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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 864838, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1924099

ABSTRACT

Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, people living with HIV (PLWH) were considered to be at risk of worse COVID-19 outcomes once infected. However, the existing evidence is inconsistent. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to compare the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH and patients without HIV. Method: The articles included studies published in PubMed, Medline, Embase, and Cochrane between December 1, 2019, and December 1, 2021. We included the original studies published in English focusing on observational studies assessing the risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality among PLWH. Four independent reviewers extracted data. STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology-Modified (STROBE-M) checklist was used for quality assessment. For the results with heterogeneity I2 >75%, a random-effects model was employed. Otherwise, a fixed-effects model was used. The risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection, severe COVID-19 symptoms, and mortality were compared with and without HIV. Results: We included a total of 32 studies and 71,779,737 study samples, of whom 797,564 (1.11%) were PLWH. Compared with COVID-19 patients without HIV infection, PLWH had comparable risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection (adjusted Risk Ratio=1.07, 95% CI: 0.53-2.16, I2 = 96%, study n=6, n=20,199,805) and risk of developing severe COVID-19 symptoms (aRR=1.06, 95% CI: 0.97-1.16, I2 = 75%, n=10, n=2,243,370). PLWH, if infected with SARS-CoV-2, were found to have an increased risk of mortality compared with people without HIV (aRR=1.30, 95% CI: 1.09-1.56, I2 = 76%, study n=16, n=71,032,659). This finding was consistent across different subgroup analyses. Conclusion: PLWH are at increased risk of COVID-19 related mortality once infected. The local health system should, on the one hand, strengthen COVID-19 prevention and clinical management among PLWH to avoid infection and, on the other hand, sustain the HIV care continuum for PLWH for HIV management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Viruses ; 14(6)2022 06 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911618

ABSTRACT

Natural immunity against HIV has been observed in many individuals in the world. Among them, a group of female sex workers enrolled in the Pumwani sex worker cohort remained HIV uninfected for more than 30 years despite high-risk sex work. Many studies have been carried out to understand this natural immunity to HIV in the hope to develop effective vaccines and preventions. This review focuses on two such examples. These studies started from identifying immunogenetic or genetic associations with resistance to HIV acquisition, and followed up with an in-depth investigation to understand the biological relevance of the correlations of protection, and to develop and test novel vaccines and preventions.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Sex Workers , Female , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Immunity, Innate
3.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 474, 2022 May 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1874997

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: HIV-1 drug resistance genotyping is critical to the monitoring of antiretroviral treatment. Data on HIV-1 genotyping success rates of different laboratory specimen types from multiple sources is still scarce. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we determined the laboratory genotyping success rates (GSR) and assessed the correlates of genotyping failure of 6837 unpaired dried blood spot (DBS) and plasma specimens. Specimens from multiple studies in a resource-constrained setting were analysed in our laboratory between 2016 and 2019. RESULTS: We noted an overall GSR of 65.7% and specific overall GSR for DBS and plasma of 49.8% and 85.9% respectively. The correlates of genotyping failure were viral load (VL) < 10,000 copies/mL (aOR 0.3 95% CI: 0.24-0.38; p < 0.0001), lack of viral load testing prior to genotyping (OR 0.85 95% CI: 0.77-0.94; p = 0.002), use of DBS specimens (aOR 0.10 95% CI: 0.08-0.14; p < 0.0001) and specimens from routine clinical diagnosis (aOR 1.4 95% CI: 1.10-1.75; p = 0.005). CONCLUSIONS: We report rapidly decreasing HIV-1 genotyping success rates between 2016 and 2019 with increased use of DBS specimens for genotyping and note decreasing median viral loads over the years. We recommend improvement in DBS handling, pre-genotyping viral load testing to screen samples to enhance genotyping success and the development of more sensitive assays with well-designed primers to genotype specimens with low or undetectable viral load, especially in this era where virological suppression rates are rising due to increased antiretroviral therapy roll-out.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics , Genotype , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Specimen Handling , Viral Load
4.
AIDS Res Ther ; 19(1): 22, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865305

ABSTRACT

AIM: The initial cases of COVID-19 appeared in December 2019 and Spain was one of the most affected countries during the first wave (March to June). Since then, HIV HGM BioBank has been restructured as an established Paediatrics and Adults HIV_COVID-19 BioBank that aims at the long-term storage of samples obtained from not only HIV-1, but also from COVID-19 patients and HIV-1_COVID-19 coinfected patients. METHODS: HIV HGM BioBank holds high quality biological samples from newborns, children, adolescents and adults with their associated clinical data. Research groups trying to establish large networks focused on research on specific clinical problems in epidemiology, biology, routes of transmission and therapies, are potential users of the clinical samples and of associated data of HIV-1_COVID-19 HGM BioBank. RESULTS: The HIV HGM BioBank is an academic and ethical enterprise complying with all the legal regulatory rules to provide service to the society. HIV_COVID-19 HGM BioBank has been repurposed to offer an important resource for global research of COVID-19 in newborns, children, adolescents, adults and elders to study the biological effect of the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Herein, we present a description of how HIV HGM BioBank has rapidly become an indispensable structure in modern biomedical research, including COVID-19 research.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Pediatrics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biological Specimen Banks , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Communicable Diseases/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Pandemics
5.
PLoS One ; 17(5): e0268143, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1841154

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The China-Myanmar border area is considered a hot spot of active HIV-1 recombination in Southeast Asia. To better understand the characteristics of HIV-1 transmission in this area, a cross-sectional HIV-1 molecular epidemiological survey was conducted in Baoshan Prefecture of Yunnan Province. METHODS: In total, 708 newly reported HIV-1 cases in Baoshan Prefecture from 2019 to 2020 were included in this study. HIV-1 gag, pol and env genes were sequenced, and the spatial and demographic distributions of HIV-1 genotypes were analyzed. The characteristics of HIV-1 transmission were investigated using the HIV-1 molecular network method. RESULTS: In the 497 samples with genotyping results, 19 HIV-1 genotypes were found, with URFs being the predominant strains (30.2%, 150/497). The main circulating HIV-1 strains were mostly distributed in the northern area of Baoshan. URFs were more likely identified in Burmese individuals, intravenous drug users and those younger than 50 years old. CRF08_BC was more likely detected in farmers and those of Han ethnicity, CRF01_AE in the young and those of Han ethnicity, and CRF07_BC in the subpopulation with junior middle school education and higher. Moreover, CRF118_BC and CRF64_BC were more likely found in the subpopulation aged ≥40 years and ≥50 years, respectively. Among 480 individuals with pol sequence detection, 179 (37.3%) were grouped into 78 clusters, with Baoshan natives being more likely to be in the network. The proportion of the linked individuals showed significant differences when stratified by the regional origin, marital status, age and county of case reporting. In the molecular network, recent infections were more likely to occur among nonfarmers and individuals aged below 30 years. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-1 genetics has become complex in Baoshan. HIV-1 molecular network analysis provided transmission characteristics in the local area, and these findings provided information to prioritize transmission-reduction interventions.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Genotype , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Middle Aged , Myanmar/epidemiology , Phylogeny
6.
Int J Infect Dis ; 118: 65-70, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1838853

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Cross-reactivity with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) species might limit the use of urine lipoarabinomannan (LAM) test to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) in people living with HIV (PLWH). This study aimed to investigate the utility of the LAM test among hospitalized HIV-positive patients. METHODS: This prospective study enrolled HIV-positive inpatients with any TB symptom or seriously ill patients with advanced immunodeficiency. Urine samples were tested using the Alere Determine LAM Ag, and participants were categorized as confirmed TB, confirmed NTM infection, unclassified mycobacteria infection, and no mycobacteria infection based on microbiologic reference standards. RESULTS: A total of 382 participants were included. The prevalence of confirmed TB and NTM infection was 5.24% (20 of 382) and 4.45% (17 of 382), respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the urine LAM for TB diagnosis were 65.00% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40.78-84.61) and 89.36% (95% CI 85.68-92.36), respectively. The LAM test for NTM yielded a sensitivity of 58.82% (95% CI 32.92-81.56) and specificity of 88.61% (95% CI 84.87-91.70). Notably, the negative predictive values of the urine LAM for TB and NTM were 97.85% (95% CI 95.63-99.13) and 97.85% (95% CI 95.63-99.13), respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cross-reactivity with NTM cause high false-positive LAM for TB diagnosis in PLWH. The correct identification of mycobacteria species is crucial for deciding treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous , Tuberculosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Lipopolysaccharides/urine , Mycobacterium Infections, Nontuberculous/diagnosis , Nontuberculous Mycobacteria , Prospective Studies , Tuberculosis/diagnosis , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
7.
Vaccine ; 40(26): 3633-3637, 2022 06 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1819620

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 vaccine efficacy has been evaluated in large clinical trials and in real-world situation. Although they have proven to be very effective in the general population, little is known about their efficacy in immunocompromised patients. HIV-infected individuals' response to vaccine may vary according to the type of vaccine and their level of immunosuppression. We evaluated immunogenicity of an mRNA anti-SARS CoV-2 vaccine in HIV-positive individuals. METHODS: HIV-positive individuals (n = 121) were recruited from HIV clinics in Montreal and stratified according to their CD4 counts. A control group of 20 health care workers naïve to SARS CoV-2 was used. The participants' Anti-RBD IgG responses were measured by ELISA at baseline and 3-4 weeks after receiving the first dose of an mRNA vaccine). RESULTS: Eleven of 121 participants had anti-COVID-19 antibodies at baseline, and a further 4 had incomplete data for the analysis. Mean anti-RBD IgG responses were similar between the HIV negative control group (n = 20) and the combined HIV+ group (n = 106) (p = 0.72). However, these responses were significantly lower in the group with <250 CD4 cells/mm3. (p < 0.0001). Increasing age was independently associated with decreased immunogenicity. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals with CD4 counts over 250 cells/mm3 have an anti-RBD IgG response similar to the general population. However, HIV-positive individuals with the lowest CD4 counts (<250 cells/mm3) have a weaker response. These data would support the hypothesis that a booster dose might be needed in this subgroup of HIV-positive individuals, depending on their response to the second dose.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Immunoglobulin G , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
8.
Lancet HIV ; 9(5): e309-e322, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1805401

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a paucity of data on COVID-19 vaccines in people living with HIV-1, who could be at increased risk of severe illness and death from COVID-19. We evaluated the safety and immunogenicity of a Matrix-M adjuvanted recombinant spike protein nanoparticle COVID-19 vaccine (NVX-CoV2373; Novavax) in HIV-negative people and people living with HIV-1. METHODS: In this randomised, observer-blinded, multicentre, placebo-controlled phase 2A/B trial in South Africa, participants aged 18-84 years, with and without underlying HIV-1, were enrolled from 16 sites and randomly assigned (1:1) to receive two intramuscular injections of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo, 21 days apart. People living with HIV-1 were on stable antiretroviral therapy and had an HIV-1 viral load of less than 1000 copies per mL. Vaccine dosage was 5 µg SARS-CoV-2 recombinant spike protein with 50 µg Matrix-M adjuvant, whereas 0·9% saline was used as placebo injection (volume 0·5 mL each). All study staff and participants remained masked to study group assignment. We previously reported an interim analysis on the efficacy and safety of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (coprimary endpoints). In this Article, we present an expanded safety analysis for the full cohort of participants and report on the secondary objective of vaccine immunogenicity in the full cohort of people living with HIV-1 and in HIV-negative individuals overall and stratified by baseline SARS-CoV-2 serostatus. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04533399, and the Pan-African Clinical Trials Registry, PACTR202009726132275. FINDINGS: Participants were enrolled between Aug 17 and Nov 25, 2020. The safety analysis set included 4164 HIV-negative participants (2089 in the intervention group and 2075 in the placebo group) and 244 people living with HIV-1 (122 in the intervention group and 122 in the placebo group). 1422 (34·1%) of 4164 HIV-negative people and 83 (34·0%) of 244 people living with HIV-1 were categorised as baseline SARS-CoV-2-positive (ie, anti-spike IgG reactive at enrolment or had a reactive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid amplification test by 14 days after the second study vaccination). In the NVX-CoV2373 group, solicited local and systemic adverse events were more common in HIV-negative participants (427 [30·6%] local and 401 [28·7%] systemic) than in people living with HIV-1 (20 [25·3%] local and 20 [25·3%] systemic) among those who were baseline SARS-CoV-2-seronegative (naive). Of the serious adverse events that occurred among HIV-negative people (of whom, two [0·1%] were baseline SARS-CoV-2-negative and four [0·6%] were baseline SARS-CoV-2-positive) and people living with HIV-1 (for whom there were no serious adverse events) in the NVX-CoV2373 group, none were assessed as related to the vaccine. Among participants who were baseline SARS-CoV-2-negative in the NVX-CoV2373 group, the anti-spike IgG geometric mean titres (GMTs) and seroconversion rates (SCRs) were lower in people living with HIV-1 (n=62) than in HIV-negative people (n=1234) following the first vaccination (GMT: 508·6 vs 1195·3 ELISA units [EU]/mL; SCR: 51·6% vs 81·3%); and similarly so 14 days after the second vaccination for GMTs (14 420·5 vs 31 631·8 EU/mL), whereas the SCR was similar at this point (100·0% vs 99·3%). In the NVX-CoV2373 group, anti-spike IgG GMTs 14 days after the second vaccination were substantially higher in those who were baseline SARS-CoV-2-positive than in those who were baseline SARS-CoV-2-seronegative for HIV-negative participants (100 666·1 vs 31 631·8 EU/mL) and for people living with HIV-1 (98 399·5 vs 14 420·5 EU/mL). This was also the case for angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor-binding antibody and neutralising antibody titres. INTERPRETATION: The safety of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine in people living with HIV-1 was similar to that in HIV-negative participants. However, people living with HIV-1 not previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2 had attenuated humoral immune responses to NVX-CoV2373 compared with their HIV-negative vaccine counterparts, but not so if they were baseline SARS-CoV-2-positive. FUNDING: Novavax and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation; investigational vaccine manufacturing support was provided by the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , HIV Seropositivity , HIV-1 , Nanoparticles , Viral Vaccines , Adjuvants, Immunologic , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
11.
Viruses ; 14(4)2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1776357

ABSTRACT

About two years have passed since the identification of SARS-CoV-2 in China. The rapid spread of this virus all over the world and its high transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans have resulted in a global pandemic. The negative impact of COVID-19 on health, society and the economy at the global level has pushed researchers and pharmaceutical companies to develop effective vaccines to fight SARS-CoV-2. Thanks to this collaborative effort, the first COVID-19 vaccine was developed in less than a year. Since then, several COVID-19 vaccines have been validated for use by the World Health Organization. Among these, mRNA- (BNT162b2 and mRNA1273) and adenovirus-based (ChAdOx1) vaccines were developed through the use of novel technologies. While all three of these vaccines have shown effectiveness against the COVID-19 disease and their immunogenicity was characterized in clinical trials in the general population, data on their efficacy and immunogenicity in people living with HIV (PLWH) are limited. In this review, we provide a description of the characteristics of mRNA- and adenovirus-based vaccines and of the immune response elicited in the general population by vaccination. Then we describe the use of these vaccines and their efficacy and immunogenicity in people living with HIV and we conclude with a discussion regarding some open questions concerning the use of mRNA- and adenovirus-based COVID-19 vaccines in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae Infections , Adenovirus Vaccines , COVID-19 , HIV Seropositivity , Adenoviridae/genetics , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , RNA, Messenger/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vaccination
13.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 88(5): 426-438, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593405

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study describes prevention behavior and psychosocial health among people living with HIV (PLHIV) and HIV-negative people during the early wave of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States. We assessed differences by HIV status and associations between social disruption and psychosocial health. DESIGN: A cross-sectional telephone/videoconference administered survey of 3411 PLHIV and HIV-negative participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/WIHS Combined Cohort Study (MWCCS). METHODS: An instrument combining new and validated measures was developed to assess COVID-19 prevention efforts, social disruptions (loss of employment, childcare, health insurance, and financial supports), experiences of abuse, and psychosocial health. Interviews were performed between April and June 2020. Associations between social disruptions and psychosocial health were explored using multivariable logistic regression, adjusting for sociodemographics and HIV status. RESULTS: Almost all (97.4%) participants reported COVID-19 prevention behavior; 40.1% participants reported social disruptions, and 34.3% reported health care appointment disruption. Men living with HIV were more likely than HIV-negative men to experience social disruptions (40.6% vs. 32.9%; P < 0.01), whereas HIV-negative women were more likely than women with HIV to experience social disruptions (51.1% vs. 39.8%, P < 0.001). Participants who experienced ≥2 social disruptions had significantly higher odds of depression symptoms [aOR = 1.32; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.12 to 1.56], anxiety (aOR = 1.63; 95% CI: 1.17 to 2.27), and social support dissatisfaction (aOR = 1.81; 95% CI: 1.26 to 2.60). CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the psychosocial health impact related to the COVID-19 pandemic by providing context specific to PLHIV. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease social disruption and address psychosocial health needs among the most vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Seronegativity , HIV Seropositivity/epidemiology , HIV Seropositivity/psychology , Mental Health/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/psychology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
14.
Front Immunol ; 12: 797117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1538374

ABSTRACT

Since its emergence in 2019 SARS-CoV-2 has proven to have a higher level of morbidity and mortality compared to the other prevailing coronaviruses. Although initially most African countries were spared from the devastating effect of SARS-CoV-2, at present almost every country has been affected. Although no association has been established between being HIV-1-infected and being more vulnerable to contracting COVID-19, HIV-1-infected individuals have a greater risk of developing severe COVID-19 and of COVID-19 related mortality. The rapid development of the various types of COVID-19 vaccines has gone a long way in mitigating the devastating effects of the virus and has controlled its spread. However, global vaccine deployment has been uneven particularly in Africa. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Beta and Delta, which seem to show some subtle resistance to the existing vaccines, suggests COVID-19 will still be a high-risk infection for years. In this review we report on the current impact of COVID-19 on HIV-1-infected individuals from an immunological perspective and attempt to make a case for prioritising COVID-19 vaccination for those living with HIV-1 in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries like Malawi as one way of minimising the impact of COVID-19 in these countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coinfection/prevention & control , HIV Infections/mortality , Mass Vaccination/methods , Africa South of the Sahara , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , HIV Seropositivity , Health Priorities , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
15.
N Engl J Med ; 384(20): 1899-1909, 2021 05 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1216484

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The emergence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants threatens progress toward control of the coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) pandemic. In a phase 1-2 trial involving healthy adults, the NVX-CoV2373 nanoparticle vaccine had an acceptable safety profile and was associated with strong neutralizing-antibody and antigen-specific polyfunctional CD4+ T-cell responses. Evaluation of vaccine efficacy was needed in a setting of ongoing SARS-CoV-2 transmission. METHODS: In this phase 2a-b trial in South Africa, we randomly assigned human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative adults between the ages of 18 and 84 years or medically stable HIV-positive participants between the ages of 18 and 64 years in a 1:1 ratio to receive two doses of either the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (5 µg of recombinant spike protein with 50 µg of Matrix-M1 adjuvant) or placebo. The primary end points were safety and vaccine efficacy against laboratory-confirmed symptomatic Covid-19 at 7 days or more after the second dose among participants without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Of 6324 participants who underwent screening, 4387 received at least one injection of vaccine or placebo. Approximately 30% of the participants were seropositive for SARS-CoV-2 at baseline. Among 2684 baseline seronegative participants (94% HIV-negative and 6% HIV-positive), predominantly mild-to-moderate Covid-19 developed in 15 participants in the vaccine group and in 29 in the placebo group (vaccine efficacy, 49.4%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 6.1 to 72.8). Vaccine efficacy among HIV-negative participants was 60.1% (95% CI, 19.9 to 80.1). Of 41 sequenced isolates, 38 (92.7%) were the B.1.351 variant. Post hoc vaccine efficacy against B.1.351 was 51.0% (95% CI, -0.6 to 76.2) among the HIV-negative participants. Preliminary local and systemic reactogenicity events were more common in the vaccine group; serious adverse events were rare in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: The NVX-CoV2373 vaccine was efficacious in preventing Covid-19, with higher vaccine efficacy observed among HIV-negative participants. Most infections were caused by the B.1.351 variant. (Funded by Novavax and the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT04533399.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , HIV Seronegativity , HIV Seropositivity , Humans , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , South Africa , Young Adult
16.
Viruses ; 12(11)2020 11 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-937552

ABSTRACT

Site-specific evolutionary rate shifts are defined as protein sites, where the rate of substitution has changed dramatically across the phylogeny. With respect to a given clade, sites may either undergo a rate acceleration or a rate deceleration, reflecting a site that was conserved and became variable, or vice-versa, respectively. Sites displaying such a dramatic evolutionary change may point to a loss or gain of function at the protein site, reflecting adaptation, or they may indicate epistatic interactions among sites. Here, we analyzed full genomes of HIV and SIV-1 and identified 271 rate-shifting sites along the HIV-1/SIV phylogeny. The majority of rate shifts occurred at long branches, often corresponding to cross-species transmission branches. We noted that in most proteins, the number of rate accelerations and decelerations was equal, and we suggest that this reflects epistatic interactions among sites. However, several accessory proteins were enriched for either accelerations or decelerations, and we suggest that this may be a signature of adaptation to new hosts. Interestingly, the non-pandemic HIV-1 group O clade exhibited a substantially higher number of rate-shift events than the pandemic group M clade. We propose that this may be a reflection of the height of the species barrier between gorillas and humans versus chimpanzees and humans. Our results provide a genome-wide view of the constraints operating on proteins of HIV-1 and SIV.


Subject(s)
Evolution, Molecular , HIV-1/genetics , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Animals , HIV Seropositivity/genetics , HIV Seropositivity/transmission , HIV-1/classification , Humans , Pan troglodytes , Phylogeny , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/classification , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Viral Proteins/genetics
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