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2.
Int J Med Sci ; 18(3): 846-851, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1389719

ABSTRACT

In the last 50 years we have experienced two big pandemics, the HIV pandemic and the pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2. Both pandemics are caused by RNA viruses and have reached us from animals. These two viruses are different in the transmission mode and in the symptoms they generate. However, they have important similarities: the fear in the population, increase in proinflammatory cytokines that generate intestinal microbiota modifications or NETosis production by polymorphonuclear neutrophils, among others. They have been implicated in the clinical, prognostic and therapeutic attitudes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV-1/pathogenicity , Pandemics/history , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/transmission , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Extracellular Traps/immunology , Extracellular Traps/metabolism , Fear , Global Burden of Disease/statistics & numerical data , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/transmission , HIV-1/immunology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Mortality , Neutrophils/immunology , Neutrophils/metabolism , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
4.
J Mol Cell Biol ; 13(4): 259-268, 2021 08 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147985

ABSTRACT

Viruses hijack host functions to invade their target cells and spread to new cells. Specifically, viruses learned to usurp liquid‒liquid phase separation (LLPS), a newly exploited mechanism, used by the cell to concentrate enzymes to accelerate and confine a wide variety of cellular processes. LLPS gives rise to actual membraneless organelles (MLOs), which do not only increase reaction rates but also act as a filter to select molecules to be retained or to be excluded from the liquid droplet. This is exactly what seems to happen with the condensation of SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein to favor the packaging of intact viral genomes, excluding viral subgenomic or host cellular RNAs. Another older pandemic virus, HIV-1, also takes advantage of LLPS in the host cell during the viral cycle. Recent discoveries highlighted that HIV-1 RNA genome condensates in nuclear MLOs accompanied by specific host and viral proteins, breaking the dogma of retroviruses that limited viral synthesis exclusively to the cytoplasmic compartment. Intriguing fundamental properties of viral/host LLPS remain still unclear. Future studies will contribute to deeply understanding the role of pathogen-induced MLOs in the epidemic invasion of pandemic viruses.


Subject(s)
HIV-1/physiology , Organelles/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Virus Replication
5.
J Infect Dis ; 223(3): 403-408, 2021 02 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1082007

ABSTRACT

We performed a retrospective study of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH). PWH with COVID-19 demonstrated severe lymphopenia and decreased CD4+ T cell counts. Levels of inflammatory markers, including C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, D-dimer, interleukin 6, interleukin 8, and tumor necrosis factor α were commonly elevated. In all, 19 of 72 hospitalized individuals (26.4%) died and 53 (73.6%) recovered. PWH who died had higher levels of inflammatory markers and more severe lymphopenia than those who recovered. These findings suggest that PWH remain at risk for severe manifestations of COVID-19 despite antiretroviral therapy and that those with increased markers of inflammation and immune dysregulation are at risk for worse outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Aged , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , Female , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Inflammation/blood , Inflammation/immunology , Inflammation/virology , Inflammation Mediators/blood , Inflammation Mediators/immunology , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , New York/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
6.
Curr Opin HIV AIDS ; 16(1): 3-10, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-927142

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In response to the HIV-AIDS pandemic, great strides have been made in developing molecular methods that accurately quantify nucleic acid products of HIV-1 at different stages of viral replication and to assess HIV-1 sequence diversity and its effect on susceptibility to small molecule inhibitors and neutralizing antibodies. Here, we review how knowledge gained from these approaches, including viral RNA quantification and sequence analyses, have been rapidly applied to study SARS-CoV-2 and the COVID-19 pandemic. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in blood of infected individuals by reverse transcriptase PCR (RT-PCR); and, as in HIV-1 infection, there is growing evidence that the level of viral RNA in plasma may be related to COVID disease severity. Unlike HIV-1, SARS-CoV-2 sequences are highly conserved limiting SARS-CoV-2 sequencing applications to investigating interpatient genetic diversity for phylogenetic analysis. Sensitive sequencing technologies, originally developed for HIV-1, will be needed to investigate intrapatient SARS-CoV-2 genetic variation in response to antiviral therapeutics and vaccines. SUMMARY: Methods used for HIV-1 have been rapidly applied to SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 to understand pathogenesis and prognosis. Further application of such methods should improve precision of therapy and outcome.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , HIV Infections/virology , HIV-1/isolation & purification , RNA, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections/blood , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV-1/genetics , Humans , RNA, Viral/blood , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
7.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 171: 112753, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-885210

ABSTRACT

A polyethyleneimine (PEI)-assisted copper in-situ growth (CISG) strategy was proposed as a controlled signal amplification strategy to enhance the sensitivity of gold nanoparticle-based lateral flow sensors (AuNP-LFS). The controlled signal amplification is achieved by introducing PEI as a structure-directing agent to regulate the thermodynamics of anisotropic Cu nanoshell growth on the AuNP surface, thus controlling shape and size of the resultant AuNP@Cu core-shell nanostructures and confining free reduction and self-nucleation of Cu2+ for improved reproducibility and decreased false positives. The PEI-CISG-enhanced AuNP-LFS showed ultrahigh sensitivities with the detection limits of 50 fg mL-1 for HIV-1 capsid p24 antigen and 6 CFU mL-1 for Escherichia coli O157:H7. We further demonstrated its clinical diagnostic efficacy by configuring PEI-CISG into a commercial AuNP-LFS detection kit for SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection. Altogether, this work provides a reliable signal amplification platform to dramatically enhance the sensitivity of AuNP-LFS for rapid and accurate diagnostics of various infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Copper/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Escherichia coli Infections/diagnosis , Gold/chemistry , HIV Infections/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Biosensing Techniques/instrumentation , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Equipment Design , Escherichia coli O157/isolation & purification , HIV Core Protein p24/analysis , HIV-1/isolation & purification , Humans , Limit of Detection , Metal Nanoparticles/chemistry , Metal Nanoparticles/ultrastructure , Oxidation-Reduction , Pandemics , Polyethyleneimine/chemistry , Reagent Strips/analysis , SARS-CoV-2
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