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1.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 38(5): 401-405, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1840021

ABSTRACT

S100A8 and S100A9 are members of the Alarmin family; these proteins are abundantly expressed in neutrophils, form a heterodimer complex, and are secreted in plasma on pathogen infection or acute inflammatory diseases. Recently, both proteins were identified as novel biomarkers of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and were shown to play key roles in inducing an aggressive inflammatory response by mediating the release of large amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines, called the "cytokine storm." Although co-infection with SARS-CoV-2 in people living with HIV-1 may result in an immunocompromised status, the role of the S100A8/A9 complex in HIV-1 replication in primary T cells and macrophages is still unclear. Here, we evaluated the roles of the proteins in HIV replication to elucidate their functions. We found that the complex had no impact on virus replication in both cell types; however, the subunits of S100A8 and S100A9 inhibit HIV in macrophages. These findings provide important insights into the regulation of HIV viral loads during SARS-CoV-2 co-infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , HIV Infections , Biomarkers/metabolism , Calgranulin A/metabolism , Calgranulin B , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Macrophages , SARS-CoV-2 , Virus Replication
2.
Viruses ; 13(10)2021 09 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485180

ABSTRACT

Nascent HIV-1 particles incorporate the viral envelope glycoprotein and multiple host transmembrane proteins during assembly at the plasma membrane. At least some of these host transmembrane proteins on the surface of virions are reported as pro-viral factors that enhance virus attachment to target cells or facilitate trans-infection of CD4+ T cells via interactions with non-T cells. In addition to the pro-viral factors, anti-viral transmembrane proteins are incorporated into progeny virions. These virion-incorporated transmembrane proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry at the point of attachment and fusion. In infected polarized CD4+ T cells, HIV-1 Gag localizes to a rear-end protrusion known as the uropod. Regardless of cell polarization, Gag colocalizes with and promotes the virion incorporation of a subset of uropod-directed host transmembrane proteins, including CD162, CD43, and CD44. Until recently, the functions of these virion-incorporated proteins had not been clear. Here, we review the recent findings about the roles played by virion-incorporated CD162, CD43, and CD44 in HIV-1 spread to CD4+ T cells.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/metabolism , Hyaluronan Receptors/metabolism , Leukosialin/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Cell Membrane/metabolism , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Hyaluronan Receptors/genetics , Leukosialin/genetics , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes/virology , Virion/metabolism , Virus Assembly , Virus Attachment , gag Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/metabolism
3.
Molecules ; 25(12)2020 Jun 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389454

ABSTRACT

Viruses can be spread from one person to another; therefore, they may cause disorders in many people, sometimes leading to epidemics and even pandemics. New, previously unstudied viruses and some specific mutant or recombinant variants of known viruses constantly appear. An example is a variant of coronaviruses (CoV) causing severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), named SARS-CoV-2. Some antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir as well as antiretroviral drugs including darunavir, lopinavir, and ritonavir are suggested to be effective in treating disorders caused by SARS-CoV-2. There are data on the utilization of antiretroviral drugs against SARS-CoV-2. Since there are many studies aimed at the identification of the molecular mechanisms of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection and the development of novel therapeutic approaches against HIV-1, we used HIV-1 for our case study to identify possible molecular pathways shared by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. We applied a text and data mining workflow and identified a list of 46 targets, which can be essential for the development of infections caused by SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1. We show that SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 share some molecular pathways involved in inflammation, immune response, cell cycle regulation.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , Data Mining/methods , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/metabolism , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Antigens, Differentiation/genetics , Antigens, Differentiation/immunology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Complement System Proteins/genetics , Complement System Proteins/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Databases, Genetic , Gene Expression Regulation , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/drug effects , Host-Pathogen Interactions/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation , Interferons/genetics , Interferons/immunology , Interleukins/genetics , Interleukins/immunology , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/drug effects , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/genetics , Metabolic Networks and Pathways/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Repressor Proteins/genetics , Repressor Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Signal Transduction , Toll-Like Receptors/genetics , Toll-Like Receptors/immunology , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/genetics , Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases/immunology
4.
Biochim Biophys Acta Mol Basis Dis ; 1867(12): 166244, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356140

ABSTRACT

The placenta provides a significant physical and physiological barrier to prevent fetal infection during pregnancy. Nevertheless, it is at times breached by pathogens and leads to vertical transmission of infection from mother to fetus. This review will focus specifically on the Zika flavivirus, the HIV retrovirus and the emerging SARS-CoV2 coronavirus, which have affected pregnant women and their offspring in recent epidemics. In particular, we will address how viral infections affect the immune response at the maternal-fetal interface and how the placental barrier is physically breached and discuss the consequences of infection on various aspects of placental function to support fetal growth and development. Improved understanding of how the placenta responds to viral infections will lay the foundation for developing therapeutics to these and emergent viruses, to minimise the harms of infection to the offspring.


Subject(s)
Placenta/virology , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/virology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , COVID-19/metabolism , Female , Fetus/virology , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/statistics & numerical data , Placenta/metabolism , Pregnancy , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism
5.
J Neuroinflammation ; 18(1): 167, 2021 Jul 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331945

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Neurological complications are common in patients affected by COVID-19 due to the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect brains. While the mechanisms of this process are not fully understood, it has been proposed that SARS-CoV-2 can infect the cells of the neurovascular unit (NVU), which form the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The aim of the current study was to analyze the expression pattern of the main SARS-CoV-2 receptors in naïve and HIV-1-infected cells of the NVU in order to elucidate a possible pathway of the virus entry into the brain and a potential modulatory impact of HIV-1 in this process. METHODS: The gene and protein expression profile of ACE2, TMPRSS2, ADAM17, BSG, DPP4, AGTR2, ANPEP, cathepsin B, and cathepsin L was assessed by qPCR, immunoblotting, and immunostaining, respectively. In addition, we investigated if brain endothelial cells can be affected by the exposure to the S1 subunit of the S protein, the domain responsible for the direct binding of SARS-CoV-2 to the ACE2 receptors. RESULTS: The receptors involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection are co-expressed in the cells of the NVU, especially in astrocytes and microglial cells. These receptors are functionally active as exposure of endothelial cells to the SARS CoV-2 S1 protein subunit altered the expression pattern of tight junction proteins, such as claudin-5 and ZO-1. Additionally, HIV-1 infection upregulated ACE2 and TMPRSS2 expression in brain astrocytes and microglia cells. CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide key insight into SARS-CoV-2 recognition by cells of the NVU and may help to develop possible treatment of CNS complications of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1 , Neurons/metabolism , Receptors, Virus/genetics , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Astrocytes/metabolism , Brain Diseases/etiology , Cells, Cultured , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Humans , Microglia/metabolism , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Primary Cell Culture , Receptor, Angiotensin, Type 2 , Virus Replication
6.
Clin Nutr ESPEN ; 43: 329-334, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1193265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Given reports of changes in dietary habits during covid-19 lockdown, our aim was to assess weight changes, over a 3-month Covid-19 national lockdown in a cohort of NAFLD-HIV patients on a dietary intervention trial. METHODS: After NAFLD screening in an outpatient Infectious Diseases Clinic, NAFLD patients were randomly allocated to general dietary recommendations (SC group) or to a structured dietary intervention based on the Mediterranean diet (intervention group). During lockdown, follow-up consultations in the intervention group were done by video and/or phone. After 3 months of lockdown, all patients (intervention and SC group) consented to a telephone interview which aimed to characterize eating habits and lifestyle changes and evaluate stress and depression. Biochemical data when available, was compared between the peri-period of confinement. RESULTS: One hundred and twelve patients were screened. From the 55 NAFDL identified, 27 were allocated to dietary intervention and 28 to SC and were followed before lockdown for a mean period of 5.0 ± 1.5 months in which SC group gained a median of 0.65 kg vs. a median loss of 1.5 kg in the intervention group (p < 0.001). During lockdown, 93.3% of patients in the SC group referred that "diet got worse" vs. 6.7% in the intervention group p < 0.01), and 35.3% vs. 15.7% (p = 0.014) reported increase in appetite, respectively. Both groups gained weight, SC group vs. 0.7 ± 1.7 kg in the intervention group, p < 0.001). Higher weight gain was associated with changes in the dietary pattern (3.8 ± 2.1 kg vs. 2.0 ± 1.3 kg in "no change in dietary pattern"; p = 0.002). Glucose blood levels increased after lockdown in the SC group, with a mean increase of 15 mg/dl (p = 0.023). The remaining metabolic parameters remained unchanged. CONCLUSION: The maintenance of dietary intervention, using telemedicine, can mitigate the adverse change in dietary habits and physical activity pattern, preventing a substantial increase in body weight.


Subject(s)
Body Weight , COVID-19 , Diet, Mediterranean , HIV Infections/diet therapy , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/diet therapy , Physical Distancing , Telemedicine , Adult , Appetite , Blood Glucose/metabolism , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Communicable Disease Control , Depression , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Life Style , Male , Middle Aged , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/complications , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease/metabolism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation/psychology , Stress, Psychological , Weight Gain , Weight Loss
7.
PLoS Biol ; 18(12): e3000963, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040033

ABSTRACT

Approximately 28% of the human population have been exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB), with the overwhelming majority of infected individuals not developing disease (latent TB infection (LTBI)). While it is known that uncontrolled HIV infection is a major risk factor for the development of TB, the effect of underlying LTBI on HIV disease progression is less well characterized, in part because longitudinal data are lacking. We sorted all participants of the Swiss HIV Cohort Study (SHCS) with at least 1 documented MTB test into one of the 3 groups: MTB uninfected, LTBI, or active TB. To detect differences in the HIV set point viral load (SPVL), linear regression was used; the frequency of the most common opportunistic infections (OIs) in the SHCS between MTB uninfected patients, patients with LTBI, and patients with active TB were compared using logistic regression and time-to-event analyses. In adjusted models, we corrected for baseline demographic characteristics, i.e., HIV transmission risk group and gender, geographic region, year of HIV diagnosis, and CD4 nadir. A total of 13,943 SHCS patients had at least 1 MTB test documented, of whom 840 (6.0%) had LTBI and 770 (5.5%) developed active TB. Compared to MTB uninfected patients, LTBI was associated with a 0.24 decreased log HIV SPVL in the adjusted model (p < 0.0001). Patients with LTBI had lower odds of having candida stomatitis (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.68, p = 0.0035) and oral hairy leukoplakia (adjusted OR = 0.67, p = 0.033) when compared to MTB uninfected patients. The association of LTBI with a reduced HIV set point virus load and fewer unrelated infections in HIV/TB coinfected patients suggests a more complex interaction between LTBI and HIV than previously assumed.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/complications , Latent Tuberculosis/diagnosis , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/complications , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/etiology , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections/microbiology , Adult , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cohort Studies , Disease Progression , Female , HIV Infections/metabolism , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Interferon-gamma , Latent Tuberculosis/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Opportunistic Infections/complications , Risk , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Viral Load/immunology
8.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887617

ABSTRACT

Most cells can release extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles containing various proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and signaling molecules. The exchange of EVs between cells facilitates intercellular communication, amplification of cellular responses, immune response modulation, and perhaps alterations in viral pathogenicity. EVs serve a dual role in inhibiting or enhancing viral infection and pathogenesis. This review examines the current literature on EVs to explore the complex role of EVs in the enhancement, inhibition, and potential use as a nanotherapeutic against clinically relevant viruses, focusing on neurotropic viruses: Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, this review's scope will elaborate on EV-based mechanisms, which impact viral pathogenicity, facilitate viral spread, and modulate antiviral immune responses.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Communication/physiology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Exosomes/metabolism , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Retroviridae/metabolism , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Therapeutics/methods , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/virology , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism
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