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1.
PLoS Med ; 18(11): e1003836, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1592117

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Integration of HIV services with other health services has been proposed as an important strategy to boost the sustainability of the global HIV response. We conducted a systematic and comprehensive synthesis of the existing scientific evidence on the impact of service integration on the HIV care cascade, health outcomes, and cost-effectiveness. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We reviewed the global quantitative empirical evidence on integration published between 1 January 2010 and 10 September 2021. We included experimental and observational studies that featured both an integration intervention and a comparator in our review. Of the 7,118 unique peer-reviewed English-language studies that our search algorithm identified, 114 met all of our selection criteria for data extraction. Most of the studies (90) were conducted in sub-Saharan Africa, primarily in East Africa (55) and Southern Africa (24). The most common forms of integration were (i) HIV testing and counselling added to non-HIV services and (ii) non-HIV services added to antiretroviral therapy (ART). The most commonly integrated non-HIV services were maternal and child healthcare, tuberculosis testing and treatment, primary healthcare, family planning, and sexual and reproductive health services. Values for HIV care cascade outcomes tended to be better in integrated services: uptake of HIV testing and counselling (pooled risk ratio [RR] across 37 studies: 1.67 [95% CI 1.41-1.99], p < 0.001), ART initiation coverage (pooled RR across 19 studies: 1.42 [95% CI 1.16-1.75], p = 0.002), time until ART initiation (pooled RR across 5 studies: 0.45 [95% CI 0.20-1.00], p = 0.050), retention in HIV care (pooled RR across 19 studies: 1.68 [95% CI 1.05-2.69], p = 0.031), and viral suppression (pooled RR across 9 studies: 1.19 [95% CI 1.03-1.37], p = 0.025). Also, treatment success for non-HIV-related diseases and conditions and the uptake of non-HIV services were commonly higher in integrated services. We did not find any significant differences for the following outcomes in our meta-analyses: HIV testing yield, ART adherence, HIV-free survival among infants, and HIV and non-HIV mortality. We could not conduct meta-analyses for several outcomes (HIV infections averted, costs, and cost-effectiveness), because our systematic review did not identify sufficient poolable studies. Study limitations included possible publication bias of studies with significant or favourable findings and comparatively weak evidence from some world regions and on integration of services for key populations in the HIV response. CONCLUSIONS: Integration of HIV services and other health services tends to improve health and health systems outcomes. Despite some scientific limitations, the global evidence shows that service integration can be a valuable strategy to boost the sustainability of the HIV response and contribute to the goal of 'ending AIDS by 2030', while simultaneously supporting progress towards universal health coverage.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/epidemiology , Health Services , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Disease-Free Survival , Geography , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Social Stigma , Treatment Outcome
2.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0260251, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1546950

ABSTRACT

There continue to be conflicting data regarding the outcomes of people with HIV (PWH) who have COVID-19 infection with most studies describing the early epidemic. We present a single site experience spanning a later timeframe from the first report on January 21, 2020 to January 20, 2021 and describe clinical outcomes and predictors of hospitalization among a cohort of PWH in an urban center in Connecticut, USA. Among 103 PWH with controlled HIV disease, hospitalization occurred in 33% and overall mortality was 1%. HIV associated factors (CD4 count, HIV viral suppression) were not associated with hospitalization. Chronic lung disease (OR: 3.35, 95% CI:1.28-8.72), and cardiovascular disease (OR: 3.4, 95% CI:1.27-9.12) were independently associated with hospitalization. An increasing number of non-communicable comorbidities increased the likelihood of hospitalization (OR: 1.61, 95% CI:1.22-2.13).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections/pathology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/virology , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Comorbidity , Connecticut , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Noncommunicable Diseases/epidemiology , Odds Ratio , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
3.
Front Immunol ; 12: 797117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538374

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in 2019 SARS-CoV-2 has proven to have a higher level of morbidity and mortality compared to the other prevailing coronaviruses. Although initially most African countries were spared from the devastating effect of SARS-CoV-2, at present almost every country has been affected. Although no association has been established between being HIV-1-infected and being more vulnerable to contracting COVID-19, HIV-1-infected individuals have a greater risk of developing severe COVID-19 and of COVID-19 related mortality. The rapid development of the various types of COVID-19 vaccines has gone a long way in mitigating the devastating effects of the virus and has controlled its spread. However, global vaccine deployment has been uneven particularly in Africa. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Beta and Delta, which seem to show some subtle resistance to the existing vaccines, suggests COVID-19 will still be a high-risk infection for years. In this review we report on the current impact of COVID-19 on HIV-1-infected individuals from an immunological perspective and attempt to make a case for prioritising COVID-19 vaccination for those living with HIV-1 in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries like Malawi as one way of minimising the impact of COVID-19 in these countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/prevention & control , HIV Infections/mortality , Mass Vaccination/methods , Africa South of the Sahara , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Seropositivity , Health Priorities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
4.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(1): 6-10, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373693

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection continues to cause significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Preliminary data on SARS-CoV-2 infection suggest that some immunocompromised hosts experience worse outcomes. We performed a retrospective matched cohort study to characterize outcomes in HIV-positive patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHODS: Leveraging data collected from electronic medical records for all patients hospitalized at NYU Langone Health with COVID-19 between March 2, 2020, and April 23, 2020, we matched 21 HIV-positive patients with 42 non-HIV patients using a greedy nearest-neighbor algorithm. Admission characteristics, laboratory test results, and hospital outcomes were recorded and compared between the 2 groups. RESULTS: Although there was a trend toward increased rates of intensive care unit admission, mechanical ventilation, and mortality in HIV-positive patients, these differences were not statistically significant. Rates for these outcomes in our cohort are similar to those previously published for all patients hospitalized with COVID-19. HIV-positive patients had significantly higher admission and peak C-reactive protein values. Other inflammatory markers did not differ significantly between groups, although HIV-positive patients tended to have higher peak values during their clinical course. Three HIV-positive patients had superimposed bacterial pneumonia with positive sputum cultures, and all 3 patients died during hospitalization. There was no difference in frequency of thrombotic events or myocardial infarction between these groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence that HIV coinfection does not significantly impact presentation, hospital course, or outcomes of patients infected with SARS-CoV-2, when compared with matched non-HIV patients. A larger study is required to determine whether the trends we observed apply to all HIV-positive patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Coinfection/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Critical Care , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Respiration, Artificial , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
6.
HIV Med ; 22(9): 867-876, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331728

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: We compared the characteristics and clinical outcomes of hospitalized individuals with COVID-19 with [people with HIV (PWH)] and without (non-PWH) HIV co-infection in Spain during the first wave of the pandemic. METHODS: This was a retrospective matched cohort study. People with HIV were identified by reviewing clinical records and laboratory registries of 10 922 patients in active-follow-up within the Spanish HIV Research Network (CoRIS) up to 30 June 2020. Each hospitalized PWH was matched with five non-PWH of the same age and sex randomly selected from COVID-19@Spain, a multicentre cohort of 4035 patients hospitalized with confirmed COVID-19. The main outcome was all-cause in-hospital mortality. RESULTS: Forty-five PWH with PCR-confirmed COVID-19 were identified in CoRIS, 21 of whom were hospitalized. A total of 105 age/sex-matched controls were selected from the COVID-19@Spain cohort. The median age in both groups was 53 (Q1-Q3, 46-56) years, and 90.5% were men. In PWH, 19.1% were injecting drug users, 95.2% were on antiretroviral therapy, 94.4% had HIV-RNA < 50 copies/mL, and the median (Q1-Q3) CD4 count was 595 (349-798) cells/µL. No statistically significant differences were found between PWH and non-PWH in number of comorbidities, presenting signs and symptoms, laboratory parameters, radiology findings and severity scores on admission. Corticosteroids were administered to 33.3% and 27.4% of PWH and non-PWH, respectively (P = 0.580). Deaths during admission were documented in two (9.5%) PWH and 12 (11.4%) non-PWH (P = 0.800). CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that well-controlled HIV infection does not modify the clinical presentation or worsen clinical outcomes of COVID-19 hospitalization.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Users/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Spain/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
J Med Virol ; 93(3): 1687-1693, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196492

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection may be at an increased risk for morbidity and mortality from the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We present the clinical outcomes of HIV patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in a matched comparison with historical controls. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of HIV patients admitted for COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2020 to Newark Beth Israel Medical Center. Data on baseline clinical characteristics and hospital course were documented and compared with that of a matched control group of COVID-19 patients who had no history of HIV. Kaplan-Meier survival curves and the log-rank tests were used to estimate and compare in-hospital survival between both unmatched and matched groups. RESULTS: Twenty-three patients with HIV were hospitalized with COVID-19. The median age was 59 years. The rates of in-hospital death, the need for mechanical ventilation, and intensive care unit (ICU) admission were 13% (n = 3), 9% (n = 2), and 9% (n = 2), respectively. The HIV infection was well-controlled in all patients except for three patients presented with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). All AIDS patients were discharged home uneventfully. A one-to-one propensity matching identified 23 COVID-19 patients who served as a control group. In both pre- and post-match cohorts, survival between HIV and control groups were comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In our cohort of HIV-infected patients hospitalized for COVID-19, there was no difference in mortality, ICU admission, and the need for mechanical ventilation when compared with a matched control of COVID-19 patients with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/mortality , HIV Infections/mortality , Aged , Comorbidity , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Databases, Factual , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , Treatment Outcome
8.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 726-732, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196407

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. Several medical comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether people living with human immunodefeciency virus (PLWH) are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and severe disease manifestation, with controversial suggestion that HIV-infected individuals could be protected from severe COVID-19 by means of antiretroviral therapy or HIV-related immunosuppression. Several cases of coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have been reported from different parts of the globe. This review seeks to provide a holistic overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , HIV/drug effects , HIV/growth & development , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
9.
Lancet HIV ; 8(4): e206-e215, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1093284

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, men who have sex with men (MSM) in the USA have reported similar or fewer sexual partners and reduced HIV testing and care access compared with before the pandemic. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) use has also declined. We aimed to quantify the potential effect of COVID-19 on HIV incidence and HIV-related mortality among US MSM. METHODS: We used a calibrated, deterministic, compartmental HIV transmission model for MSM in Baltimore (MD, USA) and available data on COVID-19-related disruptions to HIV services to predict effects of reductions in sexual partners (0%, 25%, 50%), condom use (5%), HIV testing (20%), viral suppression (10%), PrEP initiations (72%), PrEP adherence (9%), and antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiations (50%). In our main analysis, we modelled disruptions due to COVID-19 starting Jan 1, 2020, and lasting 6 months. We estimated the median change in cumulative new HIV infections and HIV-related deaths among MSM over 1 and 5 years, compared with a base case scenario without COVID-19-related disruptions. FINDINGS: A 25% reduction in sexual partners for 6 months among MSM in Baltimore, without HIV service changes, could reduce new HIV infections by median 12·2% (95% credible interval 11·7 to 12·8) over 1 year and median 3·0% (2·6 to 3·4) over 5 years. In the absence of changes in sexual behaviour, the 6-month estimated reductions in condom use, HIV testing, viral suppression, PrEP initiations, PrEP adherence, and ART initiations combined are predicted to increase new HIV infections by median 10·5% (5·8 to 16·5) over 1 year, and by median 3·5% (2·1 to 5·4) over 5 years. Disruptions to ART initiations and viral suppression are estimated to substantially increase HIV-related deaths (ART initiations by median 1·7% [0·8 to 3·2], viral suppression by median 9·5% [5·2 to 15·9]) over 1 year, with smaller proportional increases over 5 years. The other individual disruptions (to HIV testing, PrEP and condom use, PrEP initiation, and partner numbers) were estimated to have little effect on HIV-related deaths (<1% change over 1 or 5 years). A 25% reduction in sexual partnerships is estimated to offset the effect of the combined service disruptions on new HIV infections (change over 1 year: median -3·9% [-7·4 to 1·0]; over 5 years: median 0·0% [-0·9 to 1·4]), but not on HIV deaths (change over 1 year: 11·0% [6·2 to 17·7]; over 5 years: 2·6% [1·5 to 4·3]). INTERPRETATION: Maintaining access to ART and adherence support is of the utmost importance to maintain viral suppression and minimise excess HIV-related mortality due to COVID-19 restrictions in the USA, even if disruptions to services are accompanied by reductions in sexual partnerships. FUNDING: National Institutes of Health.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Condoms/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Models, Statistical , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , African Americans , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Baltimore/epidemiology , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/transmission , Health Services Accessibility/statistics & numerical data , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Incidence , Male , Prognosis , Risk-Taking , Sexual Partners , Survival Analysis
10.
AIDS ; 34(13): F3-F8, 2020 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1087866

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We studied clinical outcomes of COVID-19 infection in patients living with HIV (PLH) in comparison to non-HIV population. DESIGN: Analysis of a multicentre research network TriNETX was performed including patients more than 10 years of age diagnosed with COVID-19. METHODS: Outcomes in COVID-19 positive patients with concurrent HIV (PLH) were compared with a propensity-matched cohort of patients without HIV (non-PLH). RESULTS: Fifty thousand one hundred and sixty-seven patients with COVID-19 were identified (49,763 non-PLH, 404 PLH). PLH were more likely to be men, African-American, obese and have concurrent hypertension, diabetes, chronic kidney disease and nicotine dependence compared with non-PLH cohort (all P values <0.05). We performed 1 : 1 matching for BMI, diabetes, hypertension, chronic lung diseases, chronic kidney disease, race, history of nicotine dependence and sex. In unmatched analysis, PLH had higher mortality at 30 days [risk ratio 1.55, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.01-2.39] and were more likely to need inpatient services (risk ratio 1.83, 95% CI: 1.496-2.24). After propensity score matching, no difference in mortality was noted (risk ratio 1.33, 95% CI: 0.69-2.57). A higher proportion of PLH group needed inpatient services (19.31 vs. 11.39%, risk ratio 1.696, 95% CI: 1.21-2.38). Mean C-reactive protein, ferritin, erythrocyte sedimentation rate and lactate dehydrogenase levels after COVID-19 diagnosis were not statistically different and mortality was not different for PLH with a history of antiretroviral treatment. CONCLUSION: Crude COVID-19 mortality is higher in PLH; however, propensity-matched analyses revealed no difference in outcomes, showing that higher mortality is driven by higher burden of comorbidities. Early diagnosis and intensive surveillance are needed to prevent a 'Syndemic' of diseases in this vulnerable cohort.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Female , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Propensity Score , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Analysis , United States/epidemiology
11.
J Infect Dis ; 223(3): 403-408, 2021 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082007

ABSTRACT

We performed a retrospective study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). PWH with COVID-19 demonstrated severe lymphopenia and decreased CD4+ T cell counts. Levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α were commonly elevated. In all, 19 of 72 hospitalized individuals (26.4%) died and 53 (73.6%) recovered. PWH who died had higher levels of inflammatory markers and more severe lymphopenia than those who recovered. These findings suggest that PWH remain at risk for severe manifestations of COVID-19 despite antiretroviral therapy and that those with increased markers of inflammation and immune dysregulation are at risk for worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
12.
Lancet HIV ; 8(1): e24-e32, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether HIV infection is associated with risk of death due to COVID-19 is unclear. We aimed to investigate this association in a large-scale population-based study in England. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study. Working on behalf of NHS England, we used the OpenSAFELY platform to analyse routinely collected electronic primary care data linked to national death registrations. We included all adults (aged ≥18 years) alive and in follow-up on Feb 1, 2020, and with at least 1 year of continuous registration with a general practitioner before this date. People with a primary care record for HIV infection were compared with people without HIV. The outcome was COVID-19 death, defined as the presence of International Classification of Diseases 10 codes U07.1 or U07.2 anywhere on the death certificate. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between HIV infection and COVID-19 death; they were initially adjusted for age and sex, then we added adjustment for index of multiple deprivation and ethnicity, and then for a broad range of comorbidities. Interaction terms were added to assess effect modification by age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, and calendar time. RESULTS: 17 282 905 adults were included, of whom 27 480 (0·16%) had HIV recorded. People living with HIV were more likely to be male, of Black ethnicity, and from a more deprived geographical area than the general population. 14 882 COVID-19 deaths occurred during the study period, with 25 among people with HIV. People living with HIV had higher risk of COVID-19 death than those without HIV after adjusting for age and sex: hazard ratio (HR) 2·90 (95% CI 1·96-4·30; p<0·0001). The association was attenuated, but risk remained high, after adjustment for deprivation, ethnicity, smoking and obesity: adjusted HR 2·59 (95% CI 1·74-3·84; p<0·0001). There was some evidence that the association was larger among people of Black ethnicity: HR 4·31 (95% CI 2·42-7·65) versus 1·84 (1·03-3·26) in non-Black individuals (p-interaction=0·044). INTERPRETATION: People with HIV in the UK seem to be at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality. Targeted policies should be considered to address this raised risk as the pandemic response evolves. FUNDING: Wellcome, Royal Society, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, UK Medical Research Council, Health Data Research UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/mortality , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Female , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/physiopathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Sex Factors , Smoking/physiopathology , Social Class , United Kingdom/epidemiology
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 86(2): 224-230, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024171

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Limited data exist about clinical outcomes and levels of inflammatory and immune markers among people hospitalized with COVID-19 by HIV serostatus and by HIV viral suppression. SETTING: Large tertiary care health system in the Bronx, NY, USA. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of 4613 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-positive patients admitted between March 10, 2020, and May 11, 2020. We examined in-hospital intubation, acute kidney injury (AKI), hospitalization length, and in-hospital mortality by HIV serostatus, and by HIV-viral suppression and CD4 counts among people living with HIV (PLWH) using adjusted competing risks regression. We also compared immune and inflammatory marker levels by HIV serostatus and viral suppression. RESULTS: Most patients were either non-Hispanic Black (36%) or Hispanic (37%); 100/4613 (2.2%) were PLWH, among whom 15 had detectable HIV viral load. PLWH compared to patients without HIV had increased intubation rates (adjusted hazard ratio 1.73 [95% CI: 1.12 to 2.67], P = 0.01). Both groups had similar rates of AKI, length of hospitalization, and death. No (0%) virally unsuppressed PLWH were intubated or died, versus 21/81 (26%, P = 0.04) and 22/81 (27%, P = 0.02) of virally suppressed PLWH, respectively. Among PLWH, higher CD4 T-cell counts were associated with increased intubation rates. C-reactive protein, IL-6, neutrophil counts, and ferritin levels were similar between virally suppressed PLWH and patients without HIV, but significantly lower for unsuppressed PLWH (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: PLWH had increased risk of intubation but similarly frequent rates of AKI and in-hospital death as those without HIV. Findings of no intubations or deaths among PLWH with unsuppressed HIV viral load warrant further investigation.


Subject(s)
Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Aged , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Viral Load
14.
HIV Med ; 22(5): 372-378, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-998932

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A prior T cell depletion induced by HIV infection may carry deleterious consequences in the current COVID-19 pandemic. Clinical data on patients co-infected with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 are still scarce. METHODS: This multicentre cohort study evaluated risk factors for morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 in people living with HIV (PLWH), infected with SARS-CoV-2 in three countries in different clinical settings. COVID-19 was clinically classified as to be mild-to-moderate or severe. RESULTS: Of 175 patients, 49 (28%) had severe COVID-19 and 7 (4%) patients died. Almost all patients were on antiretroviral therapy (ART) and in 94%, HIV RNA was below 50 copies/mL prior to COVID-19 diagnosis. In the univariate analysis, an age 50 years or older, a CD4+ T cell nadir of < 200/µl, current CD4+ T cells < 350/µl and the presence of at least one comorbidity were significantly associated with severity of COVID-19. No significant association was found for gender, ethnicity, obesity, a detectable HIV RNA, a prior AIDS-defining illness, or tenofovir (which was mainly given as alafenamide) or protease inhibitor use in the current ART. In a multivariate analysis, the only factor associated with risk for severe COVID-19 was a current CD4+ T cell count of < 350/µl (adjusted odds ratio 2.85, 95% confidence interval 1.26-6.44, p=0.01). The only factor associated with mortality was a low CD4 T cell nadir. CONCLUSIONS: In PLWH, immune deficiency is a possible risk factor for severe COVID-19, even in the setting of virological suppression. There is no evidence for a protective effect of PIs or tenofovir alafenamide.


Subject(s)
Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/methods , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/immunology , Cohort Studies , Coinfection , Germany/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/genetics , Risk Assessment , Severity of Illness Index , Spain/epidemiology , Viral Load , Young Adult
15.
Int J Infect Dis ; 102: 310-315, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-959844

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Information on how COVID-19 affects people living with HIV (PLHIV) remains scarce. METHODS: An observational study was conducted in four public hospitals in Madrid. All HIV patients with confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were included and compared with COVID-19 patients without HIV infection. RESULTS: Sixty-three patients with HIV infection and confirmed or suspected COVID-19 were analyzed. The median age was 46 years (IQR: 37-56 years), and 88.9% were men. The median duration of HIV infection was 10.8 years (IQR: 6.5-16.8 years), and 96.8% were on antiretroviral therapy. 84.1% had previous comorbidities. The most common symptoms were fever (66.1%), cough (66.1%) and dyspnea (46.8%). Pneumonia was found in 47.5%, 28.6% of patients had severe disease, and 32.3% were admitted to hospital. The ICU admission rate and the mortality rate were both 3.17%. A significant association was observed between age, arterial hypertension, overweight, and diabetes mellitus and the severity of COVID-19. No association was observed between HIV-related factors and the severity of COVID-19. The rate of COVID-19 in HIV-patients was 1.68%. Similar hospitalization (31.74% vs 32.57%) and ICU admission (3.17% vs 2%) rates were observed with non-HIV infected patients. A lower mortality rate during hospitalization (10% vs 21.37%) and a lower global mortality rate (3.17% vs 6.96%) were also observed. CONCLUSIONS: Established poor prognostic factors for COVID-19 patients, such as age and comorbidities, remain the main determinants for PLHIV. Neither the HIV severity nor the type of ARV treatment seem to influence the outcome of COVID-19. Large prospective cohorts are needed in order to establish the differences between HIV-positive and HIV-negative patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/mortality , Hospitalization , Humans , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies
16.
Curr HIV Res ; 19(3): 286-291, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-953114

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The clinical spectrum of SARS-CoV-2 infection may vary from simple colds to a severe acute respiratory syndrome, metabolic acidosis, septic shock, and multiple organ failure. Current evidence indicates that the risk of severe illness increases with age, in the male sex, and with certain chronic medical problems. Many people living with HIV have other conditions that increase their risk. ; Case presentation: In the first 3 months of the pandemic, four patients with HIV were hospitalized in our clinic because of COVID-19. The disease severity was mild in two patients with normal CD4+ T count. However, one patient with a low CD4+T count died and the other developed retinal detachment one month after discharge. The deceased patient had a malignancy. ; Conclusion: In this study, the effect of the immunological status of the patients on the course of COVID-19 and the developing vascular complications was evaluated in 4 patients with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , COVID-19/mortality , Coinfection/complications , Coinfection/mortality , Fatal Outcome , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Retinal Degeneration/mortality
17.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 63-73, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We examine the interplay between the HIV and COVID-19 epidemics, including the impact of HIV on COVID-19 susceptibility and severe disease, the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on HIV prevention and treatment, and the influence of the HIV epidemic on responses to COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence to date does not suggest that people living with HIV (PLWH) have a markedly higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with disparities in the social determinants of health and comorbidities likely having a greater influence. The majority of literature has not supported a higher risk for severe disease among PLWH in Europe and the United States, although a large, population-based study in South Africa reported a higher rate of death due to COVID-19. Higher rates of comorbidities associated with COVID-19 disease severity among PLWH is an urgent concern. COVID-19 is leading to decreased access to HIV prevention services and HIV testing, and worsening HIV treatment access and virologic suppression, which could lead to worsening HIV epidemic control. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is threatening gains against the HIV epidemic, including the U.S. Ending the HIV Epidemic goals. The ongoing collision of these two global pandemics will continue to need both study and interventions to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on HIV efforts worldwide.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Europe/epidemiology , HIV/genetics , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , South Africa/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
18.
Lancet Glob Health ; 8(9): e1132-e1141, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-641159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 has the potential to cause substantial disruptions to health services, due to cases overburdening the health system or response measures limiting usual programmatic activities. We aimed to quantify the extent to which disruptions to services for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria in low-income and middle-income countries with high burdens of these diseases could lead to additional loss of life over the next 5 years. METHODS: Assuming a basic reproduction number of 3·0, we constructed four scenarios for possible responses to the COVID-19 pandemic: no action, mitigation for 6 months, suppression for 2 months, or suppression for 1 year. We used established transmission models of HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria to estimate the additional impact on health that could be caused in selected settings, either due to COVID-19 interventions limiting activities, or due to the high demand on the health system due to the COVID-19 pandemic. FINDINGS: In high-burden settings, deaths due to HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria over 5 years could increase by up to 10%, 20%, and 36%, respectively, compared with if there was no COVID-19 pandemic. The greatest impact on HIV was estimated to be from interruption to antiretroviral therapy, which could occur during a period of high health system demand. For tuberculosis, the greatest impact would be from reductions in timely diagnosis and treatment of new cases, which could result from any prolonged period of COVID-19 suppression interventions. The greatest impact on malaria burden could be as a result of interruption of planned net campaigns. These disruptions could lead to a loss of life-years over 5 years that is of the same order of magnitude as the direct impact from COVID-19 in places with a high burden of malaria and large HIV and tuberculosis epidemics. INTERPRETATION: Maintaining the most critical prevention activities and health-care services for HIV, tuberculosis, and malaria could substantially reduce the overall impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. FUNDING: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, Wellcome Trust, UK Department for International Development, and Medical Research Council.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Developing Countries , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Malaria/prevention & control , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , COVID-19 , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Malaria/epidemiology , Malaria/mortality , Models, Theoretical , Tuberculosis/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/mortality
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