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1.
Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg ; 117(5): 317-325, 2023 05 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240429

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Assessing the maternal mental health status during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is necessary to prevent the occurrence of severe mental disorders. Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress disorders are prominent in pregnant women living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and highly associated with poor maternal and neonatal outcomes. Therefore this study aimed to assess the level of depression, anxiety, and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women in Ethiopia during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: An institution-based cross-sectional study was conducted in Amhara region referral hospitals from 17 October 2020 to 1 March 2021. A systematic random sampling technique was used to select 423 eligible women. A structured, pretested and interviewer-administered questionnaire was employed to collect the data. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was implemented to identify factors associated with women's depression, anxiety and stress. Statistical association was certain based on the adjusted odds ratio (AOR) with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and p-values ≤0.05. RESULTS: Prenatal depression, anxiety and stress among HIV-positive pregnant women were 37.6% (95% CI 33 to 42.3), 42.1 (95% CI 37.7 to 46.7) and 34.8% (95% CI 30.3 to 39.2), respectively. Having an HIV-negative sexual partner (AOR 1.91 [95% CI 1.16 to 3.15]) and being on antiretroviral therapy >1 year (AOR 2.18 [95% CI 1.41 to 3.36]) were found to be statistically significant with women's antenatal depression, while unplanned pregnancy (AOR 1.09 [95% CI 1.02 to 2.33]) and did not discuss with the sexual partner about HIV (AOR 3.21 [95% CI 2.12 to 7.07]) were the factors associated with prenatal anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: In this study, more than one in three HIV-positive pregnant women had depression and anxiety. Thus, implementing strategies to prevent unplanned pregnancy and advocating open discussion with sexual partners about HIV will play a large role in reducing pregnancy-related depression and anxiety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Infant, Newborn , Female , Pregnancy , Humans , Pregnant Women/psychology , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Depression/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Anxiety/epidemiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology
2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239553

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruption in healthcare delivery for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). African, Caribbean, and Black women living with HIV (ACB WLWH) in British Columbia (BC) faced barriers to engage with HIV care services prior to the COVID-19 pandemic that were intensified by the transition to virtual care during the pandemic. This paper aims to assess which factors influenced ACB WLWH's access to, utilization and affordability of, and motivation to engage with HIV care services. This study utilized a qualitative descriptive approach using in-depth interviews. Eighteen participants were recruited from relevant women's health, HIV, and ACB organizations in BC. Participants felt dismissed by healthcare providers delivering services only in virtual formats and suggested that services be performed in a hybrid model to increase access and utilization. Mental health supports, such as support groups, dissolved during the pandemic and overall utilization decreased for many participants. The affordability of services pertained primarily to expenses not covered by the provincial healthcare plan. Resources should be directed to covering supplements, healthy food, and extended health services. The primary factor decreasing motivation to engage with HIV services was fear, which emerged due to the unknown impact of the COVID-19 virus on immunocompromised participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , HIV , Motivation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Costs and Cost Analysis
3.
AIDS Res Ther ; 20(1): 34, 2023 Jun 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20236410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The mental health and medical follow-up of people living with HIV (PLWH) have been disrupted by the COVID-19 pandemic. The objectives of this study were to assess anxiety, depression and substance use in Mexican PLWH during the pandemic; to explore the association of these symptoms with adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART), and to compare patients with and without vulnerability factors (low socioeconomic level, previous psychological and/or psychiatric treatment). METHODS: We studied 1259 participants in a cross-sectional study, PLWH receiving care at the HIV clinic in Mexico City were contacted by telephone and invited to participate in the study. We included PLWH were receiving ART; answered a structured interview on sociodemographic data and adherence to ART; and completed the psychological instruments to assess depressive and anxiety symptoms and substance use risk. Data collection was performed from June 2020 to October 2021. RESULTS: 84.7% were men, 8% had inadequate ART adherence, 11% had moderate-severe symptoms of depression, and 13% had moderate-severe symptoms of anxiety. Adherence was related to psychological symptoms (p < 0.001). Vulnerable patients were more likely to be women, with low educational level and unemployed (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: It is important to address mental health of PLWH during the COVID-19 pandemic, with special attention to the most vulnerable individuals. Future studies are needed to understand the relationship between mental health and ART adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Male , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , Mental Health , Cross-Sectional Studies , Mexico/epidemiology , Medication Adherence , COVID-19/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology
4.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 1025, 2023 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235605

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the associations between COVID-19 related stigma and post-traumatic stress symptoms (PTSS); and the associations between PTSS and COVID-19 related stigma, HIV status, COVID-19 status and key HIV population status. METHODS: This was a secondary analysis of data of 12,355 study participants generated through an online survey that recruited adults from 152 countries between July and December 2020. The dependent variables were COVID-19-related stigma and PTSS. The independent variables were HIV status (positive/negative), transaction sex (yes/no), use of psychoactive drugs (yes/no), and vulnerability status (transaction sex workers, people who use psychoactive drugs, living with HIV, and COVID-19 status). The confounding variables were age, sex at birth (male/female), level of education, sexual minority individuals (yes/no) and country income level. Multivariable logistic regression analyses were conducted to determine associations between the dependent and independent variables after adjusting for confounders. RESULTS: There were 835 (6.8%) participants who experienced COVID-19 related stigma during the pandemic and 3,824 (31.0%) participants reported PTSS. Respondents who were living with HIV (AOR: 1.979; 95%CI: 1.522-2.573), tested positive for COVID-19 (AOR: 3.369; 95%CI: 2.692-4.217), engaged in transactional sex (AOR: 1.428; 95%CI: 1.060-1.922) and used psychoactive drugs (AOR: 1.364; 95%CI: 1.053-1.767) had significantly higher odds of experiencing COVID-19 related stigma. Individuals with vulnerability status (AOR:4.610; 95%CI: 1.590-13.368) and who experienced COVID-19 related stigma (AOR: 2.218; 95%CI: 1.920-2.561) had significantly higher odds of PTSS. CONCLUSION: Individuals with vulnerability status may be at increased risk for COVID-19 related stigma. Key and vulnerable populations who were living with HIV and who experienced stigma may be at a higher risk of experiencing PTSS. Populations at risk for PTSS should be routinely screened and provided adequate support when they contract COVID-19 to reduce the risk for poor mental health during COVID-19 outbreaks and during future health crisis with similar magnitude as the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Female , Homosexuality, Male , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Perception
5.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 38(4): 570-585, 2023 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2326664

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic necessitated use of remote assessments by clinical neuropsychologists. Telehealth was particularly important for vulnerable groups, including persons living with HIV (PLWH); however, limited internet access can be a serious barrier to care. This study examined the preliminary validity of a telephone-based neuropsychological assessment in a clinical sample of PLWH. METHOD: A consecutive series of 59 PLWH were assessed via telephone at an HIV clinic in the southern U.S. between April 2020 and July 2022. The battery included auditory-verbal neuropsychological tests of memory, attention, and executive functions, and questionnaires assessing self-reported mood and activities of daily living (ADL). RESULTS: Study measures demonstrated acceptable internal consistency. PLWH demonstrated worse neuropsychological performance compared with expectations derived from the normal curve and an HIV-seronegative adult sample (N = 44). PLWH assessed via telephone demonstrated similar impairment rates to that of a consecutive series of PLWH (N = 41) assessed in-person immediately prior to the pandemic. Higher telephone-based global neuropsychological scores were related to younger age, more education, better fund of knowledge, White race/ethnicity, fewer medical conditions, and fewer depression symptoms. Global neuropsychological impairment was strongly and independently associated with greater dependence in ADL domains, particularly for instrumental activities. CONCLUSIONS: Although telephone-based approaches to neuropsychological assessment are not ideal, these data provide support for the feasibility, internal consistency, and preliminary validity of this method in a consecutive clinical series of PLWH. The direct comparability of telephone-based and in-person neuropsychological assessments remains to be determined by prospective, counterbalanced study designs examining both PLWH and seronegative individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , Activities of Daily Living , Prospective Studies , Pandemics , Neuropsychological Tests , HIV Infections/psychology , Telephone
6.
Int J Drug Policy ; 117: 104060, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2313419

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: People who inject drugs (PWID) living with HIV may be disproportionately impacted by pandemic restrictions. This study qualitatively explored the impacts of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on PWID with HIV in St. Petersburg, Russia. METHODS: In March and April 2021, we conducted remote, semi-structured interviews with PWID with HIV, health care providers, and harm reductionists. RESULTS: We interviewed 25 PWID with HIV (aged 28-56 years, 46% female) and 11 providers. The pandemic exacerbated economic and psychological challenges experienced by PWID with HIV. Simultaneously, barriers to HIV care access, ART prescription refill and dispensing and police violence, which hindered the health and safety of PWID with HIV, were themselves hindered from normal operations by the pandemic, significantly reducing these burdens. CONCLUSION: Pandemic responses should account for the unique vulnerabilities of PWID with HIV to avoid worsening the structural violence they already experience. Wherever the pandemic decreased structural barriers, such as institutional, administrative, and bureaucratic challenges and state violence enacted by police and other elements of the criminal justice system, such changes should be protected.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Female , Male , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/psychology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Russia/epidemiology
7.
Sante Publique ; 34(6): 771-781, 2022.
Article in French | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2301867

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: People living with HIV (PLHIV) who may have experienced biographical disruptions in their life trajectory may have a vulnerability to risk that differs from the general population, particularly in the context of an infectious health crisis. This study aimed to understand the factors associated with concerns about being infected with COVID-19 among PLHIV during the first period of the health crisis. METHODS: This was an online cross-sectional study using an online self-administered questionnaire in the context of the COVID-19 epidemic in France among a population of PLHIV. The recruitment was done via social networks and through various actors in the fight against HIV. The self-questionnaire was available from July 2020 to September 2020. RESULTS: The ACOVIH study collected 249 responses, 202 men and 47 women, with a mean age of 46.6 ± 12.9 years. The most represented socio-professional categories were employees (n=73.29%), followed by managers, professionals and artists (n=59.24%). The PLHIV most worried about being infected by COVID-19 had a level of education lower than or equal to the baccalaureate, family difficulties related to HIV and a deterioration in the relationship of trust with the HIV medical team. CONCLUSION: Feelings of anxiety can have a health and psychosocial impact on PLHIV. It is necessary to consider these negative factors by proposing adapted support and by carrying out preventive actions aiming in particular at improving the literacy of the PLHIV.


Introduction: Les personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) ayant déjà vécu des perturbations biographiques dans leur trajectoire de vie peuvent avoir une vulnérabilité accrue aux risques, particulièrement dans le cadre d'une crise sanitaire infectieuse. La présente étude (« Adaptations à la COVID-19 lorsque l'on vit avec le VIH ¼ [ACOVIH]) vise à appréhender les facteurs associés à l'inquiétude d'être infecté par la COVID-19 chez les PVVIH durant la première période de la crise sanitaire. Méthodes: Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale en ligne par questionnaire autoadministré conduite dans le contexte épidémique de la COVID-19 sur le territoire français auprès d'une population de PVVIH. Les participants ont été recrutés via les réseaux sociaux et par le biais de divers acteur·trice·s de la lutte contre le VIH. L'autoquestionnaire était disponible de juillet 2020 à septembre 2020. Résultats: L'étude ACOVIH a recueilli 249 réponses, 202 hommes et 47 femmes, d'un âge moyen de 46,6 ± 12,9 ans. Les catégories socioprofessionnelles les plus représentées étaient les employés (n = 73, 29 %), suivis des cadres et des professions intellectuelles et artistiques (n = 59, 24 %). Les PVVIH les plus inquiètes à l'idée d'être infectées par la COVID-19 ont un niveau d'études inférieur ou égal au baccalauréat, des difficultés familiales en lien avec le VIH et une dégradation de la relation de confiance vis-à-vis de l'équipe médicale VIH. Conclusion: Le sentiment d'inquiétude peut avoir un impact sanitaire et psychosocial chez les PVVIH. Il est nécessaire de considérer ces facteurs négatifs en proposant un accompagnement adapté et en menant des actions préventives visant notamment à améliorer la littératie des PVVIH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Male , Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Fear
8.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0281799, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Key populations are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but have less access to HIV prevention and treatment services. The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is reinforcing health inequities among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Therefore, this article presents the findings describing the experiences of MSM in accessing HIV services during COVID-19 in the second largest city of Zimbabwe. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological analysis design was applied to gain some insights regarding the lived experiences of MSM in accessing HIV prevention, treatment, and care services during COVID-19 lockdowns era in Zimbabwe. Data were collected from 14 criterion purposively selected MSM using in-depth, one-on-one interviews. Data were analysed thematically guided by the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework for data analysis. RESULTS: The findings demonstrated that during the COVID -19 lockdowns in Zimbabwe, MSM faced several barriers as they tried to access HIV services. Some of the barriers included the need for travel authorisation letters and treatment interruption. The study also found that COVID-19 and related restrictive measures had psychosocial and economic effects that encompassed loss of income, intimate partner violence and psychological effects. CONCLUSIONS: Limited access to healthcare services by MSM due to COVID-19 lockdown may negatively affect the viral suppression and fuel the spread of HIV, which may reverse the gains toward the control of HIV epidemic. To sustain the gains toward HIV epidemic control and to ensure continuity of treatment, particularly for members of key populations, it is critical that the health-care delivery system adjusts by taking service to the community through adopting a differentiated service delivery approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , HIV , Zimbabwe/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics/prevention & control
9.
SAHARA J ; 20(1): 2187446, 2023 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2274424

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTIn this paper, we explored how vulnerable, immunocompromised groups and caregivers of the elderly experienced and perceived the onset of the Covid-19 pandemic in South Africa. Semi-structured interviews were conducted remotely between the 5th andthe 18th of April 2020 in the three South African provinces hardest hit by Covid-19, namely Gauteng, KwaZulu-Natal and the Western Cape. In total, 60 qualitative key informant interviews and one focus group discussion were conducted. Study participants expressed concerns for elderly people and people with underlying health conditions because of their increased vulnerability to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). People living with HIV expressed an increased fear of infection following the advent of the Covid-19 pandemic in South Africa. The sidelining of healthcare services and stock-outs of medication proved to be an added concern in particular for vulnerable and immunocompromised groups. Overall, the data suggest that the fear of infection is ubiquitous for people who live in unstable environments such as overcrowded townships and informal settlements. Given the increased fears of infection brought on by the Covid-19 pandemic, the mental health of vulnerable communities and those caring for them becomes an added burden for people living in unstable environments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Aged , Caregivers/psychology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , South Africa/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 458, 2023 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Long-term engagement in HIV care is essential to achieving and maintaining viral suppression. Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) experience many barriers to remaining engaged in care and treatment programs. Higher attrition among adolescents compared to adults remains a huge concern due to unique psychosocial and health systems challenges adolescents face, and recently the COVID-19 pandemic effects. We report on determinants and rates of retention in care in adolescents aged 10-19 years enrolled on antiretroviral therapy (ART) in Windhoek, Namibia. METHODS: A retrospective cohort analysis of routine clinical data of 695 adolescents aged 10-19 years enrolled for ART at 13 Windhoek district public healthcare facilities, between January 2019 and December 2021 was conducted. Anonymized patient data were extracted from an electronic database and registers. Bivariate and Cox proportional hazards analysis were performed to determine factors associated with retention in care among ALHIV at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months. Retention in care trends were also described using the Kaplan-Meier survival analysis. RESULTS: The retention in care rates at 6, 12, 18, 24 and 36 months were 97.7%, 94.1%, 92.4%, 90.2%, and 84.6%, respectively. Our study population had predominantly treatment-experienced adolescents, who initiated ART between birth and 9 years (73.5%), were on treatment for > 24 months (85.0%), and on first-line ART (93.1%). After controlling for confounders, the risk of dropping out of care was increased for older adolescents aged 15-19 years (aHR = 1.964, 95% CI 1.033-3.735); adolescents on switched ART regimens (Second line + Third line regimen) (aHR = 4.024, 95% CI 2.021-8.012); adolescents who initiated ART at 15-19 years (aHR = 2.179, 95%CI 1.100-4.316); and male adolescents receiving ART at a PHC clinic (aHR = 4.322, 1.332-14.024). Conversely, the risk of ALHIV dropping out of care decreased for adolescents whose TB screen results were negative (aHR = 0.215, 95% CI 0.095-0.489). CONCLUSION: Retention in care rates among ALHIV in Windhoek do not meet the UNAIDS revised target of 95%. Gender-specific interventions are needed to keep male and older adolescents motivated and engaged in long-term care, and to promote adherence amongst those adolescents who were initiated on ART in late adolescence (15-19 years).


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Retrospective Studies , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Namibia/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Cohort Studies
11.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 23(1): 223, 2023 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2282443

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 and efforts to manage widespread infection may compromise HIV care engagement. The COVID-19-related factors linked to reduced HIV engagement have not been assessed among postpartum women with HIV, who are at heightened risk of attrition under non-pandemic circumstances. To mitigate the effects of the pandemic on care engagement and to prepare for future public health crises, it is critical to understand how COVID-19 has impacted (1) engagement in care and (2) factors that may act as barriers to care engagement. METHODS: A quantitative assessment of COVID-19-related experiences was added to a longitudinal cohort study assessing predictors of postpartum attrition from HIV care among women in South Africa. Participants (N = 266) completed the assessment at 6, 12, 18, or 24 months postpartum between June and November of 2020. Those who endorsed one or more challenge related to engagement in care (making or keeping HIV care appointments, procuring HIV medications, procuring contraception, and/or accessing immunization services for infants; n = 55) were invited to complete a brief qualitative interview, which explored the specific factors driving these challenges, as well as other impacts of COVID-19 on care engagement. Within this subset, 53 participants completed an interview; qualitative data were analyzed via rapid analysis. RESULTS: Participants described key challenges that reduced their engagement in HIV care and identified four other domains of COVID-19-related impacts: physical health, mental health, relationship with a partner or with the father of the baby, and motherhood/caring for the new baby. Within these domains, specific themes and subthemes emerged, with some positive impacts of COVID-19 also reported (e.g., increased quality time, improved communication with partner, HIV disclosure). Coping strategies for COVID-19-related challenges (e.g., acceptance, spirituality, distraction) were also discussed. CONCLUSIONS: About one in five participants reported challenges accessing HIV care, medications, or services, and they faced complex, multilayered barriers to remaining engaged. Physical health, mental health, relationships with partners, and ability to care for their infant were also affected. Given the dynamic nature of the pandemic and general uncertainty about its course, ongoing assessment of pandemic-related challenges among postpartum women is needed to avoid HIV care disruptions and to support wellbeing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Female , Humans , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Longitudinal Studies , Parenting , South Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Postpartum Period/psychology , Health Status
12.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(5): 567-575, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051763

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study of people with HIV (PWH) and those without HIV conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States in 2020 examines the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on COVID-19 burden, defined as pandemic-related disruptions. METHODS: Data consisted of survey responses on PTSD among participants (N = 2434) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV (WIHS) cohorts. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were used to examine the association of PTSD with COVID-19 burden (overall and domain-specific burdens). Quasi-Poisson regression models were used to assess associations with the COVID-19 burden score and 2 domain-specific burdens: (1) changes in resources and (2) interruptions in health care. Analyses was adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, HIV serostatus, current smoking status, number of comorbidities, education, and study regions. RESULTS: Study participants were a median age of 58 (interquartile range, 52-65) years. In both bivariate and multivariable models, PTSD severity was associated with greater overall COVID-19 burden. PTSD severity was associated with the number of resource changes and number of interruptions in medical care. These findings were also consistent across cohorts (MACS/WIHS) and across HIV serostatus, suggesting a greater risk for COVID-19 burden with greater PTSD severity, which remained significant after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the impact of mental health on the burden and disruption associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, providing context specific to PWH. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease disruption to resources and health resource needs among these vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , United States/epidemiology
13.
AIDS ; 36(13): 1749-1759, 2022 11 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051762

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To summarize the broad impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on HIV prevention and care in the United States with a focus on the status-neutral HIV care continuum. DESIGN: We conducted an editorial review of peer-reviewed literature on the topics of HIV-risk behaviors, sexually transmitted illness (STI) and HIV prevalence, HIV prevention and treatment trends, and evolving practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: For relevant literature, we reviewed, summarized, and categorized into themes that span the HIV prevention and care continua, including sexual risk behaviors, mental health, and substance use. RESULTS: We identified important changes within each component of the HIV care continuum across the United States during the COVID-19 pandemic. Shifts in prevention practices, engagement with care, care provision, medication adherence, testing, and prevalence rates were observed during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Although heightened disparities for people at risk for, and living with, HIV were seen during the COVID-19 pandemic, many health systems and clinics have achieved and maintained engagement in HIV prevention and care. This review highlights barriers and innovative solutions that can support durable and accessible health systems through future public health crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexually Transmitted Diseases , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Continuity of Patient Care , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Sexual Behavior , Sexually Transmitted Diseases/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(31): e29907, 2022 Aug 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2051696

ABSTRACT

Since the emergency approval of several therapeutic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines in the United States, >500 million doses have been administered. However, there have been disparities in vaccine acceptability and uptake. We examined demographic, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, and psychosocial factors associated with COVID-19 vaccine acceptability in older adults (≥50 years) living with HIV in the Coachella Valley, California. Participants completed a 1-time anonymous online questionnaire assessing their demographic (i.e., age, race, education, etc), HIV disease (i.e., viral suppression, years living with HIV, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosis), psychosocial (i.e., HIV-related stigma, personal mastery, depression, etc) characteristics, and COVID-19 vaccine acceptability. Respondents were offered an electronic $20 United States dollar (USD) gift card for survey completion. Descriptive, univariable, and multivariable tests were conducted to analyze the data. Between September 2020 and February 2021, 114 surveys were completed. Eighty-six (75%) agreed/strongly agreed with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability statement that they saw no problem with receiving a COVID-19 vaccine if one became available. Among those who agreed/strongly agreed, the mean age was 62.2 years (standard deviation = 7.20); 86% self-identified as White; 95% male; 91% with more than high school education; and 31% with annual income <$20,000 USD. Among respondents who disagreed/strongly disagreed, the mean age was 59.9 years (standard deviation = 4.85); 50% self-identified as White; 50% male; 64% with more than high school education; and 4% with annual income <$20,000 USD. In the univariable analyses, those who disagreed/strongly disagreed with the COVID-19 vaccine acceptability statement were significantly more likely to be living with HIV for fewer years, experiencing higher levels of HIV-related stigma and depression, and with lower levels of personal mastery. In the multivariable logistic regression model, self-identification as female vs male and unemployed vs employed was significantly associated with decreased COVID-19 vaccine acceptability (odds ratio = 0.09, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.71 and odds ratio = 0.08, 95% confidence interval: 0.01-0.70 respectively), adjusting for ethnicity, marital status, education, disability, years living with HIV, HIV-related stigma, and depression. Additional studies are needed to understand vaccine-related decision-making among older adults living with HIV. Programmatic efforts may also be necessary to disseminate accurate information/resources about COVID-19 vaccines to those with more recent HIV diagnoses, experiencing HIV-related stigma and depression, with lower levels of personal mastery, and facing socioeconomic disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Social Stigma , United States/epidemiology
15.
J Int Assoc Provid AIDS Care ; 21: 23259582221121094, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002101

ABSTRACT

Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) need support from family, peers and health workers to remain on antiretroviral therapy and achieve and sustain viral suppression. This paper qualitatively explores the implementation of a psychosocial support intervention (PSS) in five primary health care facilities in the Ehlanzeni district, South Africa. Data were collected through key informant interviews and focus group discussions with ALHIV on ART. Data analysis employed inductive thematic analysis. Informed consent was obtained prior to all data collection. The PSS intervention facilitated full disclosure of HIV status to adolescents, supported treatment adherence through health education, peer support, health care provider- and client relations, and quick access to health service delivery. However, COVID-19 restrictions and regulations challenged the implementation of the intervention. The PSS intervention showed promise to support adolescent's adherence and retention in care. We recommend innovative approaches to account for systemic disruptions, as evidenced by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adolescent , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Medication Adherence , Pandemics , Psychosocial Support Systems , South Africa/epidemiology
16.
BMC Womens Health ; 22(1): 218, 2022 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951176

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected the health and well-being of people worldwide, yet few studies have qualitatively examined its cumulative effects on ciswomen living with HIV (WLWH). We aimed to explore how the pandemic has impacted WLWH, including challenges related to HIV care, employment, finances, and childcare. We also investigated how HIV status and different psychosocial stressors affected their mental health. METHODS: We performed 25 semi-structured qualitative interviews with WLWH regarding the ways in which COVID-19 impacted their social determinants of health and physical well-being during the pandemic. 19 WLWH who received care at the University of Chicago Medicine (UCM) and 6 women who received care at Howard Brown Health, a federally qualified health center (FQHC) in Chicago, were interviewed remotely from June 2020 to April 2021. All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. Interviews were thematically analyzed for commonalities regarding HIV-specific and general experiences of WLWH during the pandemic. RESULTS: The majority of participants reported COVID-19 impacted their HIV care, such as appointment cancellations and difficulties adhering to antiretroviral therapy. In addition to HIV care obstacles, almost all participants described perceived heightened vulnerability to or fear of COVID-19. The pandemic also affected the socioeconomic well-being of participants, with reported financial strains and employment disruptions. Some mothers took on additional childcare responsibilities, such as homeschooling. Increased mental health concerns and negative psychological effects from the social isolation associated with the pandemic were also experienced by most participants. CONCLUSIONS: We gained invaluable insight into how WLWH were challenged by and adapted to the COVID-19 pandemic, including its destabilizing effects on their HIV care and mental health. Women described how they undertook additional childcare responsibilities during the pandemic and how their HIV status compounded their concerns (e.g., perceived heightened vulnerability to COVID-19). Strategies to better support WLWH in maintaining their overall health throughout the pandemic include childcare assistance, access to affordable mental health services, support groups, and education from HIV care providers. These findings have significant implications for examining future health crises through the perspective of potential gender inequalities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Chicago/epidemiology , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Pandemics , Social Stigma , Socioeconomic Factors
17.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 22(1): 930, 2022 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935513

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the barriers to mental health and substance use services for trans women living with HIV. We conducted a qualitative study with trans women living with HIV and providers to explore barriers to mental health and substance use services in San Francisco. METHODS: We conducted focus group discussions and key informant interviews with a total of 15 medical, mental health, substance use, and social service providers and trans women living with HIV. We identified, analyzed, and reported themes using thematic analysis and derived themes directly from the data. RESULTS: Our study participants identified two main themes and three subthemes. One main theme is that trans women and providers have lost trust in the system due to (a) lack of a linkage system between referrals and services, (b) structural barriers such as service location, language capacity, clinic hours, and (c) constant changes in services available. Another main theme is anti-trans and mental health stigma. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions to coordinate linkage from medical to mental health and substance use (MHSU) services are urgently needed to facilitate the utilization of MHSU services. Other interventions to improve quality monitoring and system improvement, and to address multiple stigmas broadly in society are needed to improve unmet MHSU service needs among trans women living with HIV in San Francisco.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Substance-Related Disorders , Transgender Persons , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Mental Health , Qualitative Research , San Francisco/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Trust
18.
J Psychiatr Res ; 154: 198-202, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1936863

ABSTRACT

Population-based measures and public health response to stem the spread of the coronavirus may have caused unintended isolation and increased the risk of psychiatric illnesses. The objective of this study is to assess psychological distress among gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men (MSM) in China during the COVID-19 pandemic and examine whether these mental health outcomes differ by HIV status. Data were derived from a cross-sectional survey on the impact of COVID-19 on users of Blued, the largest gay social networking app in July 2020. All active users on Blued were invited to complete a survey regarding sexual behaviors, HIV prevention and treatment service utilization, and various health and mental health outcomes. Among all participants (n = 1205), over half (53.2%) of the participants screened mild to severe psychological distress: 34.9% screened mild, 11.6% screened moderate, and 6.6% screened severe psychological distress. Of all participants, 20.9% met the criteria for anxiety and 19.6% for depression. Psychological distress was associated with younger age having a degree below college, being unemployed, and having lower income. MSM with HIV were more likely to report depression or anxiety compared to HIV negative/unknown status MSM after adjusting for study covariates (AOR = 1.80, 95%CI 1.01-3.26; AOR = 2.04, 95%CI 1.11-3.67, respectively). MSM in China experience a high burden of psychological distress during the COVID-19 pandemic. Integrated HIV treatment and mental health services are needed to provide adequate and timely mental health support to MSM living with HIV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Pandemics , Sexual Behavior/psychology
20.
J Assoc Nurses AIDS Care ; 33(4): 386-394, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1909013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: We explored the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on people living with HIV (PLWH) in Kerman, Iran. A convenience sample of 18 PLWH from a voluntary counseling and testing (VCT) center (August-October 2020) were invited to participate in face-to-face interviews. Inductive content analysis was performed with MAXQDA software. Six themes were identified: COVID-19-related knowledge and preventive practices, misconceptions about COVID-19, fear of seeking health care services, psychosocial effects, limited or inconvenient access to health care services, and the impact of COVID-19 on socioeconomic status. Although participants generally understood COVID-19 preventative measures, some held misconceptions. COVID-19 negatively affected PLWHs' mental health, financial stability, and use of and access to health care services. Our findings support expansion of services related to HIV care/treatment and mental health to promote health and well-being during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Infections/psychology , Health Promotion , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Pandemics
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