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1.
Lancet HIV ; 8(1): e24-e32, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1059582

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Whether HIV infection is associated with risk of death due to COVID-19 is unclear. We aimed to investigate this association in a large-scale population-based study in England. METHODS: We did a retrospective cohort study. Working on behalf of NHS England, we used the OpenSAFELY platform to analyse routinely collected electronic primary care data linked to national death registrations. We included all adults (aged ≥18 years) alive and in follow-up on Feb 1, 2020, and with at least 1 year of continuous registration with a general practitioner before this date. People with a primary care record for HIV infection were compared with people without HIV. The outcome was COVID-19 death, defined as the presence of International Classification of Diseases 10 codes U07.1 or U07.2 anywhere on the death certificate. Cox regression models were used to estimate the association between HIV infection and COVID-19 death; they were initially adjusted for age and sex, then we added adjustment for index of multiple deprivation and ethnicity, and then for a broad range of comorbidities. Interaction terms were added to assess effect modification by age, sex, ethnicity, comorbidities, and calendar time. RESULTS: 17 282 905 adults were included, of whom 27 480 (0·16%) had HIV recorded. People living with HIV were more likely to be male, of Black ethnicity, and from a more deprived geographical area than the general population. 14 882 COVID-19 deaths occurred during the study period, with 25 among people with HIV. People living with HIV had higher risk of COVID-19 death than those without HIV after adjusting for age and sex: hazard ratio (HR) 2·90 (95% CI 1·96-4·30; p<0·0001). The association was attenuated, but risk remained high, after adjustment for deprivation, ethnicity, smoking and obesity: adjusted HR 2·59 (95% CI 1·74-3·84; p<0·0001). There was some evidence that the association was larger among people of Black ethnicity: HR 4·31 (95% CI 2·42-7·65) versus 1·84 (1·03-3·26) in non-Black individuals (p-interaction=0·044). INTERPRETATION: People with HIV in the UK seem to be at increased risk of COVID-19 mortality. Targeted policies should be considered to address this raised risk as the pandemic response evolves. FUNDING: Wellcome, Royal Society, National Institute for Health Research, National Institute for Health Research Oxford Biomedical Research Centre, UK Medical Research Council, Health Data Research UK.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/mortality , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , African Continental Ancestry Group , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Asian Continental Ancestry Group , /virology , Coinfection , European Continental Ancestry Group , Female , HIV Infections/ethnology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/physiopathology , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/physiopathology , Social Class , United Kingdom/epidemiology
2.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040133

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE is the second most predominant strain in Bulgaria, yet little is known about the molecular epidemiology of its origin and transmissibility. We used a phylodynamics approach to better understand this sub-epidemic by analyzing 270 HIV-1 polymerase (pol) sequences collected from persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 1995 and 2019. Using network analyses at a 1.5% genetic distance threshold (d), we found a large 154-member outbreak cluster composed mostly of persons who inject drugs (PWID) that were predominantly men. At d = 0.5%, which was used to identify more recent transmission, the large cluster dissociated into three clusters of 18, 12, and 7 members, respectively, five dyads, and 107 singletons. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bulgarian sequences with publicly available global sequences showed that CRF01_AE likely originated from multiple Asian countries, with Vietnam as the likely source of the outbreak cluster between 1988 and 1990. Our findings indicate that CRF01_AE was introduced into Bulgaria multiple times since 1988, and infections then rapidly spread among PWID locally with bridging to other risk groups and countries. CRF01_AE continues to spread in Bulgaria as evidenced by the more recent large clusters identified at d = 0.5%, highlighting the importance of public health prevention efforts in the PWID communities.


Subject(s)
Genotype , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bulgaria/epidemiology , Female , Genetic Variation , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Public Health Surveillance , Reassortant Viruses , Recombination, Genetic , Young Adult
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(2)2021 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024587

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses through their capacity to recruit and provide help to multiple immune effectors, in addition to exerting direct effector functions. CD4+ T cells are increasingly recognized as playing an essential role in the control of chronic viral infections. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding the nature of CD4+ T cell help provided to antiviral effectors. Drawing from our studies of natural human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) control, we then focus on the role of high-affinity T cell receptor (TCR) clonotypes in mediating antiviral CD4+ T cell responses. Last, we discuss the role of TCR affinity in determining CD4+ T cell differentiation, reviewing the at times divergent studies associating TCR signal strength to the choice of a T helper 1 (Th1) or a T follicular helper (Tfh) cell fate.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , /immunology , Adaptive Immunity/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Cell Differentiation/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology
4.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
5.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 48-53, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-960603

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The global pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory virus coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has a male bias in mortality likely driven by both gender and sex-based differences between male and female individuals. This is consistent with sex and gender-based features of HIV infection and overlap between the two diseases will highlight potential mechanistic pathways of disease and guide research questions and policy interventions. In this review, the emerging findings from SARS-CoV-2 infection will be placed in the context of sex and gender research in the more mature HIV epidemic. RECENT FINDINGS: This review will focus on the new field of literature on prevention, immunopathogenesis and treatment of SARS-CoV-2 referencing relevant articles in HIV for context from a broader time period, consistent with the evolving understanding of sex and gender in HIV infection. Sex-specific features of epidemiology and immunopathogenesis reported in COVID-19 disease will be discussed and potential sex and gender-specific factors of relevance to prevention and treatment will be emphasized. SUMMARY: Multilayered impacts of sex and gender on HIV infection have illuminated pathways of disease and identified important goals for public health interventions. SARS-CoV-2 has strong evidence for a male bias in disease severity and exploring that difference will yield important insights.


Subject(s)
/virology , /physiology , Animals , Female , HIV/genetics , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Sex Factors
6.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 25-35, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caught the world unprepared, with no prevention or treatment strategies in place. In addition to the efforts to develop an effective vaccine, alternative approaches are essential to control this pandemic, which will most likely require multiple readily available solutions. Among them, monoclonal anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies have been isolated by multiple laboratories in record time facilitated by techniques that were first pioneered for HIV-1 antibody discovery. Here, we summarize how lessons learned from anti-HIV-1 antibody discovery have provided fundamental knowledge for the rapid development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RECENT FINDINGS: Research laboratories that successfully identified potent broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 have harnessed their antibody discovery techniques to isolate novel potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, which have efficacy in animal models. These antibodies represent promising clinical candidates for treatment or prevention of COVID-19. SUMMARY: Passive transfer of antibodies is a promising approach when the elicitation of protective immune responses is difficult, as in the case of HIV-1 infection. Antibodies can also play a significant role in post-exposure prophylaxis, in high-risk populations that may not mount robust immune responses after vaccination, and in therapy. We provide a review of the recent approaches used for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody discovery and upcoming challenges in the field.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Biomedical Research/trends , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , /immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , /genetics
7.
Molecules ; 25(22)2020 Nov 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927643

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the new Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) has actually become the newest challenge for the healthcare system since, to date, there is not an effective treatment. Among all drugs tested, Hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) has attracted significant attention. This systematic review aims to analyze preclinical and clinical studies on HCQ potential use in viral infection and chronic diseases. A systematic search of Scopus and PubMed databases was performed to identify clinical and preclinical studies on this argument; 2463 papers were identified and 133 studies were included. Regarding HCQ activity against COVID-19, it was noticed that despite the first data were promising, the latest outcomes highlighted the ineffectiveness of HCQ in the treatment of viral infection. Several trials have seen that HCQ administration did not improve severe illness and did not prevent the infection outbreak after virus exposure. By contrast, HCQ arises as a first-line treatment in managing autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, lupus erythematosus, and Sjögren syndrome. It also improves glucose and lipid homeostasis and reveals significant antibacterial activity.


Subject(s)
Arthritis, Rheumatoid/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Sjogren's Syndrome/drug therapy , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/immunology , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/physiopathology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/physiopathology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Administration Schedule , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/immunology , Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic/physiopathology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS Virus/pathogenicity , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/drug therapy , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/physiopathology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Sjogren's Syndrome/immunology , Sjogren's Syndrome/physiopathology , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/drug therapy , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/physiopathology , Zika Virus Infection/virology
8.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 63-73, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927151

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We examine the interplay between the HIV and COVID-19 epidemics, including the impact of HIV on COVID-19 susceptibility and severe disease, the effect of the COVID-19 epidemic on HIV prevention and treatment, and the influence of the HIV epidemic on responses to COVID-19. RECENT FINDINGS: Evidence to date does not suggest that people living with HIV (PLWH) have a markedly higher susceptibility to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with disparities in the social determinants of health and comorbidities likely having a greater influence. The majority of literature has not supported a higher risk for severe disease among PLWH in Europe and the United States, although a large, population-based study in South Africa reported a higher rate of death due to COVID-19. Higher rates of comorbidities associated with COVID-19 disease severity among PLWH is an urgent concern. COVID-19 is leading to decreased access to HIV prevention services and HIV testing, and worsening HIV treatment access and virologic suppression, which could lead to worsening HIV epidemic control. CONCLUSION: COVID-19 is threatening gains against the HIV epidemic, including the U.S. Ending the HIV Epidemic goals. The ongoing collision of these two global pandemics will continue to need both study and interventions to mitigate the effects of COVID-19 on HIV efforts worldwide.


Subject(s)
/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/physiology , /physiology , /complications , /mortality , Europe/epidemiology , HIV/genetics , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/mortality , Humans , Pandemics , South Africa/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology
9.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 11-24, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927147

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review was to compare and contrast the application of molecular epidemiology approaches for the improved management and understanding of the HIV versus SARS-CoV-2 epidemics. RECENT FINDINGS: Molecular biology approaches, including PCR and whole genome sequencing (WGS), have become powerful tools for epidemiological investigation. PCR approaches form the basis for many high-sensitivity diagnostic tests and can supplement traditional contact tracing and surveillance strategies to define risk networks and transmission patterns. WGS approaches can further define the causative agents of disease, trace the origins of the pathogen, and clarify routes of transmission. When coupled with clinical datasets, such as electronic medical record data, these approaches can investigate co-correlates of disease and pathogenesis. In the ongoing HIV epidemic, these approaches have been effectively deployed to identify treatment gaps, transmission clusters and risk factors, though significant barriers to rapid or real-time implementation remain critical to overcome. Likewise, these approaches have been successful in addressing some questions of SARS-CoV-2 transmission and pathogenesis, but the nature and rapid spread of the virus have posed additional challenges. SUMMARY: Overall, molecular epidemiology approaches offer unique advantages and challenges that complement traditional epidemiological tools for the improved understanding and management of epidemics.


Subject(s)
/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/genetics , /genetics , /epidemiology , HIV/classification , HIV/isolation & purification , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Pandemics , /isolation & purification
10.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 3-10, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927142

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In response to the HIV-AIDS pandemic, great strides have been made in developing molecular methods that accurately quantify nucleic acid products of HIV-1 at different stages of viral replication and to assess HIV-1 sequence diversity and its effect on susceptibility to small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. Here, we review how knowledge gained from these approaches, including viral RNA quantification and sequence analyses, have been rapidly applied to study SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood of infected individuals by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR); and, as in HIV-1 infection, there is growing evidence that the level of viral RNA in plasma may be related to COVID disease severity. Unlike HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2 sequences are highly conserved limiting SARS-CoV-2 sequencing applications to investigating interpatient genetic diversity for phylogenetic analysis. Sensitive sequencing technologies, originally developed for HIV-1, will be needed to investigate intrapatient SARS-CoV-2 genetic variation in response to antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. SUMMARY: Methods used for HIV-1 have been rapidly applied to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 to understand pathogenesis and prognosis. Further application of such methods should improve precision of therapy and outcome.


Subject(s)
/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/genetics , /isolation & purification , /blood , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , /genetics
11.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 36-47, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915920

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: CD4 T cell loss is the hallmark of uncontrolled HIV-1 infection. Strikingly, CD4 T cell depletion is a strong indicator for disease severity in the recently emerged coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. We reviewed recent single-cell immune profiling studies in HIV-1 infection and COVID-19 to provide critical insight in virus-induced immunopathogenesis. RECENT FINDINGS: Cytokine dysregulation in HIV-1 leads to chronic inflammation, while severe SARS-CoV-2 infection induces cytokine release syndrome and increased mortality. HIV-1-specific CD4 T cells are dysfunctional, while SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4 T cells exhibit robust Th1 function and correlate with protective antibody responses. In HIV-1 infection, follicular helper T cells (TFH) are susceptible to HIV-1 infection and persist in immune-sanctuary sites in lymphoid tissues as an HIV-1 reservoir. In severe SARS-CoV-2 infection, TFH are absent in lymphoid tissues and are associated with diminished protective immunity. Advancement in HIV-1 DNA, RNA, and protein-based single-cell capture methods can overcome the rarity and heterogeneity of HIV-1-infected cells and identify mechanisms of HIV-1 persistence and clonal expansion dynamics. SUMMARY: Single-cell immune profiling identifies a high-resolution picture of immune dysregulation in HIV-1 and SARS-CoV-2 infection and informs outcome prediction and therapeutic interventions.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , /immunology , Animals , /virology , Cytokines/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , /genetics
12.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 54-62, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915919

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this review is to summarize the clinical outcomes of people living with HIV (PWH) coinfected with SARS-CoV-2 during the first six months of the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Several reports from single centers have described increased, decreased, or no difference in outcomes of COVID-19 in PWH. These studies have come from a range of locations, each with different underlying HIV prevalence and access to various antiretroviral therapy (ART) regimens. Differences in healthcare quality, access and policies may also affect reported outcomes in PWH across different locations, making interpretation of results more challenging. Meanwhile, different components of ART have been proposed to protect against SARS-CoV-2 acquisition or disease progression. SUMMARY: The current review considers 6 months of data across geographic regions with a range of healthcare quality and access and ART regimens to generate a wider view of COVID-19 outcomes in PWH. Taken together, these studies indicate that HIV infection may be associated with increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis, but comorbidities appear to play a larger role than HIV-specific variables in outcomes of COVID-19 among PWH. ART does not appear to protect from COVID-19 disease acquisition, progression or death.


Subject(s)
/virology , Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/physiology , /physiology , Animals , Coinfection/epidemiology , HIV/genetics , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , /genetics
13.
Medwave ; 20(9): e8049, 2020 Oct 27.
Article in Spanish, English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-902878

ABSTRACT

In December 2019, a new species of pneumonia-causing betacoronavirus was identified in Wuhan, China, which was later identified as SARS-CoV-2. This RNA virus presents certain similarities with other viruses of the same genetic material. It has been seen that infection by human immunodeficiency virus resembles the infection by SARS-CoV-2 in various aspects. In this comment, we present some of the virological, immunological, clinical, and pharmacological similarities between HIV and SARS-CoV-2, which could allow us to understand the immunopathogenesis of COVID-19 better, as well as make some decisions in regarding antiviral management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , HIV/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology
15.
Colomb Med (Cali) ; 51(2): e4327, 2020 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-790170

ABSTRACT

Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, the main risk factors associated with the progression to severe disease or death have been typically advanced age, diabetes mellitus, obesity, high blood pressure, heart disease, and chronic pneumopathy. Because of their immunosuppression status, persons with HIV were also expected to have a higher susceptibility to infection or a poor clinical evolution. So far, this has not been confirmed to happen, giving way to hypotheses about the role of immunosuppression or the use of antiretrovirals, which could explain this paradox. In this article we present the existing data on the epidemiology and characteristics of HIV-COVID-19 co-infection, discuss the available evidence on the possible factors involved in the evolution of individuals affected by both viruses, analyze other determinants that may negatively affect persons with HIV during the pandemic, and present recommendations for the prevention and care of COVID-19 infection in the context of HIV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disease Progression , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Risk Factors
19.
Cells ; 9(9)2020 08 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-732817

ABSTRACT

Following influenza infection, rs2248374-G ERAP2 expressing cells may transcribe an alternative spliced isoform: ERAP2/Iso3. This variant, unlike ERAP2-wt, is unable to trim peptides to be loaded on MHC class I molecules, but it can still dimerize with both ERAP2-wt and ERAP1-wt, thus contributing to profiling an alternative cellular immune-peptidome. In order to verify if the expression of ERAP2/Iso3 may be induced by other pathogens, PBMCs and MDMs isolated from 20 healthy subjects were stimulated with flu, LPS, CMV, HIV-AT-2, SARS-CoV-2 antigens to analyze its mRNA and protein expression. In parallel, Calu3 cell lines and PBMCs were in vitro infected with growing doses of SARS-CoV-2 (0.5, 5, 1000 MOI) and HIV-1BAL (0.1, 1, and 10 ng p24 HIV-1Bal/1 × 106 PBMCs) viruses, respectively. Results showed that: (1) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression can be prompted by many pathogens and it is coupled with the modulation of several determinants (cytokines, interferon-stimulated genes, activation/inhibition markers, antigen-presentation elements) orchestrating the anti-microbial immune response (Quantigene); (2) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA is translated into a protein (western blot); (3) ERAP2/Iso3 mRNA expression is sensitive to SARS-CoV-2 and HIV-1 concentration. Considering the key role played by ERAPs in antigen processing and presentation, it is conceivable that these enzymes may be potential targets and modulators of the pathogenicity of infectious diseases and further analyses are needed to define the role played by the different isoforms.


Subject(s)
Aminopeptidases/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Immunization/methods , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/virology , Macrophages/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Protein Isoforms/genetics , Antigen Presentation/genetics , Blood Donors , Cell Line, Tumor , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Gene Expression/immunology , Genotype , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Minor Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Transcription, Genetic/immunology
20.
Viruses ; 12(9)2020 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731256

ABSTRACT

Seven human coronaviruses (hCoVs) are known to infect humans. The most recent one, SARS-CoV-2, was isolated and identified in January 2020 from a patient presenting with severe respiratory illness in Wuhan, China. Even though viral coinfections have the potential to influence the resultant disease pattern in the host, very few studies have looked at the disease outcomes in patients infected with both HIV and hCoVs. Groups are now reporting that even though HIV-positive patients can be infected with hCoVs, the likelihood of developing severe CoV-related diseases in these patients is often similar to what is seen in the general population. This review aimed to summarize the current knowledge of coinfections reported for HIV and hCoVs. Moreover, based on the available data, this review aimed to theorize why HIV-positive patients do not frequently develop severe CoV-related diseases.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HIV Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coinfection/epidemiology , Coinfection/immunology , Coinfection/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/therapy , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Treatment Outcome
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