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1.
Cien Saude Colet ; 26(5): 1853-1862, 2021 May.
Article in Portuguese, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20238966

ABSTRACT

This essay reflects on sexual practices and prevention in the contexts of the AIDS and COVID-19 pandemics. It analyses data collected between July and October 2020 through participant observation, as part of an ethnographic research project on HIV vulnerability and prevention among men who have sex with men in the Metropolitan Region of Recife, state of Pernambuco (PE), Brazil. The results point to the relevance of physical appearance and the affective bond between partners in engendering emotions that mediate coping with the risk of infection during both pandemics. It indicates the need to incorporate those communicational dimensions into informational materials to make them more effective.


Este ensaio reflete sobre práticas sexuais e prevenção nos contextos das pandemias de AIDS e da COVID-19. Analisa dados coletados entre julho e outubro de 2020, por meio de observação participante, no âmbito de uma pesquisa etnográfica sobre vulnerabilidade e prevenção ao HIV entre homens que fazem sexo com homens da Região Metropolitana do Recife. Os resultados apontam para a relevância da aparência corporal e da vinculação afetiva entre os parceiros no engendramento de emoções que medeiam a lida com risco de infecção em ambas as pandemias. Sinaliza para a necessidade de incorporar essas dimensões comunicacionais em materiais informativos, de modo a torná-los mais eficazes.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/prevention & control , Brazil/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior , Sexual Partners , Sexuality
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233100

ABSTRACT

When the COVID-19 pandemic emerged in early 2020, not only did it abruptly impede the progress that was being made toward achieving global targets to end the HIV pandemic, but it also created significant impacts on the physical and mental health of middle-aged and older men who have sex with men living with HIV. Utilizing a qualitative, community-based participatory research approach, we conducted semi-structured, one-on-one interviews with 16 ethnoracially diverse, middle-aged and older men who have sex with men living with HIV residing in Southern Nevada, to examine the different ways the COVID-19 pandemic directly impacted their physical and mental health, and explore how they eventually coped and thrived during the peak of the crisis. Using thematic analysis to analyze our interview data, we identified three prominent themes: (1) challenges to obtaining credible health information, (2) the physical and mental health impacts of the COVID-19-pandemic-imposed social isolation, and (3) digital technologies and online connections for medical and social purposes. In this article, we extensively discuss these themes, the current discourse on these themes in academic literature, and how the perspectives, input, and lived experiences of our participants during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic could be critical to addressing issues they had already been experiencing prior to the emergence of the pandemic in 2020, and just as importantly, helping us best prepare in stark anticipation of the next potentially devastating pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Middle Aged , Humans , Aged , Pandemics , Homosexuality, Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , Adaptation, Psychological , HIV Infections/epidemiology
3.
Lancet Microbe ; 4(2): e102-e112, 2023 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20233032

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 infections initiated by multiple founder variants are characterised by a higher viral load and a worse clinical prognosis than those initiated with single founder variants, yet little is known about the routes of exposure through which transmission of multiple founder variants is most probable. Here we used individual patient data to calculate the probability of multiple founders stratified by route of HIV exposure and study methodology. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that estimated founder variant multiplicity in HIV-1 infection, searching MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health databases for papers published between Jan 1, 1990, and Sept 14, 2020. Eligible studies must have reported original estimates of founder variant multiplicity in people with acute or early HIV-1 infections, have clearly detailed the methods used, and reported the route of exposure. Studies were excluded if they reported data concerning people living with HIV-1 who had known or suspected superinfection, who were documented as having received pre-exposure prophylaxis, or if the transmitting partner was known to be receiving antiretroviral treatment. Individual patient data were collated from all studies, with authors contacted if these data were not publicly available. We applied logistic meta-regression to these data to estimate the probability that an HIV infection is initiated by multiple founder variants. We calculated a pooled estimate using a random effects model, subsequently stratifying this estimate across exposure routes in a univariable analysis. We then extended our model to adjust for different study methods in a multivariable analysis, recalculating estimates across the exposure routes. This study is registered with PROSPERO, CRD42020202672. FINDINGS: We included 70 publications in our analysis, comprising 1657 individual patients. Our pooled estimate of the probability that an infection is initiated by multiple founder variants was 0·25 (95% CI 0·21-0·29), with moderate heterogeneity (Q=132·3, p<0·0001, I2=64·2%). Our multivariable analysis uncovered differences in the probability of multiple variant infection by exposure route. Relative to a baseline of male-to-female transmission, the predicted probability for female-to-male multiple variant transmission was significantly lower at 0·13 (95% CI 0·08-0·20), and the probabilities were significantly higher for transmissions in people who inject drugs (0·37 [0·24-0·53]) and men who have sex with men (0·30 [0·33-0·40]). There was no significant difference in the probability of multiple variant transmission between male-to-female transmission (0·21 [0·14-0·31]), post-partum transmission (0·18 [0·03-0·57]), pre-partum transmission (0·17 [0·08-0·33]), and intra-partum transmission (0·27 [0·14-0·45]). INTERPRETATION: We identified that transmissions in people who inject drugs and men who have sex with men are significantly more likely to result in an infection initiated by multiple founder variants, and female-to-male infections are significantly less probable. Quantifying how the routes of HIV infection affect the transmission of multiple variants allows us to better understand how the evolution and epidemiology of HIV-1 determine clinical outcomes. FUNDING: Medical Research Council Precision Medicine Doctoral Training Programme and a European Research Council Starting Grant.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/genetics , Homosexuality, Male , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/drug therapy
5.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 117(5): 317-325, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the maternal mental health status during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is necessary to prevent the occurrence of severe mental disorders. Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress disorders are prominent in pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and highly associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Therefore this study aimed to assess the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referral hospitals from 17 October 2020 to 1 March 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 eligible women. A structured, pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was implemented to identify factors associated with women's depression, anxiety and stress. Statistical association was certain based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values ≤0.05. RESULTS: Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women were 37.6% (95% CI 33 to 42.3), 42.1 (95% CI 37.7 to 46.7) and 34.8% (95% CI 30.3 to 39.2), respectively. Having an HIV-negative sexual partner (AOR 1.91 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.15]) and being on antiretroviral therapy >1 year (AOR 2.18 [95% CI 1.41 to 3.36]) were found to be statistically significant with women's antenatal depression, while unplanned pregnancy (AOR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02 to 2.33]) and did not discuss with the sexual partner about HIV (AOR 3.21 [95% CI 2.12 to 7.07]) were the factors associated with prenatal anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more than one in three HIV-positive pregnant women had depression and anxiety. Thus, implementing strategies to prevent unplanned pregnancy and advocating open discussion with sexual partners about HIV will play a large role in reducing pregnancy-related depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(10)2023 05 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240084

ABSTRACT

Globally, the coexistence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and HIV has become an important public health problem, putting coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19) hospitalized patients at risk for severe manifestations and higher mortality. A retrospective cross-sectional analysis was conducted to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients using secondary data from the Department of Health in Limpopo Province, South Africa. The study included 15,151 patient clinical records of laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 cases. Data on MetS was extracted in the form of a cluster of metabolic factors. These included abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, and impaired fasting glucose captured on an information sheet. Spatial distribution of mortality among patients was observed; overall (21-33%), hypertension (32-43%), diabetes (34-47%), and HIV (31-45%). A multinomial logistic regression model was applied to identify factors and determine their relationships with hospitalization outcomes for COVID-19 patients. Mortality among COVID-19 patients was associated with being older (≥50+ years), male, and HIV positive. Having hypertension and diabetes reduced the duration from admission to death. Being transferred from a primary health facility (PHC) to a referral hospital among COVID-19 patients was associated with ventilation and less chance of being transferred to another health facility when having HIV plus MetS. Patients with MetS had a higher mortality rate within seven days of hospitalization, followed by those with obesity as an individual component. MetS and its components such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity should be considered a composite predictor of COVID-19 fatal outcomes, mostly, increased risk of mortality. The study increases our understanding of the common contributing variables to severe manifestations and a greater mortality risk among COVID-19 hospitalized patients by investigating the influence of MetS, its components, and HIV coexistence. Prevention remains the mainstay for both communicable and non-communicable diseases. The findings underscore the need for improvement of critical care resources across South Africa.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , HIV Infections , Hypertension , Metabolic Syndrome , Humans , Male , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Metabolic Syndrome/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Logistic Models , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Obesity , Hospitalization , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Risk Factors
7.
S Afr Med J ; 113(6): 41-45, 2023 06 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: African countries with limited healthcare capacity are particularly vulnerable to the novel coronavirus. The pandemic has left health systems short on resources to safely manage patients and protect health care workers. South Africa is still battling the epidemic of HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis which have had their programme/services interrupted due to the effects of the pandemic. Lessons learned from the HIV/AIDS and TB programme have shown that South Africans delay seeking health services when a new disease presents itself. OBJECTIVE: The study sought to investigate the risk factors for COVID-19 inpatients' mortality within 24-hours of hospital admission in Public health facilities in Limpopo Province, South Africa. METHODS: The study used retrospective secondary data obtained from the 1 067 clinical records of patients admitted between March 2020 and June 2021 by the Limpopo Department of Health (LDoH). A multivariable logistic regression model, both adjusted and unadjusted, was used to assess the risk factors associated with COVID-19 mortality within 24 hours of admission. RESULTS: This study, which was conducted in Limpopo public hospitals, discovered that 411 (40%) of COVID-19 patients died within 24-hours of admission. The majority of the patients were 60 years or older, mostly of female gender and had co-morbidities. In terms of vital signs, most had body temperatures less than 38°C. Our study findings revealed that COVID-19 patients who present with fever and shortness of breath are 1.8 and 2.5 times more likely to die within 24-hours of admission to the hospital, than patients without fever and normal respiratory rate . Hypertension was independently associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients within 24-hours of admission, with a high odds ratio for hypertensive patients (OR = 1.451; 95% CI = 1.013; 2.078) compared to non-hypertensive patients. CONCLUSION: Assessing demographic and clinical risk factors for COVID-19 mortality within 24-hours of admission aids in understanding and prioritising patients with severe COVID-19 and hypertension. Finally, this will provide guidelines for planning and optimising the use of LDoH healthcare resources and also aid in public awareness endeavours.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , COVID-19/complications , Retrospective Studies , Inpatients , South Africa/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Hospitals, Public , HIV Infections/epidemiology
8.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239553

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruption in healthcare delivery for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). African, Caribbean, and Black women living with HIV (ACB WLWH) in British Columbia (BC) faced barriers to engage with HIV care services prior to the COVID-19 pandemic that were intensified by the transition to virtual care during the pandemic. This paper aims to assess which factors influenced ACB WLWH's access to, utilization and affordability of, and motivation to engage with HIV care services. This study utilized a qualitative descriptive approach using in-depth interviews. Eighteen participants were recruited from relevant women's health, HIV, and ACB organizations in BC. Participants felt dismissed by healthcare providers delivering services only in virtual formats and suggested that services be performed in a hybrid model to increase access and utilization. Mental health supports, such as support groups, dissolved during the pandemic and overall utilization decreased for many participants. The affordability of services pertained primarily to expenses not covered by the provincial healthcare plan. Resources should be directed to covering supplements, healthy food, and extended health services. The primary factor decreasing motivation to engage with HIV services was fear, which emerged due to the unknown impact of the COVID-19 virus on immunocompromised participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , HIV , Motivation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Costs and Cost Analysis
9.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 716, 2023 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236491

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Antiretroviral medication coverage remains sub-optimal in much of the United States, particularly the Sothern region, and Non-Hispanic Black or African American persons (NHB) continue to be disproportionately impacted by the HIV epidemic. The "Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S." (EHE) initiative seeks to reduce HIV incidence nationally by focusing resources towards the most highly impacted localities and populations. This study evaluates the impact of hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage to estimate the levels of coverage needed to achieve EHE goals in the South. METHODS: We developed a stochastic, agent-based network model of 500,000 individuals to simulate the HIV epidemic and hypothetical improvements in ART and PrEP coverage. RESULTS: New infections declined by 78.6% at 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 94.3% at 100%/50% ART/PrEP. Declines in annual incidence rates surpassed 75% by 2025 with 90%/40% ART/PrEP and 90% by 2030 with 100%/50% ART/PrEP coverage. Increased ART coverage among NHB MSM was associated with a linear decline in incidence among all MSM. Declines in incidence among Hispanic/Latino and White/Other MSM were similar regardless of which MSM race group increased their ART coverage, while the benefit to NHB MSM was greatest when their own ART coverage increased. The incidence rate among NHB women declined by over a third when either NHB heterosexual men or NHB MSM increased their ART use respectively. Increased use of PrEP was associated with a decline in incidence for the groups using PrEP. MSM experienced the largest absolute declines in incidence with increasing PrEP coverage, followed by NHB women. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis indicates that it is possible to reach EHE goals. The largest reductions in HIV incidence can be achieved by increasing ART coverage among MSM and all race groups benefit regardless of differences in ART initiation by race. Improving ART coverage to > 90% should be prioritized with a particular emphasis on reaching NHB MSM. Such a focus will reduce the largest number of incident cases, reduce racial HIV incidence disparities among both MSM and women, and reduce racial health disparities among persons with HIV. NHB women should also be prioritized for PrEP outreach.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , Disease Eradication , HIV Infections , Health Status Disparities , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Female , Humans , Male , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Goals , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Sexual and Gender Minorities/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology , Disease Eradication/methods , Disease Eradication/statistics & numerical data
10.
AIDS Res Ther ; 20(1): 34, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health and medical follow-up of people living with HIV (PLWH) have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives of this study were to assess anxiety, depression and substance use in Mexican PLWH during the pandemic; to explore the association of these symptoms with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and to compare patients with and without vulnerability factors (low socioeconomic level, previous psychological and/or psychiatric treatment). METHODS: We studied 1259 participants in a cross-sectional study, PLWH receiving care at the HIV clinic in Mexico City were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in the study. We included PLWH were receiving ART; answered a structured interview on sociodemographic data and adherence to ART; and completed the psychological instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use risk. Data collection was performed from June 2020 to October 2021. RESULTS: 84.7% were men, 8% had inadequate ART adherence, 11% had moderate-severe symptoms of depression, and 13% had moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety. Adherence was related to psychological symptoms (p < 0.001). Vulnerable patients were more likely to be women, with low educational level and unemployed (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to address mental health of PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic, with special attention to the most vulnerable individuals. Future studies are needed to understand the relationship between mental health and ART adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
11.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1025, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations between COVID-19 related stigma and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); and the associations between PTSS and COVID-19 related stigma, HIV status, COVID-19 status and key HIV population status. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data of 12,355 study participants generated through an online survey that recruited adults from 152 countries between July and December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19-related stigma and PTSS. The independent variables were HIV status (positive/negative), transaction sex (yes/no), use of psychoactive drugs (yes/no), and vulnerability status (transaction sex workers, people who use psychoactive drugs, living with HIV, and COVID-19 status). The confounding variables were age, sex at birth (male/female), level of education, sexual minority individuals (yes/no) and country income level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: There were 835 (6.8%) participants who experienced COVID-19 related stigma during the pandemic and 3,824 (31.0%) participants reported PTSS. Respondents who were living with HIV (AOR: 1.979; 95%CI: 1.522-2.573), tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 3.369; 95%CI: 2.692-4.217), engaged in transactional sex (AOR: 1.428; 95%CI: 1.060-1.922) and used psychoactive drugs (AOR: 1.364; 95%CI: 1.053-1.767) had significantly higher odds of experiencing COVID-19 related stigma. Individuals with vulnerability status (AOR:4.610; 95%CI: 1.590-13.368) and who experienced COVID-19 related stigma (AOR: 2.218; 95%CI: 1.920-2.561) had significantly higher odds of PTSS. CONCLUSION: Individuals with vulnerability status may be at increased risk for COVID-19 related stigma. Key and vulnerable populations who were living with HIV and who experienced stigma may be at a higher risk of experiencing PTSS. Populations at risk for PTSS should be routinely screened and provided adequate support when they contract COVID-19 to reduce the risk for poor mental health during COVID-19 outbreaks and during future health crisis with similar magnitude as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Perception
12.
BMC Res Notes ; 16(1): 90, 2023 May 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235604

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Adherence to antiretroviral therapy and COVID-19 preventive behaviours among people living with HIV during the pandemic has received little attention in the literature. To address this gap in knowledge, the present study assessed the associations between viral load, adherence to antiretroviral therapy and the use of COVID-19 prevention strategies during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. This was a secondary analysis of data generated through an online survey recruiting participants from 152 countries. Complete data from 680 respondents living with HIV were extracted for this analysis. RESULTS: The findings suggest that detectable viral load was associated with lower odds of wearing facemasks (AOR: 0.44; 95% CI:0.28-0.69; p < 0.01) and washing hands as often as recommended (AOR: 0.64; 95% CI: 0.42-0.97; p = 0.03). Also, adherence to the use of antiretroviral drugs was associated with lower odds of working remotely (AOR: 0.60; 95% CI: 0.38-0.94; p = 0.02). We found a complex relationship between HIV positive status biological parameters and adherence to COVID-19 preventive measures that may be partly explained by risk-taking behaviours. Further studies are needed to understand the reasons for the study findings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , Viral Load , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
13.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1167104, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235542

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Virtual and low-touch behavioral interventions are needed for African American/Black and Latino persons living with HIV (PLWH) with barriers to HIV viral suppression, particularly during COVID-19. Guided by the multiphase optimization strategy, we explored three components for PLWH without viral suppression, grounded in motivational interviewing and behavioral economics: (1) motivational interviewing counseling, (2) 21-weeks of automated text messages and quiz questions about HIV management, and (3) financial rewards for viral suppression (lottery prize vs. fixed compensation). Methods: This pilot optimization trial used sequential explanatory mixed methods to explore the components' feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary evidence of effects using an efficient factorial design. The primary outcome was viral suppression. Participants engaged in baseline and two structured follow-up assessments over an 8-month period, and provided laboratory reports to document HIV viral load. A subset engaged in qualitative interviews. We carried out descriptive quantitative analyses. Then, qualitative data were analyzed using directed content analysis. Data integration used the joint display method. Results: Participants (N = 80) were 49 years old, on average (SD = 9), and 75% were assigned male sex at birth. Most (79%) were African American/Black, and the remainder were Latino. Participants were diagnosed with HIV 20 years previously on average (SD = 9). Overall, components were feasible (>80% attended) and acceptability was satisfactory. A total of 39% (26/66) who provided laboratory reports at follow-up evidenced viral suppression. Findings suggested no components were entirely unsuccessful. The lottery prize compared to fixed compensation was the most promising component level. In qualitative analyses, all components were seen as beneficial to individual wellbeing. The lottery prize appeared more interesting and engaging than fixed compensation. However, structural barriers including financial hardship interfered with abilities to reach viral suppression. The integrated analyses yielded areas of convergence and discrepancy and qualitative findings added depth and context to the quantitative results. Conclusions: The virtual and/or low-touch behavioral intervention components tested are acceptable and feasible and show enough potential to warrant refinement and testing in future research, particularly the lottery prize. Results must be interpreted in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. Trial registration: NCT04518241 (https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04518241).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Motivational Interviewing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Black or African American , Economics, Behavioral , Hispanic or Latino , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Viral Load , Adult , Female
14.
Viruses ; 15(5)2023 05 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235103

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative pathogen of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, a fatal respiratory illness. The associated risk factors for COVID-19 are old age and medical comorbidities. In the current combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, a significant portion of people living with HIV-1 (PLWH) with controlled viremia is older and with comorbidities, making these people vulnerable to SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19-associated severe outcomes. Additionally, SARS-CoV-2 is neurotropic and causes neurological complications, resulting in a health burden and an adverse impact on PLWH and exacerbating HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder (HAND). The impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 severity on neuroinflammation, the development of HAND and preexisting HAND is poorly explored. In the present review, we compiled the current knowledge of differences and similarities between SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1, the conditions of the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 and HIV-1/AIDS syndemic and their impact on the central nervous system (CNS). Risk factors of COVID-19 on PLWH and neurological manifestations, inflammatory mechanisms leading to the neurological syndrome, the development of HAND, and its influence on preexisting HAND are also discussed. Finally, we have reviewed the challenges of the present syndemic on the world population, with a particular emphasis on PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Nervous System Diseases , Humans , COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Nervous System Diseases/epidemiology , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Central Nervous System , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology
15.
AIDS Res Ther ; 20(1): 36, 2023 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20244726

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Concerns about the interconnected relationship between HIV and mental health were heightened during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study assessed whether there were temporal changes in the mental health status of people living with HIV presenting for care in Shinyanga region, Tanzania. Specifically, we compared the prevalence of depression and anxiety before and during COVID-19, with the goal of describing the changing needs, if any, to person-centered HIV services. METHODS: We analyzed baseline data from two randomized controlled trials of adults initiating ART in Shinyanga region, Tanzania between April-December 2018 (pre-COVID-19 period, n = 530) and May 2021-March 2022 (COVID-19 period, n = 542), respectively. We compared three mental health indicators that were similarly measured in both surveys: loss of interest in things, hopelessness about the future, and uncontrolled worrying. We also examined depression and anxiety which were measured using the Hopkins Symptom Checklist-25 in the pre-COVID-19 period and the Patient Health Questionnaire-4 in the COVID-19 period, respectively, and classified as binary indicators per each scale's threshold. We estimated prevalence differences (PD) in adverse mental health status before and during the COVID-19 pandemic, using stabilized inverse probability of treatment weighting to adjust for underlying differences in the two study populations. RESULTS: We found significant temporal increases in the prevalence of feeling 'a lot' and 'extreme' loss of interest in things ['a lot' PD: 38, CI 34,41; 'extreme' PD: 9, CI 8,12)], hopelessness about the future [' a lot' PD: 46, CI 43,49; 'extreme' PD: 4, CI 3,6], and uncontrolled worrying [' a lot' PD: 34, CI 31,37; 'extreme' PD: 2, CI 0,4] during the COVID-19 pandemic. We also found substantially higher prevalence of depression [PD: 38, CI 34,42] and anxiety [PD: 41, CI 37,45]. CONCLUSIONS: After applying a quasi-experimental weighting approach, the prevalence of depression and anxiety symptoms among those starting ART during COVID-19 was much higher than before the pandemic. Although depression and anxiety were measured using different, validated scales, the concurrent increases in similarly measured mental health indicators lends confidence to these findings and warrants further research to assess the possible influence of COVID-19 on mental health among adults living with HIV. Trial Registration NCT03351556, registered November 24, 2017; NCT04201353, registered December 17, 2019.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , Anxiety/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Prevalence , Tanzania/epidemiology
17.
AIDS Behav ; 27(7): 2176-2189, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20243254

ABSTRACT

Older women with HIV (WWH) confront significant biopsychosocial challenges that may be exacerbated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Between May 2020 and April 2021, following a resiliency intervention conducted as part of a randomized parent trial, 24 cisgender WWH (M = 58 years old) completed quantitative assessments and qualitative interviews exploring the impact of COVID-19 on mental health. Qualitative data were analyzed via rapid analysis. Most participants were Black (62.5%) and non-Hispanic or Latina (87.5%). Emergent themes included (1) increased anxiety and depression; (2) a loss of social connectedness; (3) fear of unknown interactions among COVID-19, HIV, and other comorbidities; and (4) the use of largely adaptive strategies to cope with these issues. Findings suggest that older WWH face significant COVID-19-related mental health challenges, compounding existing stressors. As the pandemic persists, it will be important to assess the impact of these stressors on wellbeing, identify effective coping strategies, and provide increased support to mitigate COVID-19-related mental health issues over time. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier: NCT03071887.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , Aged , Middle Aged , Mental Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Fear
18.
Lancet HIV ; 10(6): e412-e420, 2023 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20242778

ABSTRACT

Cervical cancer is the fourth most common malignancy in women of reproductive age globally. The burden of this disease is highest in low-income and middle-income countries, especially among women living with HIV. In 2018, WHO launched a global strategy to accelerate cervical cancer elimination through rapid scale-up of prophylactic vaccination, cervical screening, and treatment of precancers and cancers. This initiative was key in raising a call for action to address the stark global disparities in cervical cancer burden. However, achieving elimination of cervical cancer among women with HIV requires consideration of biological and social issues affecting this population. This Position Paper shows specific challenges and uncertainties on the way to cervical cancer elimination for women living with HIV and highlights the scarcity of evidence for the effect of interventions in this population. We argue that reaching equity of outcomes for women with HIV will require substantial advances in approaches to HPV vaccination and improved understanding of the long-term effectiveness of HPV vaccines in settings with high HIV burden cervical cancer, just as HIV, is affected by social and structural factors such as poverty, stigma, and gender discrimination, that place the elimination strategy at risk. Global efforts must, therefore, be galvanised to ensure women living with HIV have optimised interventions, given their substantial risk of this preventable malignancy.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Papillomavirus Infections , Papillomavirus Vaccines , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms , Female , Humans , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control , Early Detection of Cancer , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/complications , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Poverty
20.
BMJ Open ; 13(6): e068988, 2023 06 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20234714

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As COVID-19 continues to spread globally and within Mozambique, its impact among immunosuppressed persons, specifically persons living with HIV (PLHIV), and on the health system is unknown in the country. The 'COVid and hIV' (COVIV) study aims to investigate: (1) the seroprevalence and seroincidence of SARS-CoV-2 among PLHIV and healthcare workers providing HIV services; (2) knowledge, attitudes, practices and perceptions regarding SARS-CoV-2 infection; (3) the pandemic's impact on HIV care continuum outcomes and (4) facility level compliance with national COVID-19 guidelines. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A multimethod study will be conducted in a maximum of 11 health facilities across Mozambique, comprising four components: (1) a cohort study among PLHIV and healthcare workers providing HIV services to determine the seroprevalence and seroincidence of SARS-CoV-2, (2) a structured survey to assess knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices regarding COVID-19 disease, (3) analysis of aggregated patient data to evaluate retention in HIV services among PLHIV, (4) an assessment of facility implementation of infection prevention and control measures. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval was obtained from the National Health Bioethics Committee, and institutional review boards of implementing partners. Study findings will be discussed with local and national health authorities and key stakeholders and will be disseminated in clinical and scientific forums. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT05022407.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Cohort Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Mozambique/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies
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