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1.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282641

ABSTRACT

This article reviews the current knowledge on how viruses may utilize Extracellular Vesicle Assisted Inflammatory Load (EVAIL) to exert pathologic activities. Viruses are classically considered to exert their pathologic actions through acute or chronic infection followed by the host response. This host response causes the release of cytokines leading to vascular endothelial cell dysfunction and cardiovascular complications. However, viruses may employ an alternative pathway to soluble cytokine-induced pathologies-by initiating the release of extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes. The best-understood example of this alternative pathway is human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-elicited EVs and their propensity to harm vascular endothelial cells. Specifically, an HIV-encoded accessory protein called the "negative factor" (Nef) was demonstrated in EVs from the body fluids of HIV patients on successful combined antiretroviral therapy (ART); it was also demonstrated to be sufficient in inducing endothelial and cardiovascular dysfunction. This review will highlight HIV-Nef as an example of how HIV can produce EVs loaded with proinflammatory cargo to disseminate cardiovascular pathologies. It will further discuss whether EV production can explain SARS-CoV-2-mediated pulmonary and cardiovascular pathologies.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/immunology , Extracellular Vesicles/virology , Inflammation/virology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/virology , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Endothelial Cells/virology , Exosomes/metabolism , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 297-303, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207217

ABSTRACT

In the era of COVID-19, providers are delaying laboratory testing in people with HIV (PWH). The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical significance of renal, liver, and lipid testing. We reviewed the charts of 261 PWH who initiated care at an academic HIV clinic between January 1, 2016 and December 21, 2018. Analysis included one-sided binomial exact tests and multiple linear, Poisson, and Beta regression models. The most common abnormality was a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min (10%). Age <40 years [estimated relative rate (rr) 0.017, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.207 to 0.494], cobicistat (rr 0.284, 95% CI 0.128 to 0.63), and tenofovir alafenamide (rr 0.295 95% CI 0.151 to 0.573) were associated with a decreased risk of GFR <60 mL/min. An increased AST and ALT ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN) was found in 5% and 3%, respectively. Hepatitis C and use of darunavir and lopinavir were associated with increased AST or ALT. When a GFR was <60 mL/min or an AST or ALT was ≥2 × ULN, no action was taken in 53% of cases. In 18% of cases the only intervention was repeat testing. The most common interventions after lipid results were calculation of a 10-year cardiovascular risk score (31%) and addition of a statin (18%). Taking action after lipid results was strongly associated with age ≥40 (rr 7.37, 95% CI 3.0 to 18.3). Young PWH without hepatitis C rarely have renal, liver, or lipid test results that alter clinical care. Decreased testing should be considered.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Monitoring/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Lipids/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
3.
J Med Virol ; 93(5): 2557-2563, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196518

ABSTRACT

During the current COVID pandemic, there is growing interest to identify subsets of the population that may be at a higher than average risk of infection. One such group includes people living with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1167410

ABSTRACT

Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a ß-galactoside-binding lectin capable of promoting or suppressing the progression of infectious diseases. This protein is susceptible to cleavage of its linker-peptides by several proteases, and the resulting cleaved forms, N-terminal carbohydrate recognition domain (CRD) and C-terminal CRD, bind to various glycans. It has been suggested that full-length (FL)-Gal-9 and the truncated (Tr)-Gal-9s could exert different functions from one another via their different glycan-binding activities. We propose that FL-Gal-9 regulates the pathogenesis of infectious diseases, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, HIV co-infected with opportunistic infection (HIV/OI), dengue, malaria, leptospirosis, and tuberculosis (TB). We also suggest that the blood levels of FL-Gal-9 reflect the severity of dengue, malaria, and HIV/OI, and those of Tr-Gal-9 markedly reflect the severity of HIV/OI. Recently, matrix metallopeptidase-9 (MMP-9) was suggested to be an indicator of respiratory failure from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) as well as useful for differentiating pulmonary from extrapulmonary TB. The protease cleavage of FL-Gal-9 may lead to uncontrolled hyper-immune activation, including a cytokine storm. In summary, Gal-9 has potential to reflect the disease severity for the acute and chronic infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases/blood , Galectins/blood , Acute Disease , Amino Acid Sequence , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/physiopathology , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases/immunology , Communicable Diseases/physiopathology , Dengue/blood , Dengue/physiopathology , Galectins/genetics , Galectins/metabolism , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunologic Factors/metabolism , Leptospirosis/blood , Leptospirosis/physiopathology , Malaria/blood , Malaria/physiopathology , Tuberculosis/blood , Tuberculosis/physiopathology
5.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 297-303, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1146081

ABSTRACT

In the era of COVID-19, providers are delaying laboratory testing in people with HIV (PWH). The purpose of this study was to examine the clinical significance of renal, liver, and lipid testing. We reviewed the charts of 261 PWH who initiated care at an academic HIV clinic between January 1, 2016 and December 21, 2018. Analysis included one-sided binomial exact tests and multiple linear, Poisson, and Beta regression models. The most common abnormality was a glomerular filtration rate (GFR) <60 mL/min (10%). Age <40 years [estimated relative rate (rr) 0.017, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.207 to 0.494], cobicistat (rr 0.284, 95% CI 0.128 to 0.63), and tenofovir alafenamide (rr 0.295 95% CI 0.151 to 0.573) were associated with a decreased risk of GFR <60 mL/min. An increased AST and ALT ≥2 × upper limit of normal (ULN) was found in 5% and 3%, respectively. Hepatitis C and use of darunavir and lopinavir were associated with increased AST or ALT. When a GFR was <60 mL/min or an AST or ALT was ≥2 × ULN, no action was taken in 53% of cases. In 18% of cases the only intervention was repeat testing. The most common interventions after lipid results were calculation of a 10-year cardiovascular risk score (31%) and addition of a statin (18%). Taking action after lipid results was strongly associated with age ≥40 (rr 7.37, 95% CI 3.0 to 18.3). Young PWH without hepatitis C rarely have renal, liver, or lipid test results that alter clinical care. Decreased testing should be considered.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Monitoring/methods , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Adult , Aged , Female , Glomerular Filtration Rate , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Lipids/blood , Liver Function Tests , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
6.
Hypertens Res ; 44(4): 386-398, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1065860

ABSTRACT

This review assesses markers of endothelial dysfunction (ED) associated with the maternal syndrome of preeclampsia (PE). We evaluate the role of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected preeclamptic women. Furthermore, we briefly discuss the potential of lopinavir/ritonavir (LPV/r), dolutegravir (DTG) and remdesivir (RDV) in drug repurposing and their safety in pregnancy complicated by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In HIV infection, the trans-activator of transcription protein, which has homology with vascular endothelial growth factor, impairs angiogenesis, leading to endothelial injury and possible PE development despite neutralization of their opposing immune states. Markers of ED show strong evidence supporting the adverse role of ART in PE development and mortality compared to treatment-naïve pregnancies. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, exploits angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE 2) to induce ED and hypertension, thereby mimicking angiotensin II-mediated PE in severe cases of infection. Upregulated ACE 2 in pregnancy is a possible risk factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection and subsequent PE development. The potential effectiveness of LPV/r against COVID-19 is inconclusive; however, defective decidualization, along with elevated markers of ED, was observed. Therefore, the safety of these drugs in HIV-positive pregnancies complicated by COVID-19 requires attention. Despite the observed endothelial protective properties of DTG, there is a lack of evidence of its effects on pregnancy and COVID-19 therapeutics. Understanding RDV-ART interactions and the inclusion of pregnant women in antiviral drug repurposing trials is essential. This review provides a platform for further research on PE in the HIV-COVID-19 syndemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelium/physiopathology , HIV Infections/complications , Pre-Eclampsia/etiology , Adult , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics , Pre-Eclampsia/physiopathology , Pre-Eclampsia/therapy , Pregnancy
7.
HIV Res Clin Pract ; 21(5): 130-139, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-933809

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection among People Living With HIV (PLWH) is not well-described. OBJECTIVE: To study COVID-19 symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 PCR-based swab testing among participants of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS). METHODS: A telephone survey was collected April-June 30, 2020. Symptom and testing prevalence were explored. Multivariable logistic regression was used to examine the factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 positivity. RESULTS: The survey was completed by 3411 participants, including 2078 (61%) PLWH and 1333 HIV-seronegative (SN) participants from across the US. Thirteen percent (n = 441) were tested for SARS-CoV-2 infection (13.4% of PLWH vs 12.2% of SN). Among those tested, positivity was higher in PLWH than SN (11.2% vs 6.1%, p = 0.08). Reasons for not being tested included testing not being available (30% of participants) and not knowing where to get tested (16% of participants). Most symptoms reported since January 2020 were similar in PLWH and SN, including headache (23% vs. 24%), myalgias (19% vs 18%), shortness of breath (14% vs 13%), chills (12% vs 10%), fever (6% vs 6%) and loss of taste or smell (6% vs 7%). Among PLWH who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 DNA, the most common symptoms were headache (71%), myalgia (68%), cough (68%) and chills (65%). In multivariable analysis among those tested, the odds of SARS-CoV-2 positivity were higher among PLWH than SN (aOR = 2.22 95%CI = 01.01-4.85, p = 0.046) and among those living with others versus living alone (aOR = 2.95 95%CI = 1.18-7.40). CONCLUSION: Prevalence and type of COVID-19 symptoms were similar in PLWH and SN. SARS-CoV-2 infection may be elevated among PLWH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/virology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/epidemiology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ageusia/epidemiology , Ageusia/virology , Anosmia/epidemiology , Anosmia/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Chills/epidemiology , Chills/virology , Coinfection , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , Female , Fever/epidemiology , Fever/virology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Headache/epidemiology , Humans , Middle Aged , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
8.
Clin Neuropsychol ; 35(3): 518-540, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-900233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The increased use of online pharmacy services in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic provides an important backdrop against which to examine the role of neurocognitive functions in health-related Internet navigation skills among persons with chronic medical conditions, such as HIV disease. Prospective memory (PM) is reliably impaired in HIV disease and is related to laboratory-based measures of medication management capacity in other populations. This study examined whether PM shows veridicality in relationship to online pharmacy navigation skills in persons with HIV disease. METHOD: Participants included 98 persons with HIV disease age 50 and older who completed the Cambridge Prospective Memory Test (CAMPROMPT) and the Medication-Management Test-Revised (MMT-R) as part of a neuropsychological study. Participants also completed the Test of Online Pharmacy Skills (TOPS), which required them to navigate a simulated, experimenter-controlled online pharmacy to perform several naturalistic tasks (e.g., refill an existing prescription). RESULTS: Lower PM had medium associations with poorer MMT-R and TOPS accuracy scores that were not better explained by other neurocognitive functions. The association between PM and TOPS accuracy was driven by errors of omission and did not vary meaningfully based on whether the intention was cued by time or an event. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that PM cue detection processes show veridicality with online pharmacy navigation skills. Future studies might examine the benefits of PM-based strategies (e.g., salient prompts) in supporting online health navigation skills in populations that experience clinically impactful PM failures.


Subject(s)
Cognitive Dysfunction/physiopathology , Cues , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Memory Disorders/physiopathology , Memory, Episodic , Pharmaceutical Services, Online , Psychomotor Performance/physiology , Aged , COVID-19 , Cognitive Dysfunction/etiology , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Male , Memory Disorders/etiology , Middle Aged
9.
Nat Rev Cardiol ; 18(3): 169-193, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-851285

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory cardiomyopathy, characterized by inflammatory cell infiltration into the myocardium and a high risk of deteriorating cardiac function, has a heterogeneous aetiology. Inflammatory cardiomyopathy is predominantly mediated by viral infection, but can also be induced by bacterial, protozoal or fungal infections as well as a wide variety of toxic substances and drugs and systemic immune-mediated diseases. Despite extensive research, inflammatory cardiomyopathy complicated by left ventricular dysfunction, heart failure or arrhythmia is associated with a poor prognosis. At present, the reason why some patients recover without residual myocardial injury whereas others develop dilated cardiomyopathy is unclear. The relative roles of the pathogen, host genomics and environmental factors in disease progression and healing are still under discussion, including which viruses are active inducers and which are only bystanders. As a consequence, treatment strategies are not well established. In this Review, we summarize and evaluate the available evidence on the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of myocarditis and inflammatory cardiomyopathy, with a special focus on virus-induced and virus-associated myocarditis. Furthermore, we identify knowledge gaps, appraise the available experimental models and propose future directions for the field. The current knowledge and open questions regarding the cardiovascular effects associated with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection are also discussed. This Review is the result of scientific cooperation of members of the Heart Failure Association of the ESC, the Heart Failure Society of America and the Japanese Heart Failure Society.


Subject(s)
Cardiomyopathies/physiopathology , Inflammation/physiopathology , Myocarditis/physiopathology , Virus Diseases/physiopathology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autoimmunity/immunology , Biopsy , COVID-19/physiopathology , COVID-19/therapy , Cardiomyopathies/diagnosis , Cardiomyopathies/immunology , Cardiomyopathies/therapy , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coxsackievirus Infections/immunology , Coxsackievirus Infections/physiopathology , Coxsackievirus Infections/therapy , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Echovirus Infections/immunology , Echovirus Infections/physiopathology , Echovirus Infections/therapy , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/immunology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/physiopathology , Epstein-Barr Virus Infections/therapy , Erythema Infectiosum/immunology , Erythema Infectiosum/physiopathology , Erythema Infectiosum/therapy , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/immunology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/therapy , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Inflammation/diagnosis , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/therapy , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Influenza, Human/therapy , Leukocytes/immunology , Myocarditis/diagnosis , Myocarditis/immunology , Myocarditis/therapy , Myocardium/pathology , Prognosis , Roseolovirus Infections/immunology , Roseolovirus Infections/physiopathology
10.
Stroke ; 51(10): 3156-3168, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-748838

ABSTRACT

Understanding the relationship between infection and stroke has taken on new urgency in the era of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. This association is not a new concept, as several infections have long been recognized to contribute to stroke risk. The association of infection and stroke is also bidirectional. Although infection can lead to stroke, stroke also induces immune suppression which increases risk of infection. Apart from their short-term effects, emerging evidence suggests that poststroke immune changes may also adversely affect long-term cognitive outcomes in patients with stroke, increasing the risk of poststroke neurodegeneration and dementia. Infections at the time of stroke may also increase immune dysregulation after the stroke, further exacerbating the risk of cognitive decline. This review will cover the role of acute infections, including respiratory infections such as COVID-19, as a trigger for stroke; the role of infectious burden, or the cumulative number of infections throughout life, as a contributor to long-term risk of atherosclerotic disease and stroke; immune dysregulation after stroke and its effect on the risk of stroke-associated infection; and the impact of infection at the time of a stroke on the immune reaction to brain injury and subsequent long-term cognitive and functional outcomes. Finally, we will present a model to conceptualize the many relationships among chronic and acute infections and their short- and long-term neurological consequences. This model will suggest several directions for future research.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis/epidemiology , Infections/epidemiology , Stroke/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/epidemiology , Arrhythmias, Cardiac/physiopathology , Atherosclerosis/immunology , Atherosclerosis/physiopathology , Bacteremia/epidemiology , Bacteremia/immunology , Bacteremia/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Chronic Disease , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/immunology , Cytomegalovirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelium/physiopathology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Humans , Immunocompromised Host/immunology , Infections/immunology , Infections/physiopathology , Inflammation/immunology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/physiopathology , Pandemics , Platelet Activation , Platelet Aggregation , Pneumonia/epidemiology , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stroke/immunology , Thrombosis/epidemiology , Thrombosis/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/epidemiology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/immunology , Varicella Zoster Virus Infection/physiopathology
13.
J Stroke Cerebrovasc Dis ; 29(11): 105212, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688668

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Encephalopathy is a common complication of coronavirus disease 2019. Although the encephalopathy is idiopathic in many cases, there are several published reports of patients with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019. OBJECTIVE: To describe the diverse presentations, risk factors, and outcomes of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. METHODS: We assessed patients with coronavirus disease 2019 and a diagnosis of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome at our institution from April 1 to June 24, 2020. We performed a literature search to capture all known published cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019. RESULTS: There were 2 cases of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus 2019 at our institution during a 3-month period. One patient was treated with anakinra, an interleukin-1 inhibitor that may disrupt endothelial function. The second patient had an underlying human immunodeficiency virus infection. We found 13 total cases in our literature search, which reported modest blood pressure fluctuations and a range of risk factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. One patient was treated with tocilizumab, an interleukin-6 inhibitor that may have effects on endothelial function. All patients had an improvement in their neurological symptoms. Interval imaging, when available, showed radiographic improvement of brain lesions. CONCLUSIONS: Risk factors for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 may include underlying infection or immunomodulatory agents with endothelial effects in conjunction with modest blood pressure fluctuations. We found that the neurological prognosis for posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in the setting of coronavirus disease 2019 infection is favorable. Recognition of posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in this patient population is critical for prognostication and initiation of treatment, which may include cessation of potential offending agents and tight blood pressure control.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Endothelium, Vascular/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/virology , Blood Pressure , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/virology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/diagnosis , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/immunology , Posterior Leukoencephalopathy Syndrome/physiopathology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595366

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis C/genetics , Humans , Needle Sharing/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Zoonoses
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