings may inform screening strategies for kidney disease prevention, focusing on women, obesity, blood pressure control, dyslipidaemia, identifying and treating inflammation, and HIV diagnosis and treatment.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Albuminuria/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Prevalence , C-Reactive Protein , Cross-Sectional Studies , South Africa/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Kidney , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/epidemiology , Glomerular Filtration Rate/physiology , Creatinine/urine
19.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 188, 2023 Jan 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36709267

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perception of risk is a central construct of models of health behaviour change as it is assumed to be an intermediate step before adoption of the related safer behaviour. In the context of HIV/AIDS, the literature suggests that psychosocial factors such as stigmatising attitudes related to stereotyping people who contract HIV may influence how people perceive their own risk of HIV infection. However, findings on the relationships between HIV-related stigma, HIV risk perception and sexual behaviour have been inconsistent. We investigated the potential mediating role of HIV risk perception on the link between HIV-related symbolic stigma and sexual behaviour. METHODS: Data used in this study are a sub-sample of 384 young adult women, aged 17-25 years, who participated in the Cape Area Panel Study conducted in Cape Town, South Africa. Study participants were asked questions relating to their demographic details, their social and economic situation, and sexual and reproductive health behaviour. The outcome measure was a composite measure of sexual behaviour derived from whether the young adult women ever had sex before, previous number of sexual partners and condom use. The mediator variable was self-perceived risk of contracting HIV. The independent variable was HIV-related symbolic stigma attitudes. Mediation analysis within the structural equation modeling (SEM) framework was used to examine if participants who held elevated stigma attitudes perceived their risk of HIV infection to be low and as a result ended up engaging in unsafe sex. RESULTS: Higher HIV-related symbolic stigma attitudes were associated with perception of reduced risk of contracting HIV (ß = -0.248, p = 0.008, 95% CI = [-0.431, -0.066]) and perception of higher risk of contracting HIV was significantly associated with unsafe sex practices (ß = 0.179, p = 0.038, 95% CI = [0.010, 0.348]). The indirect path was not significant (ß = -0.044, p = 0.084, 95% CI = [-0.095, 0.006]), suggesting no mediation relationship. CONCLUSIONS: Stigmatising attitudes towards groups of people stereotyped as at risk of HIV infection was associated with perception of invulnerability to HIV, and the question on how this relationship affects risk sexual behaviour needs further investigation.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Young Adult , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , South Africa/epidemiology , Sexual Behavior/psychology , Social Stigma , Sexual Partners , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice
20.
Open Heart ; 10(1)2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36707130

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: HIV and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are the two main causes of death in Kenya with hypertension as CVD's leading risk factor and HIV infection a risk factor for hypertension. We qualitatively evaluated the feasibility of integrated HIV and hypertension screening at Kenyatta National Hospital. METHODS: We conducted two focus group discussions (FGDs) in November 2020 (female FGD: n=7; male FGD: n=8) to elicit facilitators, barriers and viability of integrated diagnosis and management of both conditions at HIV testing service (HTS) facilities. Participants were selected using convenience sampling and were not pair matched. All participants had received HTS. All female clients had confirmed hypertension, while male relatives had been contacted for HIV and hypertension screening through a modified assisted partner services model-where a trained healthcare provider supports notification. Transcripts were coded independently, and the codebook was developed and revised through consensus discussion. Data were analysed using thematic content analysis. RESULTS: Main barriers to diagnosis and management included limited public awareness of hypertension risk factors and on improved treatment outcomes for those on lifelong HIV treatment, high cost of hypertension care despite free HIV care and healthcare system challenges especially medication stockouts. Strong support systems at family and healthcare levels facilitated care and treatment for both conditions. Participants recommended improved public awareness through individual-level communication and mass media campaigns, decentralised screening services for both HIV and hypertension, and either free or subsidised hypertension care services delivered alongside HIV treatment services. Most felt that an integrated HIV and hypertension service model was viable and would improve healthcare outcomes. CONCLUSION: Patient-centred care models combining HIV and hypertension services hold promise for integrated service delivery.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Hypertension , Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Kenya/epidemiology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Hospitals , Hypertension/diagnosis , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/therapy
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