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1.
Swiss Med Wkly ; 152: w30192, 2022 06 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202458

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Changes in mental and sexual health among men having sex with men (MSM) due to the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic remain unclear. METHODS: Design: Longitudinal analysis of an ongoing, multicentre, pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) cohort (NCT03893188) in Switzerland. Participants: HIV-negative MSM aged ≥18 who completed at least one questionnaire before and one after the start of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Outcomes: Primary: mental health, defined as anxiety and depression scores assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-4. Secondary: sexual behaviour, well-being, PrEP use and disruption of care. Outcomes were assessed over seven periods corresponding to different SARS-CoV-2 prevention measures in Switzerland. We performed pairwise comparisons between periods (Wilcoxon signed rank test). RESULTS: Data from 1,043 participants were included. Whilst anxiety scores remained stable over time, depression scores worsened in the second wave and the second lockdown period compared to pre-pandemic scores. This was confirmed by pairwise comparisons (pre-SARS-CoV-2/second wave and pre-SARS-CoV-2/second lockdown: p <0.001). Downward trends in sexual activity,sexualized substance use, and a switch from daily to "event-driven" PrEP were found. Disruption of care affected 42.6% (790/1856) of daily PrEP users' follow-up visits. CONCLUSION: In this longitudinal analysis of a PrEP cohort enrolling MSM, depression scores worsened in the second wave and the second lockdown compared to the pre-pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual Health , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cohort Studies , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexual Behavior
2.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(7): e2243-e2250, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2188368

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases/human immunodeficiency virus (ID/HIV) physicians and other healthcare professionals advocate within the healthcare system to ensure adults and children receive effective treatment. These advocacy skills can be used to inform domestic and global infectious diseases policies to improve healthcare systems and public health. ID/HIV physicians have a unique frontline perspective to share with federal policymakers regarding how programs and policies benefit patients and public health. Providing this input is critical to the enactment of legislation that will maximize the response to infectious diseases. This article discusses the advocacy of ID/HIV physicians and other healthcare professionals in federal health policy. Key issues include funding for ID/HIV programs; the protection of public health and access to healthcare; improving research opportunities; and advancing the field of ID/HIV, including supporting the next generation of ID/HIV clinicians. The article also describes best practices for advocacy and provides case studies illustrating the impact of ID/HIV physician advocacy.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , Physicians , Adult , Child , HIV , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Policy , Humans
4.
Curr HIV/AIDS Rep ; 19(5): 328-343, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2174984

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The discovery of vaccines significantly reduced morbidity and mortality of infectious diseases and led to the elimination and eradication of some. Development of safe and effective vaccines is a critical step to the control of infectious diseases; however, there is the need to address vaccine hesitancy because of its potential impact on vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted a narrative review of studies on interventions to address measles and human papillomavirus vaccine hesitancy. We discussed how lessons learned from these studies could be applied towards COVID-19 and future human immunodeficiency virus vaccines. RESULTS: We found that there are several successful approaches to improving vaccine acceptance. Interventions should be context specific and build on the challenges highlighted in various settings. CONCLUSION: Strategies could be used alone or in combination with others. The most successful interventions directly targeted the population for vaccination. Use of financial incentives could be a potential tool to improve vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Measles , Papillomavirus Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Papillomavirus Vaccines/therapeutic use , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Vaccination Hesitancy
5.
HIV Med ; 23(10): 1108-1112, 2022 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2171100

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: In January 2021, 56 Dean Street, a London sexual health clinic, changed clinic policy so that all those attending for post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) were offered quick-start opt-out pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) following completion of the 28-day PEP course. We assessed the uptake of this quick-start PrEP in service users attending for PEP. METHODS: We undertook a case note review of those who received PEP during the 2-week period from 17 February to 1 March 2021, assessing the data and comparing them to those from the same period in 2020 (15 February-28 February 2020) before quick-start opt-out PrEP was introduced. RESULTS: The number of service users receiving PEP was 82 in 2020 and 42 in 2021, of which an unmet PrEP need was demonstrated in 81.7% (67/82) in 2020 and 78.6% (33/42) in 2021 (p = 0.8106). Of those with an unmet need, a higher proportion (97.0% [32/33]) were offered PrEP in 2021 following the introduction of opt-out PrEP compared with the 85.1% (57/67) in 2020 (p = 0.0953). Of those eligible for PrEP who were offered it during their PEP consultation, 53.1% (17/32) in 2021 were dispensed PrEP compared with 17.5% (10/57) in 2020 (p = 0.0007). CONCLUSION: Since the introduction of quick-start opt-out PrEP, uptake in eligible candidates increased from 17.5% to 53.1%. This suggests that this strategy was acceptable to service users.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis
6.
Front Public Health ; 10: 945448, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163165

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented worldwide spread of SARS-CoV-2 has imposed severe challenges on global health care systems. The roll-out and widespread administration of COVID-19 vaccines has been deemed a major milestone in the race to restrict the severity of the infection. Vaccines have as yet not entirely suppressed the relentless progression of the pandemic, due mainly to the emergence of new virus variants, and also secondary to the waning of protective antibody titers over time. Encouragingly, an increasing number of antiviral drugs, such as remdesivir and the newly developed drug combination, Paxlovid® (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir), as well as molnupiravir, have shown significant benefits for COVID-19 patient outcomes. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) has been proven to be an effective preventive strategy in high-risk uninfected people exposed to HIV. Building on knowledge from what is already known about the use of PrEP for HIV disease, and from recently gleaned knowledge of antivirals used against COVID-19, we propose that SARS-CoV-2 PrEP, using specific antiviral and adjuvant drugs against SARS-CoV-2, may represent a novel preventive strategy for high-risk populations, including healthcare workers, immunodeficient individuals, and poor vaccine responders. Herein, we critically review the risk factors for severe COVID-19 and discuss PrEP strategies against SARS-CoV-2. In addition, we outline details of candidate anti-SARS-CoV-2 PrEP drugs, thus creating a framework with respect to the development of alternative and/or complementary strategies to prevent COVID-19, and contributing to the global armamentarium that has been developed to limit SARS-CoV-2 infection, severity, and transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Humans , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Br J Nurs ; 31(21): 1126, 2022 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2145335
9.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2143131

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 caused widespread disruption of activities for Ending the HIV Epidemic (EHE). In this study we assessed public health perspectives on leveraging the COVID-19 response to advance the goals of EHE. We conducted a qualitative study with 33 public health partners in the Midwestern and Southern United States from October 2020 to February 2022. Participants were asked how the strategies developed for COVID-19 could be applied to the HIV epidemic. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, and examined using rapid qualitative analysis. Four themes emerged: (1) Rebuilding teams and adapting culture for success in EHE activities; (2) Recognizing and modernizing the role of disease intervention specialists (DIS); (3) Enhanced community awareness of the public health role in disease response and prevention; and (4) Leveraging COVID-19 data systems and infrastructure for EHE activities. The COVID-19 pandemic called attention to the dearth of public health funding and outdated information technology (IT) infrastructure used for HIV activities. It also led to greater public health knowledge, including increased familiarity with partner services and molecular epidemiology of HIV, and opportunities to develop new data systems for surveillance that can be applied to efforts for EHE.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , United States , Public Health , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Qualitative Research
10.
Front Public Health ; 10: 975117, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2142328

ABSTRACT

Theatre testing (TT) method demonstrates whole or portions of an evidence-based intervention to stakeholders to elicit feedback on context-specific adaptations and future implementation. The Peer Navigator Project (PNP) studied the adaptation and implementation of Peer Navigators in five urban sites to increase street-connected youth (SCY) access to HIV prevention, testing, and treatment in Canada and Kenya. TT was used with SCY, healthcare providers, and community stakeholders to collect feedback on the optimal characteristics of the PNs (e.g., social identities) and their professional activities and responsibilities in each site. Sites scripted unique scenarios of PNs supporting SCY and interacting with social service providers. Local actors were employed, and the scenarios were filmed and edited into videos alongside audience discussion questions. Videos were screened to separate audiences of SCY (n = 40), healthcare providers (n = 12), and community stakeholders (n = 59). Facilitated discussion about the scenarios were recorded as data, and transcripts were analyzed thematically by the research team. The scenario videos are presented as a unique adaptation to the TT method. The adaptations were time-consuming and limited the ability to present responsive changes while presenting the method to different audiences. They were also effective at maintaining presentation fidelity and eliciting diverse and meaningful responses from different stakeholder groups. One site successfully adapted the method for use in a physically distanced manner that complied with COVID-19 public health regulations. TT using video scenarios is an engaging approach that garners rich responses from diverse stakeholder groups about the adaptation of evidence-based interventions preparing for implementation in international settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Homeless Youth , Adolescent , Humans , Kenya , Delivery of Health Care , HIV Infections/prevention & control
11.
PLoS One ; 17(11): e0277650, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2140658

ABSTRACT

Lithuania has a long history of remunerated donations. The first steps towards voluntary, non-remunerated blood and blood component donations started in 2004. Lithuania achieved 99.98% voluntary non-remunerated donations (VNRDs) in 2020. This study aimed to assess the risk of transfusion-transmitted infectious (TTI) disease markers for remunerated donations in comparison with VNRDs in Lithuania from 2013 to 2020. Data were obtained from the Lithuanian Blood Donor Register. The prevalence was calculated as the rate between the number of confirmed positive results for all TTI disease markers (serological anti-HCV, HBsAg, Ag/anti-HIV 1 and 2, and syphilis, and/or HCV, HBV, and HIV-1 NAT) per 100 donations. The relative risk of infectious disease markers for remunerated donations was then estimated. In total, 796310 donations were made. Altogether, 2743 donations were positive for TTI markers as follows: HCV, 1318; HBV, 768; syphilis, 583; and HIV 1 and 2, 74. The prevalence of confirmed TTI markers were 2.86, 0.97, 0.18, and 0.04 per 100 first-time remunerated donations, first-time VNRDs, repeat remunerated donations, and repeat VNRDs, respectively. Remunerated first-time and repeat donations had a statistically higher prevalence of TTI disease markers than VNRDs. First-time and repeat remunerated donations had statistically significantly higher relative risks of confirmed TTI disease markers than VNRD. In conclusion, the risks of TTI disease markers for remunerated first-time and repeat blood and its component donations are significantly higher than those for VNRDs.


Subject(s)
Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Syphilis , Transfusion Reaction , Humans , Blood Donors , Syphilis/epidemiology , Lithuania/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
12.
Am J Prev Med ; 63(6): 1053-1061, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2129802

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: As the first step in the HIV care continuum, timely diagnosis is central to reducing transmission of the virus and ending the HIV epidemic. Studies have shown that distance from a testing site is essential for ease of access to services and educational material. This study shows how location-allocation analysis can be used to improve allocation of HIV testing services utilizing existing publicly available data from 2015 to 2019 on HIV prevalence, testing site location, and factors related to HIV in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. METHODS: The ArcGIS Location-Allocation analytic tool was used to calculate locations for HIV testing sites using a method that minimizes the distance between demand-point locations and service facilities. ZIP code level demand was initially specified on the basis of the percentage of late HIV diagnoses and in a sensitivity analysis on the basis of a composite of multiple factors. Travel time and distance from demand to facilities determined the facility location allocation. This analysis was conducted from 2021 to 2022. RESULTS: Compared with the 37 facilities located in 20 (43%) Philadelphia ZIP codes, the model proposed reallocating testing facilities to 37 (79%) ZIP codes using percent late diagnoses to define demand. On average, this would reduce distance to the facilities by 65% and travel time to the facilities by 56%. Results using the sensitivity analysis were similar. CONCLUSIONS: A wider distribution of HIV testing services across the city of Philadelphia may reduce distance and travel time to facilities, improve accessibility of testing, and in turn increase the percentage of people with knowledge of their status.


Subject(s)
Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections , Humans , Philadelphia/epidemiology , Knowledge , Travel , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
13.
J Addict Med ; 16(6): 678-683, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2119193

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: People who inject drugs (PWID) may experience high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk and inadequate access to biomedical HIV prevention. Emerging data support integrating HIV post-exposure and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PEP, PrEP) into services already accessed by PWID. We describe PEP/PrEP eligibility and receipt in a low-barrier substance use disorder bridge clinic located in an area experiencing an HIV outbreak among PWID at the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of new patients at a substance use disorder bridge clinic in Boston, MA (January 15, 2020-May 15, 2020) to determine rates of PEP/PrEP eligibility and prescribing. RESULTS: Among 204 unique HIV-negative patients, 85.7% were assessed for injection-related and 23.0% for sexual HIV risk behaviors. Overall, 55/204 (27.0%) met CDC criteria for HIV exposure prophylaxis, including 7/204 (3.4%) for PEP and 48/204 (23.5%) for PrEP. Four of 7 PEP-eligible patients were offered PEP and all 4 were prescribed PEP. Thirty-two of 48 PrEP eligible patients were offered PrEP, and 7/48 (14.6%) were prescribed PrEP. Additionally, 6 PWID were offered PrEP who lacked formal CDC criteria. CONCLUSIONS: Bridge clinics patients have high rates of PEP/PrEP eligibility. The majority of patients with identified eligibility were offered PEP/PrEP, suggesting that upstream interventions that increase HIV risk assessment may support programs in initiating PEP/PrEP care. Additional work is needed to understand why patients declined PEP/PrEP. PrEP offers to PWID who did not meet CDC criteria also suggested provider concern regarding the sensitivity of CDC criteria among PWID. Overall, bridge clinics offer a potential opportunity to increase biomedical HIV prevention service delivery.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2057, 2022 11 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116793

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to determine whether self-reported depression, coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) health risk profile, HIV status, and SARS-CoV-2 exposure were associated with the use of COVID-19 prevention measures. METHODS: This survey collected data electronically between June 29 and December 31, 2020 from a convenient sample of 5050 adults 18 years and above living in 12 West African countries. The dependent variables were: social distancing, working remotely, difficulty obtaining face masks and difficulty washing hands often. The independent variables were self-reported depression, having a health risk for COVID-19 (high, moderate and little/no risk), living with HIV and COVID-19 status (SARS-CoV-2 positive tests, having COVID-19 symptoms but not getting tested, having a close friend who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 and knowing someone who died from COVID-19). Four binary logistic regression models were developed to model the associations between the dependent and independent variables, adjusting for socio-demographic variables (age, gender, educational status, employment status and living status). RESULTS: There were 2412 (47.8%) male participants and the mean (standard deviation) age was 36.94 (11.47) years. Respondents who reported depression had higher odds of working remotely (AOR: 1.341), and having difficulty obtaining face masks (AOR: 1.923;) and washing hands often (AOR: 1.263). People living with HIV had significantly lower odds of having difficulty washing hands often (AOR: 0.483). Respondents with moderate health risk for COVID-19 had significantly higher odds of social distancing (AOR: 1.144) and those with high health risk had difficulty obtaining face masks (AOR: 1.910). Respondents who had a close friend who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 (AOR: 1.132) and knew someone who died of COVID-19 (AOR: 1.094) had significantly higher odds of social distancing. Those who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 had significantly lower odds of social distancing (AOR: 0.629) and working remotely (AOR: 0.713). Those who had symptoms of COVID-19 but did not get tested had significantly lower odds of social distancing (AOR: 0.783) but significantly higher odds of working remotely (AOR: 1.277). CONCLUSIONS: The study signifies a disparity in the access to and use of COVID-19 preventative measures that is allied to the health and COVID-19 status of residents in West Africa. Present findings point to risk compensation behaviours in explaining this outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Male , Humans , Female , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Self Report , Depression/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
15.
Top Antivir Med ; 30(2): 426-453, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2101695

ABSTRACT

At the 2022 Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections, several speakers discussed disparities in HIV and COVID-19 infections and outcomes. Although the lifetime risk of HIV infection in the United States is higher overall in males than females, Black females have higher risk than White males. In 12 countries in sub-Saharan Africa, women aged 15 to 34 years accounted for more than half of all infections. Because knowledge of HIV serostatus is important for treatment and for prevention, several novel strategies were evaluated in the distribution of HIV self-test kits to undertested populations in the United States and sub-Saharan Africa. Data were presented on new products in the pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) pipeline, including long-acting injectable cabotegravir, islatravir, vaginal rings, and in-situ forming implants. Challenges remain in the rollout of oral PrEP, and a number of innovative strategies to address barriers were discussed. Models suggest that the greatest impact of novel PrEP agents would be to increase the pool of persons using PrEP, rather than through improved efficacy. COVID-19 caused substantial declines in HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention and treatment services, which have started to rebound, but are not yet at prepandemic levels in several settings.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , Male , Female , Humans , United States/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use
16.
Trials ; 23(1): 342, 2022 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2098441

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Methamphetamine use could jeopardize the current efforts to address opioid use disorder and HIV infection. Evidence-based behavioral interventions (EBI) are effective in reducing methamphetamine use. However, evidence on optimal combinations of EBI is limited. This protocol presents a type-1 effectiveness-implementation hybrid design to evaluate the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness of adaptive methamphetamine use interventions, and their implementation barriers in Vietnam. METHOD: Design: Participants will be first randomized into two frontline interventions for 12 weeks. They will then be placed or randomized to three adaptive strategies for another 12 weeks. An economic evaluation and an ethnographic evaluation will be conducted alongside the interventions. PARTICIPANTS: We will recruit 600 participants in 20 methadone clinics. ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: (1) age 16+; (2) Alcohol, Smoking and Substance Involvement Screening Test (ASSIST) scores ≥ 10 for methamphetamine use or confirmed methamphetamine use with urine drug screening; (3) willing to provide three pieces of contact information; and (4) having a cell phone. OUTCOMES: Outcomes are measured at 13, 26, and 49 weeks and throughout the interventions. Primary outcomes include the (1) increase in HIV viral suppression, (2) reduction in HIV risk behaviors, and (3) reduction in methamphetamine use. COVID-19 response: We developed a response plan for interruptions caused by COVID-19 lockdowns to ensure data quality and intervention fidelity. DISCUSSION: This study will provide important evidence for scale-up of EBIs for methamphetamine use among methadone patients in limited-resource settings. As the EBIs will be delivered by methadone providers, they can be readily implemented if the trial demonstrates effectiveness and cost-effectiveness. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04706624. Registered on 13 January 2021. https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04706624.


Subject(s)
Amphetamine-Related Disorders , HIV Infections , Methamphetamine , Opioid-Related Disorders , Adolescent , Amphetamine-Related Disorders/diagnosis , COVID-19 , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Methadone/therapeutic use , Methamphetamine/adverse effects , Opioid-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
17.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 117-121, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Organizations offering HIV prevention services have reported interruptions during the COVID-19 pandemic. The national extent of these interruptions and their public health impact remain largely unexplored. METHODS: Using data from 60 state and local health departments, we compared HIV testing services outcomes in calendar years 2019 and 2020, including the number of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)-funded HIV tests conducted, the percentage of persons with newly diagnosed HIV infection (ie, HIV positivity), and the percentage linked to HIV medical care within 30 days after new diagnoses (ie, linkage to care) using χ2 and robust Poisson models. We also assessed the independent associations between the pandemic period (ie, March-December 2020) and the number of COVID-19 cases with monthly HIV testing services outcomes using multivariable robust Poisson models. RESULTS: There was a 46.0% (P < 0.001) reduction in the number of CDC-funded HIV tests conducted in 2020 (n = 1,255,895) compared with 2019 (n = 2,324,421). Although there were fewer persons with newly diagnosed HIV in 2020 (n = 5581 vs. n = 7739 in 2019), HIV positivity was greater in 2020 (0.4% vs. 0.3% in 2019; adjusted prevalence ratio [aPR] = 1.33, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.05 to 1.69). When adjusting for the monthly number of COVID-19 cases, the pandemic period was associated with a 56% reduction in the number of monthly CDC-funded HIV tests (adjusted rate ratio = 0.44, 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.52) but 28% higher monthly HIV positivity (aPR = 1.28 95% CI: 1.16 to 1.41) and 10% higher linkage to care (aPR = 1.10, 95% CI: 1.02 to 1.18). DISCUSSION: Despite increased HIV positivity, a drastic reduction in the number of CDC-funded HIV tests was observed in 2020, affecting the ability to identify persons with newly diagnosed HIV. CDC and health departments will need to expand testing strategies to cover tests not conducted in 2020 while adapting to the continuing pandemic.A visual abstract is available for this article at: http://links.lww.com/QAI/B941.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing , Humans , Mass Screening , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
18.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 151-156, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078002

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic continues to put strain on health systems in the United States, leading to significant shifts in the delivery of routine clinical services, including those offering HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). We aimed to assess whether individuals discontinued PrEP use at higher rates during the COVID-19 pandemic and the extent to which disruptions to usual clinical care were mitigated through telehealth. METHODS: Using data from an ongoing prospective cohort of men who have sex with men (MSM) newly initiating PrEP in 3 mid-sized cities (n = 195), we calculated the rate of first-time discontinuation of PrEP use in the period before the COVID-19 pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic and compared these rates using incidence rate ratios (IRRs). Furthermore, we compared the characteristics of patients who discontinued PrEP use during these periods with those who continued to use PrEP during both periods. RESULTS: Rates of PrEP discontinuation before the COVID pandemic and during the COVID-19 pandemic were comparable [4.29 vs. 5.20 discontinuations per 100 person-months; IRR: 1.95; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.83 to 1.77]. Although no significant differences in the PrEP discontinuation rate were observed in the overall population, the rate of PrEP discontinuation increased by almost 3-fold among participants aged 18-24 year old (IRR: 2.78; 95% CI: 1.48 to 5.23) and by 29% among participants covered by public insurance plans at enrollment (IRR: 1.29; 95% CI: 1.03 to 5.09). Those who continued to use PrEP were more likely to have had a follow-up clinical visit by telehealth in the early months of the pandemic (45% vs. 17%). CONCLUSIONS: In this study, rates of PrEP discontinuation were largely unchanged with the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. The use of telehealth likely helped retain patients in PrEP care and should continue to be offered in the future.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Adolescent , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
19.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 91(2): 138-143, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2078001

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Black and Hispanic/Latino sexual minority men and gender diverse (SMMGD) individuals report lower uptake and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) compared with White SMMGD. For some, the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in reduced access to PrEP prescriptions and related changes to PrEP use, yet little is known how pandemic-related changes to PrEP access and sexual activity might influence sexually transmitted infection (STI) status and HIV seroconversion among SMMGD of color. We used data from 4 waves of a national study of Black and Hispanic/Latino SMMGD's HIV, PrEP, and health experiences to assess whether self-reported changes to sexual activity were associated with STI status, and whether self-reported changes to PrEP access were associated with HIV seroconversion. Those who reported greater impact to their sexual activity during the pandemic [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10 to 1.40] and a greater number of sexual partners (aOR = 1.29; 95% CI: 1.21 to 1.38) were more likely to report a positive STI test. In addition, we found that compared with those who did not report pandemic-related changes to PrEP access, those who did report changes to PrEP access had significantly higher odds of HIV seroconversion during the study period (aOR = 2.80; 95% CI: 1.02 to 7.68). These findings have implications for HIV and STI prevention and highlight the importance of novel interventions to improve PrEP access among Black and Hispanic/Latino SMMGD. Importantly, these findings also demonstrate the need to stay focused on key populations at risk of HIV infection during emerging public health crises to avoid an increase in rates of new diagnoses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Homosexuality, Male , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/prevention & control
20.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(2): 147-149, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2067617

ABSTRACT

People living with HIV (PLWH) are a heterogeneous group of immunocompromised persons. Detectable HIV viral load and chronic comorbidities are independently increasing the risk of severe outcomes from COVID-19 among PLWH. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of the COVID-19 vaccines in PLWH. A significant increase in S-RBD antibody titers >100 AU/mL was observed when compared the titers measured one week after the 1st dose to titers performed after the 2nd vaccine dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Viral Vaccines , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Poland , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
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