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1.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1162342, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20235328

ABSTRACT

Monoclonal antibodies (mABs) are safe and effective proteins produced in laboratory that may be used to target a single epitope of a highly conserved protein of a virus or a bacterial pathogen. For this purpose, the epitope is selected among those that play the major role as targets for prevention of infection or tissue damage. In this paper, characteristics of the most important mABs that have been licensed and used or are in advanced stages of development for use in prophylaxis and therapy of infectious diseases are discussed. We showed that a great number of mABs effective against virus or bacterial infections have been developed, although only in a small number of cases these are licensed for use in clinical practice and have reached the market. Although some examples of therapeutic efficacy have been shown, not unlike more traditional antiviral or antibacterial treatments, their efficacy is significantly greater in prophylaxis or early post-exposure treatment. Although in many cases the use of vaccines is more effective and cost-effective than that of mABs, for many infectious diseases no vaccines have yet been developed and licensed. Furthermore, in emergency situations, like in epidemics or pandemics, the availability of mABs can be an attractive adjunct to our armament to reduce the impact. Finally, the availability of mABs against bacteria can be an important alternative, when multidrug-resistant strains are involved.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Rabies Vaccines , Rabies , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Humans , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , HIV , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Epitopes , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy
2.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0286009, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20240946

ABSTRACT

AIM: To estimate the prevalence and associated factors with the human immune-deficiency virus (HIV) among people who inject drugs (PWID) in Mizoram, Northeast India. METHODS: The data source for the analysis was the 2019-2020 Mizoram State AIDS Control Society (MSACS) survey from 2695 PWID registered for the Targeted Intervention (TI) services. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the factors associated with HIV among PWID after adjusting for sociodemographic characteristics, injection, and sexual behaviours. RESULTS: 21.19% of the participants tested positive for HIV and the prevalence of HIV among male and female participants were 19.5% and 38.6%, respectively. Multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that female (AOR 1.74; 95% CI 1.26-2.41), 35 years or older (AOR 1.45; 95% CI 1.06-1.99), married (AOR 1.41; 95% CI1.08-1.83), divorced/separated/widowed (AOR 2.12; 95% CI 1.59-2.82) and sharing of needle/syringe (AOR 1.62; 95% CI 1.30-2.00) were all positively associated with HIV infection. We also found that concomitant alcohol use was reduced by 35% (AOR 0.65; 95% CI 0.51-0.82) among HIV positive PWID, and HIV infection was also reduced by 46% (AOR 0.54; 95% CI 0.44-0.67) among those PWID who use a condom with a regular partner. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study suggested that there is a high prevalence of HIV among PWID with 1 in 5 PWID reported to have HIV. HIV among PWID was significantly higher among those over 35 years of age, females and divorced/separated/widowed participants. Needle/syringe sharing behaviour is an important determinant of HIV infection. The high prevalence of HIV among PWID population is multifactorial. To reduce HIV among PWID in Mizoram, interventions should target those sharing needles/syringes, females, especially those over 35 years of age and unmarried participants.


Subject(s)
Drug Users , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , Humans , Male , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Risk Factors , India/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk-Taking
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(11)2023 Jun 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20239553

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in disruption in healthcare delivery for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). African, Caribbean, and Black women living with HIV (ACB WLWH) in British Columbia (BC) faced barriers to engage with HIV care services prior to the COVID-19 pandemic that were intensified by the transition to virtual care during the pandemic. This paper aims to assess which factors influenced ACB WLWH's access to, utilization and affordability of, and motivation to engage with HIV care services. This study utilized a qualitative descriptive approach using in-depth interviews. Eighteen participants were recruited from relevant women's health, HIV, and ACB organizations in BC. Participants felt dismissed by healthcare providers delivering services only in virtual formats and suggested that services be performed in a hybrid model to increase access and utilization. Mental health supports, such as support groups, dissolved during the pandemic and overall utilization decreased for many participants. The affordability of services pertained primarily to expenses not covered by the provincial healthcare plan. Resources should be directed to covering supplements, healthy food, and extended health services. The primary factor decreasing motivation to engage with HIV services was fear, which emerged due to the unknown impact of the COVID-19 virus on immunocompromised participants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/psychology , Pandemics , HIV , Motivation , COVID-19/epidemiology , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Costs and Cost Analysis
4.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0276411, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2323606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) significantly affects adolescents globally, with the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) reporting a high burden of the disease. HIV testing, treatment, and retention to care are low among adolescents. We conducted a mixed-method systematic review to assess anti-retroviral therapy (ART) adherence; barriers and facilitators to ART adherence and ART outcomes among adolescents living with HIV and on ART in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: We conducted searches in four scientific databases for studies conducted between 2010 and March 2022 to identify relevant primary studies. Studies were screened against inclusion criteria and assessed for quality, and data was extracted. Meta-analysis of rates and odd ratios was used to plot the quantitative studies and meta-synthesis summarized the evidence from qualitative studies. RESULTS: A total of 10 431 studies were identified and screened against the inclusion/ exclusion criteria. Sixty-six studies met the inclusion criteria (41 quantitative, 16 qualitative, and 9 mixed-methods study designs). Fifty-three thousand two hundred and seventeen (53 217) adolescents (52 319 in quantitative studies and 899 in qualitative studies) were included in the review. Thirteen support focused interventions for improved ART adherence were identified from quantitative studies. The plotted results from the meta-analysis found an ART adherence rate of 65% (95%CI 56-74), viral load suppression was 55% (95%CI 46-64), un-suppressed viral load rate of 41% (95%CI 32-50), and loss to follow up of 17% (95%CI 10-24) among adolescents. Meta-synthesis found six themes of barriers to ART (social, patient-based, economic, health system-based, therapy-based, and cultural barriers) in both the qualitative and quantitative studies, and three themes of facilitators to ART were also identified (social support, counselling, and ART education and secrecy or confidentiality) from qualitative studies. CONCLUSION: ART adherence remains low among adolescents in SSA despite multiple interventions implemented to improve ART adherence. The low adherence rate may hinder the attainment of the UNAIDS 2030 targets. Additionally, various barriers to ART adherence due to lack of support have been reported among this age group. However, interventions aimed at improving social support, educating, and counselling adolescents may improve and sustain ART adherence. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Systematic review registration: PROSPERO CRD42021284891.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Humans , Adolescent , HIV , Medication Adherence , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use
6.
PLoS One ; 18(5): e0285571, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317197

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Nine in ten of the world's 1.74 million adolescents living with human immunodeficiency virus (ALHIV) live in Sub-Saharan Africa. Suboptimal adherence to antiretroviral therapy (ART) and poor viral suppression are important problems among adolescents. To guide intervention efforts in this regard, this review presented pooled estimates on the prevalence of adherence and how it is affected by disclosure of HIV status among ALHIV in Sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A comprehensive search in major databases (Excerpta Medica database (EMBASE), PubMed, Ovid/MEDLINE, HINARI, and Google Scholar) with additional hand searches for grey literature was conducted to locate observational epidemiologic studies published in English up to November 12, 2022 with the following inclusion criteria: primary studies that reported disclosure of HIV status as an exposure variable, had positive adherence to ART as an outcome, and conducted among adolescents and children. The COVIDENCE software was used for a title/abstract screening, full-text screening, the JBI quality assessment checklist, and data extraction. Random effects model was used to pool estimates. Furthermore, sensitivity analysis and subgroup analysis were also conducted by age groups and type of adherence measures used. RESULTS: This meta-analysis combines the effect estimates from 12 primary studies with 4422 participants. The prevalence of good adherence to ART was 73% (95% CI (confidence interval): 56 to 87; I2 = 98.63%, P = <0.001), and it was higher among adolescents who were aware of their HIV status, 77% (95% CI: 56 to 92; I2 = 98.34%, P = <0.001). Overall, knowledge of HIV status was associated with increased odds of adherence (odds ratio (OR) = 1.88, 95% CI: 1.21 to 2.94; I2 = 79.8%, P = <0.001). This was further supported in a subgroup analysis by age (seven studies, pooled OR = 1.89, 95% CI: 1.06 to 3.37; I2 = 81.3%, P = <0.0001) and whether primary studies controlled for confounding factors (six studies provided adjusted estimates, pooled OR = 2.61, 95% CI: 1.22 to 5.57; I2 = 88.1%, P = <0.001) confirmed this further. CONCLUSIONS: Our meta-analysis and systematic review revealed that knowledge of one's HIV status was associated with adherence to ART, particularly among adolescents. The findings underscored the importance of encouraging disclosure in order to enhance adherence among adolescents.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV , Child , Humans , Adolescent , Disclosure , Medication Adherence , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology
7.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1172691, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317032

ABSTRACT

The success of the first licensed mRNA-based vaccines against COVID-19 has created a widespread interest on mRNA technology for vaccinology. As expected, the number of mRNA vaccines in preclinical and clinical development increased exponentially since 2020, including numerous improvements in mRNA formulation design, delivery methods and manufacturing processes. However, the technology faces challenges such as the cost of raw materials, the lack of standardization, and delivery optimization. MRNA technology may provide a solution to some of the emerging infectious diseases as well as the deadliest hard-to-treat infectious diseases malaria, tuberculosis, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS), for which an effective vaccine, easily deployable to endemic areas is urgently needed. In this review, we discuss the functional structure, design, manufacturing processes and delivery methods of mRNA vaccines. We provide an up-to-date overview of the preclinical and clinical development of mRNA vaccines against infectious diseases, and discuss the immunogenicity, efficacy and correlates of protection of mRNA vaccines, with particular focus on research and development of mRNA vaccines against malaria, tuberculosis and HIV.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Malaria , Tuberculosis , Humans , HIV/genetics , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Tuberculosis/prevention & control , Malaria/prevention & control , RNA, Messenger/genetics
8.
Clin Infect Dis ; 76(11): 2014-2017, 2023 Jun 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2310085

ABSTRACT

Using data from 67 Ugandan human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) clinics (July 2019-January 2022), we report a 40% (1005/1662) reduction in the number of people with HIV presenting to care after August 2021 compared to prepandemic levels, with a greater proportion presenting with advanced HIV disease (20% vs 16% in the pre-coronavirus disease 2019 period).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Uganda/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV , Ambulatory Care Facilities
9.
Cad Saude Publica ; 39Suppl 1(Suppl 1): e00154021, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2309715

ABSTRACT

Adolescent men who have sex with men (AMSM) are at a heightened vulnerability for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of HIV and associated individual, social, and programmatic factors among AMSM in Salvador, Bahia State, Brazil. This is a cross-sectional study which analyzed baseline data from the PrEP1519 cohort in Salvador. Descriptive, bivariate, and multivariate analyses were conducted using the dimensions of vulnerability to HIV as hierarchical levels of analysis. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the odds ratios (OR) of the association between predictor variables and HIV infection. The prevalence of HIV infection among the 288 AMSM recruited to the project was 5.9% (95%CI: 3.7-9.3). Adjusted analysis showed a statistically significant association between self-identifying as a sex worker (OR = 3.74, 95%CI: 1.03-13.60) and HIV infection. Other associations with borderline statistical significance were the use of application programs to find sexual partners (OR = 3.30, 95%CI: 0.98-11.04), low schooling level (OR = 3.59, 95%CI: 0.96-13.41), failing to be hired or being dismissed from a job because of sexual orientation (OR = 2.88, 95%CI: 0.89-9.28), and not using health services as a usual source of care (OR = 3.14, 95%CI: 0.97-10.17). We found a high HIV prevalence among AMSM in Salvador. Furthermore, our study found that individual, social, and programmatic factors were associated with HIV infection among these AMSM. We recommend intensifying HIV combined-prevention activities for AMSM.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Female , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV , Homosexuality, Male , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sexual Behavior , Risk Factors
10.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 550, 2023 03 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2290762

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The continuous supply of affordable and quality HIV self-test (HIVST) is a key pillar toward achieving the global HIV 95-95-95 target in Nigeria. This was a descriptive qualitative study that explored private sector stakeholders' perceptions of the enablers and barriers of the HIVST market in Nigeria. METHODS: A total of 29 In-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted with HIVST supply chain stakeholders and private sector providers (PPMVs and Community Pharmacies). Responses were analyzed using Nvivo software and we systematically developed a total market approach analysis for supply chain stakeholders and archetypes for community Pharmacies and PPMVs based on insights gathered from their journey map. RESULTS: Challenges to the supply side dynamics include forecasting, point of care service delivery, the availability of free and subsidized HIVST kits in the market, neglect of private sector providers (Community Pharmacists and PPMVs) in the healthcare delivery system, limited demand for HIVST, and regulatory bottlenecks influences the overall market dynamics. High cost of the HIVST kit, which triggers low availability, accessibility and affordability from the demand side, depicts the need to understand the market dynamics. Addressing the barriers and optimizing the enablers of the three-model pharmacist and PPMV's will change the market dynamic and service delivery to generate demand. CONCLUSION: To address challenges which already exist, the government need to revise the process guidelines for introducing new HIVST products in the Nigerian market, developing contingency plans to ensure the supply of HIVST remains sufficient when experiencing economic shocks, and create a sustainable roadmap toward optimizing the market for HIVST kits.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Self-Testing , Humans , HIV , Nigeria , Private Sector , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Perception , Mass Screening
11.
Int J Mol Sci ; 24(8)2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2305448

ABSTRACT

Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a pulmonary vascular disease characterized by the progressive elevation of pulmonary arterial pressures. It is becoming increasingly apparent that inflammation contributes to the pathogenesis and progression of PAH. Several viruses are known to cause PAH, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), human endogenous retrovirus K(HERV-K), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), in part due to acute and chronic inflammation. In this review, we discuss the connections between HERV-K, HIV, SARS-CoV-2, and PAH, to stimulate research regarding new therapeutic options and provide new targets for the treatment of the disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Endogenous Retroviruses , HIV Infections , Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension , Humans , HIV , SARS-CoV-2 , Familial Primary Pulmonary Hypertension , Inflammation
12.
PLoS One ; 18(4): e0281799, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2300459

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Key populations are disproportionately affected by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) but have less access to HIV prevention and treatment services. The Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is reinforcing health inequities among vulnerable populations, including men who have sex with men (MSM). Therefore, this article presents the findings describing the experiences of MSM in accessing HIV services during COVID-19 in the second largest city of Zimbabwe. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological analysis design was applied to gain some insights regarding the lived experiences of MSM in accessing HIV prevention, treatment, and care services during COVID-19 lockdowns era in Zimbabwe. Data were collected from 14 criterion purposively selected MSM using in-depth, one-on-one interviews. Data were analysed thematically guided by the interpretative phenomenological analysis framework for data analysis. RESULTS: The findings demonstrated that during the COVID -19 lockdowns in Zimbabwe, MSM faced several barriers as they tried to access HIV services. Some of the barriers included the need for travel authorisation letters and treatment interruption. The study also found that COVID-19 and related restrictive measures had psychosocial and economic effects that encompassed loss of income, intimate partner violence and psychological effects. CONCLUSIONS: Limited access to healthcare services by MSM due to COVID-19 lockdown may negatively affect the viral suppression and fuel the spread of HIV, which may reverse the gains toward the control of HIV epidemic. To sustain the gains toward HIV epidemic control and to ensure continuity of treatment, particularly for members of key populations, it is critical that the health-care delivery system adjusts by taking service to the community through adopting a differentiated service delivery approach.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Homosexuality, Male/psychology , HIV , Zimbabwe/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Infections/psychology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Services Accessibility , Communicable Disease Control , Pandemics/prevention & control
13.
Molecules ; 28(8)2023 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2294072

ABSTRACT

The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) produces the pathologic basis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). An increase in the viral load in the body leads to a decline in the number of T lymphocytes, compromising the patient's immune system. Some opportunistic diseases may result, such as tuberculosis (TB), which is the most common in seropositive patients. Long-term treatment is required for HIV-TB coinfection, and cocktails of drugs for both diseases are used concomitantly. The most challenging aspects of treatment are the occurrence of drug interactions, overlapping toxicity, no adherence to treatment and cases of resistance. Recent approaches have involved using molecules that can act synergistically on two or more distinct targets. The development of multitarget molecules could overcome the disadvantages of the therapies used to treat HIV-TB coinfection. This report is the first review on using molecules with activities against HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) for molecular hybridization and multitarget strategies. Here, we discuss the importance and development of multiple targets as a means of improving adherence to therapy in cases of the coexistence of these pathologies. In this context, several studies on the development of structural entities to treat HIV-TB simultaneously are discussed.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , HIV Infections , Mycobacterium tuberculosis , Tuberculosis , Humans , HIV , Antitubercular Agents/pharmacology , Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Coinfection/drug therapy , Coinfection/epidemiology , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/drug therapy , Tuberculosis/microbiology , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/drug therapy
14.
Front Immunol ; 14: 1152695, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286253

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Vaccination against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is an effective way of protecting individuals from severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, immune responses to vaccination vary considerably. This study dynamically assessed the neutralizing antibody (NAb) responses to the third dose of the inactivated COVID-19 vaccine administered to people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV; PLWH) with different inoculation intervals. Methods: A total of 171 participants were recruited: 63 PLWH were placed in cohort 1 (with 3-month interval between the second and third doses), while 95 PLWH were placed in cohort 2 (with 5-month interval between the second and third doses); 13 individuals were enrolled as healthy controls (HCs). And risk factors associated with seroconversion failure after vaccination were identified via Cox regression analysis. Results: At 6 months after the third vaccination, PLWH in cohort 2 had higher NAb levels (GMC: 64.59 vs 21.99, P < 0.0001) and seroconversion rate (68.42% vs 19.05%, P < 0.0001). A weaker neutralizing activity against the SARSCoV-2 Delta variant was observed (GMT: 3.38 and 3.63, P < 0.01) relative to the wildtype strain (GMT: 13.68 and 14.83) in both cohorts. None of the participants (including HCs or PLWH) could mount a NAb response against Omicron BA.5.2. In the risk model, independent risk factors for NAb seroconversion failure were the vaccination interval (hazed ration [HR]: 0.316, P < 0.001) and lymphocyte counts (HR: 0.409, P < 0.001). Additionally, PLWH who exhibited NAb seroconversion after vaccination had fewer initial COVID-19 symptoms when infected with Omicron. Discussion: This study demonstrated that the third vaccination elicited better NAb responses in PLWH, when a longer interval was used between vaccinations. Since post-vaccination seroconversion reduced the number of symptoms induced by Omicron, efforts to protect PLWH with risk factors for NAb seroconversion failure may be needed during future Omicron surges. Clinical trial registration: https://beta.clinicaltrials.gov/study/NCT05075070, identifier NCT05075070.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , HIV , COVID-19 Vaccines , Seroconversion , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Vaccination
15.
BMC Public Health ; 23(1): 361, 2023 02 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2286083

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, the Chinese government implemented the dynamic COVID-zero strategy. We hypothesized that pandemic mitigation measures might have reduced the incidence, mortality rates, and case fatality ratios (CFRs) of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2020-2022. METHOD: We collected HIV incidence and mortality data from the website of the National Health Commission of the People's Republic of China from January 2015 to December 2022. We compared the observed and predicted HIV values in 2020-2022 with those in 2015-2019 using a two-ratio Z-test. RESULTS: From January 1, 2015, to December 31, 2022, a total of 480,747 HIV incident cases were reported in mainland China, of which 60,906 (per year) and 58,739 (per year) were reported in 2015-2019 (pre-COVID-19 stage) and 2020-2022 (post-COVID-19 stage), respectively. The average yearly HIV incidence decreased by 5.2450% (from 4.4143 to 4.1827 per 100,000 people, p <  0.001) in 2020-2022 compared with that in 2015-2019. However, the average yearly HIV mortality rates and CFRs increased by 14.1076 and 20.4238%, respectively (all p <  0.001), in 2020-2022 compared with those in 2015-2019. During the emergency phase in January 2020 to April 2020, the monthly incidence was significantly lower (23.7158%) than that during the corresponding period in 2015-2019, while the incidence during the routine stage in May 2020-December 2022 increased by 27.4334%, (all p <  0.001). The observed incidence and mortality rates for HIV decreased by 16.55 and 18.1052% in 2020, by 25.1274 and 20.2136% in 2021, and by 39.7921 and 31.7535% in 2022, respectively, compared with the predicted values, (all p <  0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that China's dynamic COVID-zero strategy may have partly disrupted HIV transmission and further slowed down its growth. Without China's dynamic COVID-zero strategy, HIV incidence and deaths in the country would have likely remained high in 2020-2022. There is an urgent need to expand and improve HIV prevention, care, and treatment, as well as surveillance in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Incidence , HIV , China/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
16.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 93(2): 92-100, 2023 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278784

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Persons living with diagnosed HIV (PLWDH) have higher COVID-19 diagnoses rates and poorer COVID-19-related outcomes than persons living without diagnosed HIV. The intersection of COVID-19 vaccination status and likelihood of severe COVID-19 outcomes has not been fully investigated for PLWDH. SETTING: New York State (NYS). METHODS: We matched HIV surveillance, immunization, and hospitalization databases to compare COVID-19 vaccination and COVID-19-related hospitalizations among PLWDH during B.1.617.2 (Delta) and B.1.1.529 (Omicron) predominance. RESULTS: Through March 4, 2022, 69,137 of the 101,205 (68%) PLWDH were fully vaccinated or boosted for COVID-19. PLWDH who were virally suppressed or in care were more often to be fully vaccinated or boosted compared with PLWDH who were not virally suppressed (77% vs. 44%) or without evidence of care (74% vs. 33%). Overall hospitalization rates were lower among virally suppressed PLWDH. During Delta predominance, PLWDH with any vaccination history who were in care had lower hospitalization rates compared with those not in care; during Omicron predominance, this was the case only for boosted PLWDH. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 28% (28,255) of PLWDH in NYS remained unvaccinated for COVID-19, a rate roughly double of that observed in the overall adult NYS population. PLWDH of color were more often than non-Hispanic White persons to be unvaccinated, as were the virally unsuppressed and those without evidence of HIV-related care, threatening to expand existing disparities in COVID-19-related outcomes. Vaccination was protective against COVID-19-related hospitalizations for PLWDH; however, differences in hospitalization rates between fully vaccinated and unvaccinated PLWDH were smaller than those among all New Yorkers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Humans , HIV , HIV Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , New York/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Hospitalization
17.
PLoS One ; 18(3): e0282644, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278736

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to demonstrate the feasibility of an unassisted and community-based HIV self-testing (HIVST) distribution model and to evaluate its acceptability among men-having-sex-with-men (MSM) and transgender women (TGW). METHODS: Our demonstration study focused on implementing the HIVST distribution model in Metro Manila, Philippines. Convenience sampling was done with the following inclusion criteria: MSM or TGW, at least 18 years old, and had no previous HIV diagnosis. Individuals taking HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis, on antiretroviral therapy, or female sex at birth were excluded. The implementation of the study was done online using a virtual assistant and a delivery system via courier due to COVID-19-related lockdowns. Feasibility was measured by the number of HIVST kits successfully delivered and utilized and the HIV point prevalence. Moreover, acceptability was evaluated by a 10-item system usability scale (SUS). HIV prevalence was estimated with linkage to care prioritized for reactive participants. RESULTS: Out of 1,690 kits distributed, only 953 (56.4%) participants reported their results. Overall, HIV point prevalence was 9.8%, with 56 (60.2%) reactive participants linked to further testing. Furthermore, 261 (27.4%) of respondents self-reported, and 35 (13.4%) of the reactive participants were first-time testers. The HIVST service had an overall median and interquartile range (IQR) SUS score of 82.5 (IQR: 75.0, 90.0), rendering the HIVST kits very acceptable. CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests the acceptability and feasibility of HIVST among the MSM and TGW in Metro Manila, Philippines, regardless of their age or HIV testing experience. In addition, other platforms of information dissemination and service delivery of HIVST should be explored, including access to online instructional videos and printed materials, which may facilitate easier use and interpretation of results. Furthermore, due to our study's limited number of TGW respondents, a more targeted implementation strategy to reach the TGW population is warranted to increase their access and uptake of HIVST.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Transgender Persons , Male , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Female , Adolescent , Homosexuality, Male , HIV , Self-Testing , Philippines/epidemiology , Pandemics , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV Testing
18.
Alcohol Alcohol ; 58(3): 238-246, 2023 May 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2278223

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To slow the spread of the COVID-19 virus, governments across the globe instituted stay-at-home orders leading to increased stress and social isolation. Not surprisingly, alcohol sales increased during this period. While most studies primarily focused on alcohol consumption among college students or adults, this study investigates alcohol misuse among marginalized youth in the USA. We examined risk factors associated with hazardous alcohol use and binge drinking including risk behaviors, life stressors and demographic characteristics. METHODS: In October 2020, youth living with or at high risk for acquiring human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), participating in community-based research to improve HIV prevention and care, were invited to complete an online survey to assess the impact of the stay-at-home orders on multiple aspects of their daily life. RESULTS: Respondents (n = 478) were on average 23 years old; cisgender (84%), not-heterosexual (86.6%), Latino or Black/African American (73%) and assigned male at birth (83%); 52% reported being employed and 14% reported living with HIV. White participants and those who use drugs had higher odds of hazardous alcohol use and binge drinking, compared with other race categories and non-drug users, respectively. CONCLUSION: Contrary to findings from adult studies, we did not observe an increase in hazardous or binge drinking among youth at risk for HIV. Hazardous alcohol use and binge drinking was more likely among White participants, those who use drugs and those who were hazardous/binge drinkers prior to the COVID-19 lockdown, which points to the importance of identifying and treating youth who misuse alcohol early to prevent future alcohol misuse.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Binge Drinking , COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adult , Infant, Newborn , Humans , Male , Adolescent , Young Adult , Binge Drinking/epidemiology , Binge Drinking/prevention & control , Alcoholism/epidemiology , HIV , Los Angeles/epidemiology , New Orleans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Ethanol , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
20.
Front Public Health ; 11: 1094214, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2265176

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-related disruptions in healthcare services and clinical outcomes have been predicted and documented. However, little is known about how antiretroviral therapy (ART) adherence disruptions caused by the COVID-19 pandemic have manifested amidst the 'Undetectable = Untransmittable' campaign initiative. Using a patient's viral load as a proxy for medication adherence, our study aimed to determine the adherence to ART on first-line medications among adult people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWHIV) at the University Teaching Hospital in Lusaka, Zambia during the pandemic. Methods: This was a hospital-based cross-sectional study. Secondary data of PLWHIV registered to receive ART from the Adult Infectious Disease Centre was extracted from the SmartCare® electronic health record system to constitute a resultant data set that this study used. The data extraction form was used to extract values of dependent (ART adherence measured by viral load detectability) and independent variables and imported them into the statistical analysis tool, STATA version 16.1 MP. Descriptive statistics of individual characteristics, testing for associations using Pearson's chi-square test, and stratified and combined multivariable logistic regression were performed. Results: Of the 7,281 adult PLWHIV included in this study, 9.0% (95% CI 8.3-9.6%) were virally detectable. Estimates of the odds ratios of detectable viral load remained significantly higher among adult PLWHIV who were initiated on ART after the U=U campaign was launched in Zambia and were on a monthly 2.51 (1.31-9.03) or 6-monthly 4.75 (3.52-6.41) dispensing of a dolutegravir-based regimen and those on 6-monthly dispensing of an efavirenz-based regimen 4.67 (2.16-10.08) compared to their counterparts. Overall estimates showed us the same picture 4.14 (3.22-5.31), having adjusted for all other predictor variables. Conclusion: We found that a high proportion of people with detectable viral load in the study population, irrespective of medication refill interval and type of regimen, was concentrated among adult PLWHIV who started treatment during the COVID-19 epidemic waves, as compared to those who started treatment before the pandemic. This observed disparity suggests the inherent impact of the pandemic on the adherence to ART among adult PLWHIV in Lusaka, Zambia. This further illustrates how exposed program responses are to external shocks, especially in already weakened health systems, and the need to create program response buffers and resilient program-specific strategies to minimize the effect of external disruptions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Humans , Adult , HIV , Zambia/epidemiology , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Universities , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Hospitals, Teaching
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