Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
1.
Artif Cells Nanomed Biotechnol ; 49(1): 204-218, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1109121

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is a zoo tonic, highly pathogenic virus. The new type of coronavirus with contagious nature spread from Wuhan (China) to the whole world in a very short time and caused the new coronavirus disease (COVID-19). COVID-19 has turned into a global public health crisis due to spreading by close person-to-person contact with high transmission capacity. Thus, research about the treatment of the damages caused by the virus or prevention from infection increases everyday. Besides, there is still no approved and definitive, standardized treatment for COVID-19. However, this disaster experienced by human beings has made us realize the significance of having a system ready for use to prevent humanity from viral attacks without wasting time. As is known, nanocarriers can be targeted to the desired cells in vitro and in vivo. The nano-carrier system targeting a specific protein, containing the enzyme inhibiting the action of the virus can be developed. The system can be used by simple modifications when we encounter another virus epidemic in the future. In this review, we present a potential treatment method consisting of a nanoparticle-ribozyme conjugate, targeting ACE-2 receptors by reviewing the virus-associated ribozymes, their structures, types and working mechanisms.


Subject(s)
/drug therapy , Nanoparticles/administration & dosage , RNA, Catalytic/therapeutic use , RNA, Viral/antagonists & inhibitors , /drug effects , /antagonists & inhibitors , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Carriers , Drug Compounding , Drug Design , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV-1/drug effects , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/drug effects , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Models, Molecular , Nucleic Acid Conformation , RNA Interference , RNA, Catalytic/administration & dosage , RNA, Catalytic/chemistry , RNA, Catalytic/classification , RNA, Untranslated/classification , RNA, Untranslated/genetics , RNA, Untranslated/therapeutic use , SARS Virus/drug effects , SARS Virus/genetics , /physiology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Virus Replication/drug effects
2.
PLoS One ; 16(2): e0247396, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090539

ABSTRACT

Among various delivery systems for vaccine and drug delivery, cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) have been known as a potent delivery system because of their capability to penetrate cell membranes and deliver some types of cargoes into cells. Several CPPs were found in the proteome of viruses such as Tat originated from human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), and VP22 derived from herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1). In the current study, a wide-range of CPPs was identified in the proteome of SARS-CoV-2, a new member of coronaviruses family, using in silico analyses. These CPPs may play a main role for high penetration of virus into cells and infection of host. At first, we submitted the proteome of SARS-CoV-2 to CellPPD web server that resulted in a huge number of CPPs with ten residues in length. Afterward, we submitted the predicted CPPs to C2Pred web server for evaluation of the probability of each peptide. Then, the uptake efficiency of each peptide was investigated using CPPred-RF and MLCPP web servers. Next, the physicochemical properties of the predicted CPPs including net charge, theoretical isoelectric point (pI), amphipathicity, molecular weight, and water solubility were calculated using protparam and pepcalc tools. In addition, the probability of membrane binding potential and cellular localization of each CPP were estimated by Boman index using APD3 web server, D factor, and TMHMM web server. On the other hand, the immunogenicity, toxicity, allergenicity, hemolytic potency, and half-life of CPPs were predicted using various web servers. Finally, the tertiary structure and the helical wheel projection of some CPPs were predicted by PEP-FOLD3 and Heliquest web servers, respectively. These CPPs were divided into: a) CPP containing tumor homing motif (RGD) and/or tumor penetrating motif (RXXR); b) CPP with the highest Boman index; c) CPP with high half-life (~100 hour) in mammalian cells, and d) CPP with +5.00 net charge. Based on the results, we found a large number of novel CPPs with various features. Some of these CPPs possess tumor-specific motifs which can be evaluated in cancer therapy. Furthermore, the novel and potent CPPs derived from SARS-CoV-2 may be used alone or conjugated to some sequences such as nuclear localization sequence (NLS) for vaccine and drug delivery.


Subject(s)
/chemistry , Cell-Penetrating Peptides/chemistry , Computational Biology , Computer Simulation , Drug Delivery Systems , Proteome , /chemistry , Animals , /metabolism , Cell-Penetrating Peptides/genetics , Cell-Penetrating Peptides/metabolism , HIV-1/chemistry , HIV-1/genetics , Herpesvirus 1, Human/chemistry , Herpesvirus 1, Human/genetics , Humans , /metabolism , Viral Structural Proteins/chemistry , Viral Structural Proteins/genetics , tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , tat Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
3.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1040133

ABSTRACT

HIV-1 subtype CRF01_AE is the second most predominant strain in Bulgaria, yet little is known about the molecular epidemiology of its origin and transmissibility. We used a phylodynamics approach to better understand this sub-epidemic by analyzing 270 HIV-1 polymerase (pol) sequences collected from persons diagnosed with HIV/AIDS between 1995 and 2019. Using network analyses at a 1.5% genetic distance threshold (d), we found a large 154-member outbreak cluster composed mostly of persons who inject drugs (PWID) that were predominantly men. At d = 0.5%, which was used to identify more recent transmission, the large cluster dissociated into three clusters of 18, 12, and 7 members, respectively, five dyads, and 107 singletons. Phylogenetic analysis of the Bulgarian sequences with publicly available global sequences showed that CRF01_AE likely originated from multiple Asian countries, with Vietnam as the likely source of the outbreak cluster between 1988 and 1990. Our findings indicate that CRF01_AE was introduced into Bulgaria multiple times since 1988, and infections then rapidly spread among PWID locally with bridging to other risk groups and countries. CRF01_AE continues to spread in Bulgaria as evidenced by the more recent large clusters identified at d = 0.5%, highlighting the importance of public health prevention efforts in the PWID communities.


Subject(s)
Genotype , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/classification , HIV-1/genetics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bulgaria/epidemiology , Female , Genetic Variation , HIV Infections/prevention & control , HIV-1/drug effects , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Public Health Surveillance , Reassortant Viruses , Recombination, Genetic , Young Adult
4.
Science ; 371(6526): 284-288, 2021 01 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1033401

ABSTRACT

The ability for viruses to mutate and evade the human immune system and cause infection, called viral escape, remains an obstacle to antiviral and vaccine development. Understanding the complex rules that govern escape could inform therapeutic design. We modeled viral escape with machine learning algorithms originally developed for human natural language. We identified escape mutations as those that preserve viral infectivity but cause a virus to look different to the immune system, akin to word changes that preserve a sentence's grammaticality but change its meaning. With this approach, language models of influenza hemagglutinin, HIV-1 envelope glycoprotein (HIV Env), and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) Spike viral proteins can accurately predict structural escape patterns using sequence data alone. Our study represents a promising conceptual bridge between natural language and viral evolution.


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , HIV-1/genetics , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza, Human/immunology , /genetics , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , Binding Sites , Evolution, Molecular , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/chemistry , Hemagglutinin Glycoproteins, Influenza Virus/genetics , Humans , Influenza, Human/virology , Mutation , Protein Domains , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/chemistry , env Gene Products, Human Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics
5.
AIDS Rev ; 22(4): 227-228, 2020 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006729

ABSTRACT

The clinical spectrum of "Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus type 2" (SARS-CoV-2) infection is wider than initially thought. The coronavirus does not establish a chronic cellular infection, in contrast with HIV or the hepatitis B virus, that keeps their genomes, respectively, as proviruses integrated within the chromosomes or as episomes (Soriano et al. J Antimicrob Chemother 2014).


Subject(s)
/virology , /pathogenicity , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B virus/genetics , Hepatitis B virus/pathogenicity , Humans
6.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 25-35, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-940835

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caught the world unprepared, with no prevention or treatment strategies in place. In addition to the efforts to develop an effective vaccine, alternative approaches are essential to control this pandemic, which will most likely require multiple readily available solutions. Among them, monoclonal anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies have been isolated by multiple laboratories in record time facilitated by techniques that were first pioneered for HIV-1 antibody discovery. Here, we summarize how lessons learned from anti-HIV-1 antibody discovery have provided fundamental knowledge for the rapid development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. RECENT FINDINGS: Research laboratories that successfully identified potent broadly neutralizing antibodies against HIV-1 have harnessed their antibody discovery techniques to isolate novel potent anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, which have efficacy in animal models. These antibodies represent promising clinical candidates for treatment or prevention of COVID-19. SUMMARY: Passive transfer of antibodies is a promising approach when the elicitation of protective immune responses is difficult, as in the case of HIV-1 infection. Antibodies can also play a significant role in post-exposure prophylaxis, in high-risk populations that may not mount robust immune responses after vaccination, and in therapy. We provide a review of the recent approaches used for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody discovery and upcoming challenges in the field.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/immunology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV-1/immunology , /immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/administration & dosage , Biomedical Research/trends , Broadly Neutralizing Antibodies/administration & dosage , /immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , /genetics
7.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 3-10, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927142

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In response to the HIV-AIDS pandemic, great strides have been made in developing molecular methods that accurately quantify nucleic acid products of HIV-1 at different stages of viral replication and to assess HIV-1 sequence diversity and its effect on susceptibility to small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. Here, we review how knowledge gained from these approaches, including viral RNA quantification and sequence analyses, have been rapidly applied to study SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood of infected individuals by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR); and, as in HIV-1 infection, there is growing evidence that the level of viral RNA in plasma may be related to COVID disease severity. Unlike HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2 sequences are highly conserved limiting SARS-CoV-2 sequencing applications to investigating interpatient genetic diversity for phylogenetic analysis. Sensitive sequencing technologies, originally developed for HIV-1, will be needed to investigate intrapatient SARS-CoV-2 genetic variation in response to antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. SUMMARY: Methods used for HIV-1 have been rapidly applied to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 to understand pathogenesis and prognosis. Further application of such methods should improve precision of therapy and outcome.


Subject(s)
/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/genetics , /isolation & purification , /blood , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , /genetics
8.
J Virol ; 94(21)2020 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-709870

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-COV-2) Spike glycoprotein is solely responsible for binding to the host cell receptor and facilitating fusion between the viral and host membranes. The ability to generate viral particles pseudotyped with SARS-COV-2 Spike is useful for many types of studies, such as characterization of neutralizing antibodies or development of fusion-inhibiting small molecules. Here, we characterized the use of a codon-optimized SARS-COV-2 Spike glycoprotein for the generation of pseudotyped HIV-1, murine leukemia virus (MLV), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) particles. The full-length Spike protein functioned inefficiently with all three systems but was enhanced over 10-fold by deleting the last 19 amino acids of the cytoplasmic tail. Infection of 293FT target cells was possible only if the cells were engineered to stably express the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor, but stably introducing an additional copy of this receptor did not further enhance susceptibility. Stable introduction of the Spike-activating protease TMPRSS2 further enhanced susceptibility to infection by 5- to 10-fold. Replacement of the signal peptide of the Spike protein with an optimal signal peptide did not enhance or reduce infectious particle production. However, modifications D614G and R682Q further enhanced infectious particle production. With all enhancing elements combined, the titer of pseudotyped HIV-1 particles reached almost 106 infectious particles/ml. Finally, HIV-1 particles pseudotyped with SARS-COV-2 Spike were successfully used to detect neutralizing antibodies in plasma from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, but not in plasma from uninfected individuals.IMPORTANCE In work with pathogenic viruses, it is useful to have rapid quantitative tests for viral infectivity that can be performed without strict biocontainment restrictions. A common way of accomplishing this is to generate viral pseudoparticles that contain the surface glycoprotein from the pathogenic virus incorporated into a replication-defective viral particle that contains a sensitive reporter system. These pseudoparticles enter cells using the glycoprotein from the pathogenic virus, leading to a readout for infection. Conditions that block entry of the pathogenic virus, such as neutralizing antibodies, will also block entry of the viral pseudoparticles. However, viral glycoproteins often are not readily suited for generating pseudoparticles. Here, we describe a series of modifications that result in the production of relatively high-titer SARS-COV-2 pseudoparticles that are suitable for the detection of neutralizing antibodies from COVID-19 patients.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/physiology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/metabolism , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/metabolism , Humans , Leukemia Virus, Murine , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/metabolism , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/metabolism , Virion/genetics , Virion/immunology , Virion/metabolism , Virus Internalization
9.
J Exp Med ; 217(11)2020 11 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-697830

ABSTRACT

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 and the ensuing explosive epidemic of COVID-19 disease has generated a need for assays to rapidly and conveniently measure the antiviral activity of SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies. Here, we describe a collection of approaches based on SARS-CoV-2 spike-pseudotyped, single-cycle, replication-defective human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1), and vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV), as well as a replication-competent VSV/SARS-CoV-2 chimeric virus. While each surrogate virus exhibited subtle differences in the sensitivity with which neutralizing activity was detected, the neutralizing activity of both convalescent plasma and human monoclonal antibodies measured using each virus correlated quantitatively with neutralizing activity measured using an authentic SARS-CoV-2 neutralization assay. The assays described herein are adaptable to high throughput and are useful tools in the evaluation of serologic immunity conferred by vaccination or prior SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as the potency of convalescent plasma or human monoclonal antibodies.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunoassay/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Cell Line , Chimera/genetics , Chimera/immunology , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HEK293 Cells , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/immunology , Humans , Neutralization Tests/methods , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Recombination, Genetic , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology
10.
J Proteome Res ; 19(4): 1351-1360, 2020 04 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-688546

ABSTRACT

As the infection of 2019-nCoV coronavirus is quickly developing into a global pneumonia epidemic, the careful analysis of its transmission and cellular mechanisms is sorely needed. In this Communication, we first analyzed two recent studies that concluded that snakes are the intermediate hosts of 2019-nCoV and that the 2019-nCoV spike protein insertions share a unique similarity to HIV-1. However, the reimplementation of the analyses, built on larger scale data sets using state-of-the-art bioinformatics methods and databases, presents clear evidence that rebuts these conclusions. Next, using metagenomic samples from Manis javanica, we assembled a draft genome of the 2019-nCoV-like coronavirus, which shows 73% coverage and 91% sequence identity to the 2019-nCoV genome. In particular, the alignments of the spike surface glycoprotein receptor binding domain revealed four times more variations in the bat coronavirus RaTG13 than in the Manis coronavirus compared with 2019-nCoV, suggesting the pangolin as a missing link in the transmission of 2019-nCoV from bats to human.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Genome, Viral/genetics , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Models, Molecular , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Betacoronavirus/classification , Eutheria/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Metagenome , Pandemics , Protein Structure, Tertiary , Sequence Alignment , Sequence Analysis, Protein , Snakes/virology
11.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 408-411, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-639885

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/transmission , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/pathogenicity , Zoonoses/transmission , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Evolution, Molecular , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , Pandemics , Phylogeny , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Primates/virology , Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , Simian Immunodeficiency Virus/genetics , Zoonoses/virology
12.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3061, 2020 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-601843

ABSTRACT

Programmed ribosomal frameshifting (PRF) is the controlled slippage of the translating ribosome to an alternative frame. This process is widely employed by human viruses such as HIV and SARS coronavirus and is critical for their replication. Here, we developed a high-throughput approach to assess the frameshifting potential of a sequence. We designed and tested >12,000 sequences based on 15 viral and human PRF events, allowing us to systematically dissect the rules governing ribosomal frameshifting and discover novel regulatory inputs based on amino acid properties and tRNA availability. We assessed the natural variation in HIV gag-pol frameshifting rates by testing >500 clinical isolates and identified subtype-specific differences and associations between viral load in patients and the optimality of PRF rates. We devised computational models that accurately predict frameshifting potential and frameshifting rates, including subtle differences between HIV isolates. This approach can contribute to the development of antiviral agents targeting PRF.


Subject(s)
Frameshifting, Ribosomal , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Fusion Proteins, gag-pol/genetics , Genetic Variation , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , K562 Cells , Luminescent Proteins/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis , RNA, Transfer/genetics
13.
Postgrad Med J ; 96(1137): 417-421, 2020 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-595366

ABSTRACT

All animal life on earth is thought to have a common origin and have common genetic mechanisms. Evolution has enabled differentiation of species. Pathogens likewise have evolved within various species and mostly come to a settled dynamic equilibrium such that co-existence results (pathogens ideally should not kill their hosts). Problems arise when pathogens jump species because the new host had not developed any resistance. These infections from related species are known as zoonoses. COVID-19 is the latest example of a virus entering another species but HIV (and various strains of influenza) were previous examples. HIV entered the human population from monkeys in Africa. These two papers outline the underlying principle of HIV and the differing epidemiologies in Africa, the USA and in Edinburgh. The underlying immunosuppression of HIV in Africa was initially hidden behind common infections and HIV first came to world awareness in focal areas of the USA as a disease seemingly limited to gay males. The epidemic of intravenous drug abuse in Edinburgh was associated with overlapping epidemics of bloodborne viruses like hepatitis B, hepatitis C and HIV.


Subject(s)
Coinfection/virology , HIV Infections/physiopathology , Hepatitis B/physiopathology , Hepatitis C/physiopathology , Animals , Disease Outbreaks , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Hepatitis B/genetics , Hepatitis C/genetics , Humans , Needle Sharing/statistics & numerical data , Phylogeny , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Zoonoses
14.
HLA ; 96(3): 277-298, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-437381

ABSTRACT

We report detailed peptide-binding affinities between 438 HLA Class I and Class II proteins and complete proteomes of seven pandemic human viruses, including coronaviruses, influenza viruses and HIV-1. We contrast these affinities with HLA allele frequencies across hundreds of human populations worldwide. Statistical modelling shows that peptide-binding affinities classified into four distinct categories depend on the HLA locus but that the type of virus is only a weak predictor, except in the case of HIV-1. Among the strong HLA binders (IC50 ≤ 50), we uncovered 16 alleles (the top ones being A*02:02, B*15:03 and DRB1*01:02) binding more than 1% of peptides derived from all viruses, 9 (top ones including HLA-A*68:01, B*15:25, C*03:02 and DRB1*07:01) binding all viruses except HIV-1, and 15 (top ones A*02:01 and C*14:02) only binding coronaviruses. The frequencies of strongest and weakest HLA peptide binders differ significantly among populations from different geographic regions. In particular, Indigenous peoples of America show both higher frequencies of strongest and lower frequencies of weakest HLA binders. As many HLA proteins are found to be strong binders of peptides derived from distinct viral families, and are hence promiscuous (or generalist), we discuss this result in relation to possible signatures of natural selection on HLA promiscuous alleles due to past pathogenic infections. Our findings are highly relevant for both evolutionary genetics and the development of vaccine therapies. However they should not lead to forget that individual resistance and vulnerability to diseases go beyond the sole HLA allelic affinity and depend on multiple, complex and often unknown biological, environmental and other variables.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HLA Antigens/chemistry , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Pandemics , Peptides/chemistry , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology , Viral Proteins/chemistry , Africa/epidemiology , Americas/epidemiology , Amino Acid Sequence , Asia/epidemiology , Australia/epidemiology , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Computational Biology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Europe/epidemiology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/immunology , HLA Antigens/classification , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/immunology , Humans , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H3N2 Subtype/immunology , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/genetics , Influenza A Virus, H7N9 Subtype/immunology , Influenza, Human/immunology , Influenza, Human/virology , Kinetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/genetics , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus/immunology , Peptides/genetics , Peptides/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Binding , SARS Virus/genetics , SARS Virus/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/virology , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL