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1.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(9)2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699265

ABSTRACT

There are genetic risk factors that influence the outcome of COVID-19 [COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative, Nature 600, 472-477 (2021)]. The major genetic risk factor for severe COIVD-19 resides on chromosome 3 and is inherited from Neandertals [H. Zeberg, S. Pääbo, Nature 587, 610-612 (2020)]. The risk-associated DNA segment modulates the expression of several chemokine receptors, among them CCR5, a coreceptor for HIV which is down-regulated in carriers of the COVID-19 risk haplotype. Here I show that carriers of the risk variant have an ∼27% lower risk of HIV infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 3/genetics , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1 , Haplotypes , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Patient Acuity , Risk Factors
2.
Dtsch Arztebl Int ; 119(8): 117-123, 2022 02 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662560

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact with a pathogen is followed by variable courses of infectious disease, which are only partly explicable by classical risk factors. The susceptibility to infection is variable, as is the course of disease after infection. In this review, we discuss the extent to which this variation is due to genetic factors of the affected individual (the host). METHODS: Selective review of the literature on host genetics in infectious disease, with special attention to the pathogens SARSCoV- 2, influenza viruses, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). RESULTS: Genetic variants of the host contribute to the pathogenesis of infectious diseases. For example, in HIV infection, a relatively common variant leading to a loss of function of the HIV co-receptor CCR5 affects the course of the disease, as do variants in genes of the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. Rare monogenic variants of the interferon immune response system contribute to severe disease courses in COVID-19 and influenza (type I interferon in these two cases) and in tuberculosis (type II interferon). An estimated 1.8% of life-threatening courses of COVID-19 in men under age 60 are caused by a deficiency of toll-like receptor 7. The scientific understanding of host genetic factors has already been beneficial to the development of effective drugs. In a small number of cases, genetic information has also been used for individual therapeutic decision-making and for the identification of persons at elevated risk. CONCLUSION: A comprehensive understanding of host genetics can improve the care of patients with infectious diseases. Until the present, the clinical utility of host genetics has been limited to rare cases; in the future, polygenic risk scores summarizing the relevant genetic variants in each patient will enable a wider benefit. To make this possible, multicenter studies are needed that will systematically integrate clinical and genetic data.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , COVID-19/genetics , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Tuberculosis/genetics
3.
J Leukoc Biol ; 110(1): 21-26, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574077

ABSTRACT

The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a highly pathogenic RNA virus causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in humans. Although most patients with COVID-19 have mild illness and may be asymptomatic, some will develop severe pneumonia, acute respiratory distress syndrome, multi-organ failure, and death. RNA viruses such as SARS-CoV-2 are capable of hijacking the epigenetic landscape of host immune cells to evade antiviral defense. Yet, there remain considerable gaps in our understanding of immune cell epigenetic changes associated with severe SARS-CoV-2 infection pathology. Here, we examined genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiles of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from 9 terminally-ill, critical COVID-19 patients with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 plasma viremia compared with uninfected, hospitalized influenza, untreated primary HIV infection, and mild/moderate COVID-19 HIV coinfected individuals. Cell-type deconvolution analyses confirmed lymphopenia in severe COVID-19 and revealed a high percentage of estimated neutrophils suggesting perturbations to DNAm associated with granulopoiesis. We observed a distinct DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 characterized by hypermethylation of IFN-related genes and hypomethylation of inflammatory genes, reinforcing observations in infection models and single-cell transcriptional studies of severe COVID-19. Epigenetic clock analyses revealed severe COVID-19 was associated with an increased DNAm age and elevated mortality risk according to GrimAge, further validating the epigenetic clock as a predictor of disease and mortality risk. Our epigenetic results reveal a discovery DNAm signature of severe COVID-19 in blood potentially useful for corroborating clinical assessments, informing pathogenic mechanisms, and revealing new therapeutic targets against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , DNA Methylation/genetics , Epigenesis, Genetic , Genome, Human , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
4.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485180

ABSTRACT

Nascent HIV-1 particles incorporate the viral envelope glycoprotein and multiple host transmembrane proteins during assembly at the plasma membrane. At least some of these host transmembrane proteins on the surface of virions are reported as pro-viral factors that enhance virus attachment to target cells or facilitate trans-infection of CD4+ T cells via interactions with non-T cells. In addition to the pro-viral factors, anti-viral transmembrane proteins are incorporated into progeny virions. These virion-incorporated transmembrane proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry at the point of attachment and fusion. In infected polarized CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 Gag localizes to a rear-end protrusion known as the uropod. Regardless of cell polarization, Gag colocalizes with and promotes the virion incorporation of a subset of uropod-directed host transmembrane proteins, including CD162, CD43, and CD44. Until recently, the functions of these virion-incorporated proteins had not been clear. Here, we review the recent findings about the roles played by virion-incorporated CD162, CD43, and CD44 in HIV-1 spread to CD4+ T cells.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/metabolism , Hyaluronan Receptors/metabolism , Leukosialin/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors/genetics , Leukosialin/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly , Virus Attachment , gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism
5.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(50): 55614-55623, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387129

ABSTRACT

Multiplexed detection of viral nucleic acids is important for rapid screening of viral infection. In this study, we present a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet-modified dendrimer droplet microarray (DMA) for rapid and sensitive detection of retroviral nucleic acids of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) simultaneously. The DMA platform was fabricated by omniphobic-omniphilic patterning on a surface-grafted dendrimer substrate. Functionalized MoS2 nanosheets modified with fluorescent dye-labeled oligomer probes were prepatterned on positively charged amino-modified omniphilic spots to form a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensing microarray. With the formation of separated microdroplets of sample on the hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropattern, prepatterned oligomer probes specifically hybridized with the target HIV genes and detached from the MoS2 nanosheet surface due to weakening of the adsorption force, leading to fluorescence signal recovery. As a proof of concept, we used this microarray with a small sample size (<150 nL) for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 nucleic acids with a limit of detection (LOD) of 50 pM. The multiplex detection capability was further demonstrated for simultaneous detection of five viral genes (HIV-1, HIV-2, ORFlab, and N genes of SARS-COV-2 and M gene of Influenza A). This work demonstrated the potential of this novel MoS2-DMA FRET sensing platform for high-throughput multiplexed viral nucleic acid screening.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV/isolation & purification , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Disulfides/chemistry , Fluorescence , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Nucleic Acids/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
6.
Stem Cell Rev Rep ; 17(1): 296-299, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009200

ABSTRACT

We report the case of an HIV-1-infected patient, treated with anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody for a B-cell lymphoma previously treated by autologous stem cell transplant. He suffered from chronic COVID19 and we monitored by plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA by highly sensitive droplet-based digital PCR technology (ddPCR). Under tocilizumab therapy and despite a first clinical improvement biologically associated with decreasing inflammatory markers, a slight increase of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia quantified by ddPCR was highlighted, confirming the absence of viral efficacy of this treatment and predicting the subsequent observed deterioration. As expected, his complete recovery, finally achieved after COVID-19 convalescent plasmatherapy, strictly paralleled plasma SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. With these results, we confirmed the interest of SARS-CoV-2 RNAaemia monitoring by ddPCR in COVID-19 patients, particularly during treatment, and firstly showed that this new and specific biomarker could be helpful to select eligible patient for anti-IL6 receptors therapy considering the variable levels of efficacy recently observed with such therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , HIV Infections/blood , Lymphoma, B-Cell/drug therapy , RNA, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Lymphocytes/virology , Lymphoma, B-Cell/complications , Lymphoma, B-Cell/genetics , Lymphoma, B-Cell/virology , RNA, Viral/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Viral Load/drug effects
7.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 36-47, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CD4 T cell loss is the hallmark of uncontrolled HIV-1 infection. Strikingly, CD4 T cell depletion is a strong indicator for disease severity in the recently emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We reviewed recent single-cell immune profiling studies in HIV-1 infection and COVID-19 to provide critical insight in virus-induced immunopathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Cytokine dysregulation in HIV-1 leads to chronic inflammation, while severe SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cytokine release syndrome and increased mortality. HIV-1-specific CD4 T cells are dysfunctional, while SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells exhibit robust Th1 function and correlate with protective antibody responses. In HIV-1 infection, follicular helper T cells (TFH) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection and persist in immune-sanctuary sites in lymphoid tissues as an HIV-1 reservoir. In severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, TFH are absent in lymphoid tissues and are associated with diminished protective immunity. Advancement in HIV-1 DNA, RNA, and protein-based single-cell capture methods can overcome the rarity and heterogeneity of HIV-1-infected cells and identify mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence and clonal expansion dynamics. SUMMARY: Single-cell immune profiling identifies a high-resolution picture of immune dysregulation in HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 infection and informs outcome prediction and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Animals , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
8.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; 1862(7): 183274, 2020 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-820155

ABSTRACT

The gp41 type I membrane protein is part of the trimeric Env complex forming the spikes at the HIV surface. By interacting with cellular receptors, the Env protein complex initiates the infectious cycle of HIV. After the first contact has been established Env disassembles by shedding gp120 while the remaining gp41 undergoes a number of conformational changes which drive fusion of the cellular and the viral membranes. Here we investigated the membrane interactions and oligomerization of the two gp41 heptad repeat domains NHR and CHR. While these are thought to form a six-helix bundle in the post-fusion state little is known about their structure and role during prior fusion events. When investigated in aqueous buffer by CD and fluorescence quenching techniques the formation of NHR/CHR hetero-oligomers is detected. An equilibrium of monomers and hetero-oligomers is also observed in membrane environments. Furthermore, the partitioning to POPC or POPC/POPG 3/1 vesicles of the two domains alone or in combination has been studied. The membrane interactions were further characterized by 15N solid-state NMR spectroscopy of uniaxially oriented samples which shows that the polypeptide helices are oriented parallel to the bilayer surface. The 31P solid-state NMR spectra of the same samples are indicative of considerable disordering of the membrane packing. The data support models where NHR and CHR insert in the viral and cellular membranes, respectively, where they exhibit an active role in the membrane fusion events.


Subject(s)
HIV Envelope Protein gp41/ultrastructure , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Membrane Fusion/genetics , Cell Membrane/genetics , Cell Membrane/virology , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/chemistry , HIV Envelope Protein gp41/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Peptide Fragments/chemistry , Peptide Fragments/genetics , Protein Conformation
9.
Nucleic Acids Res ; 48(19): 10890-10908, 2020 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-817440

ABSTRACT

Although endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) are known to harbor cis-regulatory elements, their role in modulating cellular immune responses remains poorly understood. Using an RNA-seq approach, we show that several members of the ERV9 lineage, particularly LTR12C elements, are activated upon HIV-1 infection of primary CD4+ T cells. Intriguingly, HIV-1-induced ERVs harboring transcription start sites are primarily found in the vicinity of immunity genes. For example, HIV-1 infection activates LTR12C elements upstream of the interferon-inducible genes GBP2 and GBP5 that encode for broad-spectrum antiviral factors. Reporter assays demonstrated that these LTR12C elements drive gene expression in primary CD4+ T cells. In line with this, HIV-1 infection triggered the expression of a unique GBP2 transcript variant by activating a cryptic transcription start site within LTR12C. Furthermore, stimulation with HIV-1-induced cytokines increased GBP2 and GBP5 expression in human cells, but not in macaque cells that naturally lack the GBP5 gene and the LTR12C element upstream of GBP2. Finally, our findings suggest that GBP2 and GBP5 have already been active against ancient viral pathogens as they suppress the maturation of the extinct retrovirus HERV-K (HML-2). In summary, our findings uncover how human cells can exploit remnants of once-infectious retroviruses to regulate antiviral gene expression.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Endogenous Retroviruses/genetics , Gene Expression Regulation/immunology , HIV Infections/genetics , Promoter Regions, Genetic , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Animals , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/cytology , GTP-Binding Proteins/genetics , GTP-Binding Proteins/immunology , HEK293 Cells , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1 , Humans , Macaca mulatta , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/cytology
10.
Infect Genet Evol ; 85: 104512, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-733697

ABSTRACT

Emerging results indicate that an uncontrolled host immune response, leading to a life-threatening condition called cytokine release syndrome (also termed "cytokine storm"), is the major driver of pathology in severe COVID-19. In this pandemic, considerable effort is being focused on identifying host genomic factors that increase susceptibility or resistance to the complications of COVID-19 and translating these findings to improved patient care. In this regard, the chemokine receptor-ligand nexus has been reported as potentially important in severe COVID-19 disease pathogenesis and its treatment. Valuable genomic insights into the chemokine receptor-ligand nexus have been gained from HIV infection and disease progression studies. Applying that knowledge, together with newly discovered potential host genomic factors associated with COVID-19, may lead to a more comprehensive understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Chemokines/genetics , HIV Infections/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Progression , Gene Expression Regulation , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Ligands , Promoter Regions, Genetic
11.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732817

ABSTRACT

Following influenza infection, rs2248374-G ERAP2 expressing cells may transcribe an alternative spliced isoform: ERAP2/Iso3. This variant, unlike ERAP2-wt, is unable to trim peptides to be loaded on MHC class I molecules, but it can still dimerize with both ERAP2-wt and ERAP1-wt, thus contributing to profiling an alternative cellular immune-peptidome. In order to verify if the expression of ERAP2/Iso3 may be induced by other pathogens, PBMCs and MDMs isolated from 20 healthy subjects were stimulated with flu, LPS, CMV, HIV-AT-2, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to analyze its mRNA and protein expression. In parallel, Calu3 cell lines and PBMCs were in vitro infected with growing doses of SARS-CoV-2 (0.5, 5, 1000 MOI) and HIV-1BAL (0.1, 1, and 10 ng p24 HIV-1Bal/1 × 106 PBMCs) viruses, respectively. Results showed that: (1) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression can be prompted by many pathogens and it is coupled with the modulation of several determinants (cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes, activation/inhibition markers, antigen-presentation elements) orchestrating the anti-microbial immune response (Quantigene); (2) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA is translated into a protein (western blot); (3) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression is sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 concentration. Considering the key role played by ERAPs in antigen processing and presentation, it is conceivable that these enzymes may be potential targets and modulators of the pathogenicity of infectious diseases and further analyses are needed to define the role played by the different isoforms.


Subject(s)
Aminopeptidases/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Immunization/methods , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Macrophages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Antigen Presentation/genetics , Blood Donors , COVID-19 , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression/immunology , Genotype , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Transcription, Genetic/immunology
12.
Braz J Microbiol ; 51(4): 1711-1717, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688814

ABSTRACT

Recent UNAIDS reports (December 2019) indicate that 37.9 million people have been affected by HIV infection around the globe in 2018, of which 1.7 million are cited as new infections. Human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) requires both the CD4 receptor, as the primary receptor, and a chemokine co-receptor to gain entry into the cell. In addition to the WT allele for C-C motif chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5-wt), there is another allele with a 32 bp deletion in the protein coding region (CCR5-Δ32). Individuals who are homozygous for the mutant allele are resistant towards M-tropic HIV infections. In the current study, we aimed to determine the CCR5-Δ32 allele frequency in the Turkish Cypriot population with 326 subjects, 141 men (43.1%) and 185 (56.9%) women. The region of the CCR5 gene containing the Δ32 deletion was amplified using flanking primers. The CCR5 gene Δ32 allele frequency was calculated at 3% and only observed in heterozygous individuals. We hope that our current publication could be a point of dialog between the physicians, the government officials and the public set up a more modern and well-structured HIV screening program in an effort to control and hopefully eliminate HIV from the Turkish Cypriot population.


Subject(s)
Receptors, CCR5/genetics , /genetics , Alleles , Cyprus/ethnology , Female , Gene Frequency , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/ethnology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/genetics , Genotype , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1 , Humans , Male , Mutation , Turkey/epidemiology
13.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595366

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis C/genetics , Humans , Needle Sharing/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Zoonoses
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