Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 15 de 15
Filter
2.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1376995

ABSTRACT

In 2021, we commemorate the 40th anniversary of the identification of the disease AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome, a name that for the first time in history was launched in 1981 [...].


Subject(s)
Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/drug therapy , Anti-HIV Agents/history , Drug Discovery/history , HIV/drug effects , Suramin/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/history , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/virology , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV/genetics , HIV/physiology , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Suramin/chemistry , Suramin/therapeutic use
3.
Bioconjug Chem ; 32(6): 1067-1077, 2021 06 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1241779

ABSTRACT

Passing through the blood-brain barrier (BBB) to treat neurological conditions is one of the main hurdles in modern medicine. Many drugs with promising in vitro profiles become ineffective in vivo due to BBB restrictive permeability. In particular, this includes drugs such as antiviral porphyrins, with the ability to fight brain-resident viruses causing diseases such as HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). In the last two decades, BBB shuttles, particularly peptide-based ones, have shown promise in carrying various payloads across the BBB. Thus, peptide-drug conjugates (PDCs) formed by covalent attachment of a BBB peptide shuttle and an antiviral drug may become key therapeutic tools in treating neurological disorders of viral origin. In this study, we have used various approaches (guanidinium, phosphonium, and carbodiimide-based couplings) for on-resin synthesis of new peptide-porphyrin conjugates (PPCs) with BBB-crossing and potential antiviral activity. After careful fine-tuning of the synthetic chemistry, DIC/oxyma has emerged as a preferred method, by which 14 different PPCs have been made and satisfactorily characterized. The PPCs are prepared by coupling a porphyrin carboxyl group to an amino group (either N-terminal or a Lys side chain) of the peptide shuttle and show effective in vitro BBB translocation ability, low cytotoxicity toward mouse brain endothelial cells, and low hemolytic activity. Three of the PPCs, MP-P5, P4-MP, and P4-L-MP, effectively inhibiting HIV infectivity in vitro, stand out as most promising. Their efficacy against other brain-targeting viruses (Dengue, Zika, and SARS-CoV-2) is currently under evaluation, with preliminary results confirming that PPCs are a promising strategy to treat viral brain infections.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacokinetics , Blood-Brain Barrier/metabolism , Peptides/pharmacokinetics , Porphyrins/pharmacokinetics , Animals , Anti-HIV Agents/chemistry , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Biological Transport , Cell Line , Drug Discovery , HEK293 Cells , HIV/drug effects , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Mice , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/pharmacology , Porphyrins/chemistry , Porphyrins/pharmacology
4.
Food Chem Toxicol ; 150: 112075, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196708

ABSTRACT

Medicinal or herbal plants are widely used for their many favourable properties and are generally safe without any side effects. Saponins are sugar conjugated natural compounds which possess a multitude of biological activities such as medicinal properties, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, etc. Saponin production is a part of the normal growth and development process in a lot of plants and plant extracts such as liquorice and ginseng which are exploited as potential drug sources. Herbal compounds have shown a great potential against a wide variety of infectious agents, including viruses such as the SARS-CoV; these are all-natural products and do not show any adverse side effects. This article reviews the various aspects of saponin biosynthesis and extraction, the need for their integration into more mainstream medicinal therapies and how they could be potentially useful in treating viral diseases such as COVID-19, HIV, HSV, rotavirus etc. The literature presents a close review on the saponin efficacy in targeting mentioned viral diseases that occupy a high mortality rate worldwide. This manuscript indicates the role of saponins as a source of dynamic plant based anti-viral remedies and their various methods for extraction from different sources.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Saponins/isolation & purification , Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , HIV/drug effects , Molecular Structure , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Saponins/biosynthesis , Saponins/chemistry , Saponins/pharmacology
5.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 726-732, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196407

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. Several medical comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether people living with human immunodefeciency virus (PLWH) are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and severe disease manifestation, with controversial suggestion that HIV-infected individuals could be protected from severe COVID-19 by means of antiretroviral therapy or HIV-related immunosuppression. Several cases of coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have been reported from different parts of the globe. This review seeks to provide a holistic overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , HIV/drug effects , HIV/growth & development , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
6.
Biomolecules ; 11(3)2021 03 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1151739

ABSTRACT

Global processes, such as climate change, frequent and distant travelling and population growth, increase the risk of viral infection spread. Unfortunately, the number of effective and accessible medicines for the prevention and treatment of these infections is limited. Therefore, in recent years, efforts have been intensified to develop new antiviral medicines or vaccines. In this review article, the structure and activity of the most promising antiviral cyanobacterial products are presented. The antiviral cyanometabolites are mainly active against the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and other enveloped viruses such as herpes simplex virus (HSV), Ebola or the influenza viruses. The majority of the metabolites are classified as lectins, monomeric or dimeric proteins with unique amino acid sequences. They all show activity at the nanomolar range but differ in carbohydrate specificity and recognize a different epitope on high mannose oligosaccharides. The cyanobacterial lectins include cyanovirin-N (CV-N), scytovirin (SVN), microvirin (MVN), Microcystisviridis lectin (MVL), and Oscillatoria agardhii agglutinin (OAA). Cyanobacterial polysaccharides, peptides, and other metabolites also have potential to be used as antiviral drugs. The sulfated polysaccharide, calcium spirulan (CA-SP), inhibited infection by enveloped viruses, stimulated the immune system's response, and showed antitumor activity. Microginins, the linear peptides, inhibit angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), therefore, their use in the treatment of COVID-19 patients with injury of the ACE2 expressing organs is considered. In addition, many cyanobacterial extracts were revealed to have antiviral activities, but the active agents have not been identified. This fact provides a good basis for further studies on the therapeutic potential of these microorganisms.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Cyanobacteria/chemistry , HIV/drug effects , Lectins/pharmacology , Polysaccharides/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Bacterial Proteins/chemistry , Bacterial Proteins/pharmacology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Carbohydrates/chemistry , Carbohydrates/pharmacology , Cyanobacteria/metabolism , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Humans , Lectins/chemistry , Lectins/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism
7.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2228, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126517

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as antiviral agents for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. We performed a systematic review to examine whether prior clinical studies that compared the effects of CQ and HCQ to a control for the treatment of non-SARS-CoV2 infection supported the use of these agents in the present SARS-CoV2 outbreak. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science (PROSPERO CRD42020183429) were searched from inception through 2 April 2020 without language restrictions. Of 1766 retrieved reports, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria, including 17 prospective controlled studies and one retrospective study. CQ or HCQ were compared to control for the treatment of infectious mononucleosis (EBV, n = 4), warts (human papillomavirus, n = 2), chronic HIV infection (n = 6), acute chikungunya infection (n = 1), acute dengue virus infection (n = 2), chronic HCV (n = 2), and as preventive measures for influenza infection (n = 1). Survival was not evaluated in any study. For HIV, the virus that was most investigated, while two early studies suggested HCQ reduced viral levels, four subsequent ones did not, and in two of these CQ or HCQ increased viral levels and reduced CD4 counts. Overall, three studies concluded CQ or HCQ were effective; four concluded further research was needed to assess the treatments' effectiveness; and 11 concluded that treatment was ineffective or potentially harmful. Prior controlled clinical trials with CQ and HCQ for non-SARS-CoV2 viral infections do not support these agents' use for the SARS-CoV2 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infectious Mononucleosis/drug therapy , Severe Dengue/drug therapy , Warts/drug therapy , Alphapapillomavirus/drug effects , Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Alphapapillomavirus/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chikungunya Fever/immunology , Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , HIV/drug effects , HIV/immunology , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/drug effects , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Infectious Mononucleosis/immunology , Infectious Mononucleosis/pathology , Infectious Mononucleosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Dengue/immunology , Severe Dengue/pathology , Severe Dengue/virology , Treatment Outcome , Warts/immunology , Warts/pathology , Warts/virology
8.
ChemMedChem ; 16(9): 1403-1419, 2021 05 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1064335

ABSTRACT

Nucleoside and nucleotide analogues are structurally similar antimetabolites and are promising small-molecule chemotherapeutic agents against various infectious DNA and RNA viruses. To date, these analogues have not been documented in-depth as anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and anti-hepatitis virus agents, these are at various stages of testing ranging from pre-clinical, to those withdrawn from trials, or those that are approved as drugs. Hence, in this review, the importance of these analogues in tackling HIV and hepatitis virus infections is discussed with a focus on the viral genome and the mechanism of action of these analogues, both in a mutually exclusive manner and their role in HIV/hepatitis coinfection. This review encompasses nucleoside and nucleotide analogues from 1987 onwards, starting with the first nucleoside analogue, zidovudine, and going on to those in current clinical trials and even the drugs that have been withdrawn. This review also sheds light on the prospects of these nucleoside analogues in clinical trials as a treatment option for the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis, Viral, Human/drug therapy , Nucleosides/therapeutic use , Nucleotides/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/epidemiology , Clinical Trials as Topic , Drug Repositioning , HIV/drug effects , HIV/enzymology , HIV Reverse Transcriptase/antagonists & inhibitors , Hepatitis Viruses/drug effects , Hepatitis Viruses/enzymology , Humans , Pandemics , RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase/antagonists & inhibitors , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
9.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1027278

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases represent a relevant issue in lung cancer patients. Bacterial and viral infections might influence the patients' prognosis, both directly affecting the immune system and indirectly impairing the outcome of anticancer treatments, mainly immunotherapy. In this analysis, we aimed to review the current evidence in order to clarify the complex correlation between infections and lung cancer. In detail, we mainly explored the potential impact on immunotherapy outcome/safety of (1) bacterial infections, with a detailed focus on antibiotics; and (2) viral infections, discriminating among (a) human immune-deficiency virus (HIV), (b) hepatitis B/C virus (HBV-HCV), and (c) Sars-Cov-2. A series of studies suggested the prognostic impact of antibiotic therapy administration, timing, and exposure ratio in patients treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors, probably through an antibiotic-related microbiota dysbiosis. Although cancer patients with HIV, HBV, and HCV were usually excluded from clinical trials evaluating immunotherapy, some retrospective and prospective trials performed in these patient subgroups reported similar results compared to those described in not-infected patients, with a favorable safety profile. Moreover, patients with thoracic cancers are particularly at risk of COVID-19 severe outcomes and mortality. Few reports speculated about the prognostic implications of anticancer therapy, including immunotherapy, in lung cancer patients with concomitant Sars-Cov-2 infection, showing, to date, inconsistent results. The correlation between infectious diseases and immunotherapy remains to be further explored and clarified in the context of dedicated trials. In clinical practice, the accurate and prompt multidisciplinary management of lung cancer patients with infections should be encouraged in order to select the best treatment options for these patients, avoiding unexpected toxicities, while maintaining the anticancer effect.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/complications , COVID-19/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/complications , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/therapy , Immunotherapy , Lung Neoplasms/complications , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Virus Diseases/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/complications , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/immunology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/pathology , Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome/therapy , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/pathology , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/microbiology , Carcinoma, Non-Small-Cell Lung/virology , HIV/drug effects , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/immunology , Hepatitis B/pathology , Hepatitis C/complications , Hepatitis C/drug therapy , Hepatitis C/pathology , Humans , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Lung Neoplasms/microbiology , Lung Neoplasms/virology , Microbiota/drug effects , Microbiota/immunology
10.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
12.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 726-732, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659544

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. Several medical comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether people living with human immunodefeciency virus (PLWH) are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and severe disease manifestation, with controversial suggestion that HIV-infected individuals could be protected from severe COVID-19 by means of antiretroviral therapy or HIV-related immunosuppression. Several cases of coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have been reported from different parts of the globe. This review seeks to provide a holistic overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , HIV/drug effects , HIV/growth & development , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
13.
Autophagy ; 16(12): 2267-2270, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592167

ABSTRACT

At a time when the world faces an emotional breakdown, crushing our dreams, if not, taking our lives, we realize that together we must fight the war against the COVID-19 outbreak even if almost the majority of the scientific community finds itself confined at home. Every day, we, scientists, listen to the latest news with its promises and announcements. Across the world, a surge of clinical trials trying to cure or slow down the coronavirus pandemic has been launched to bring hope instead of fear and despair. One first proposed clinical trial has drawn worldwide hype to the benefit of chloroquine (CQ), in the treatment of patients infected by the recently emerged deadly coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). We should consider this information in light of the long-standing anti-inflammatory and anti-viral properties of CQ-related drugs. Yet, none of the articles promoting the use of CQ in the current pandemic evoked a possible molecular or cellular mechanism of action that could account for any efficacy. Here, given the interaction of viruses with macroautophagy (hereafter referred to as autophagy), a CQ-sensitive anti-viral safeguard pathway, we would like to discuss the pros, but also the cons concerning the current therapeutic options targeting this process.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagy/drug effects , COVID-19/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Autophagy/physiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Chloroquine/analogs & derivatives , Chloroquine/pharmacology , Disease Eradication/methods , Drug Repositioning/methods , Drug Repositioning/trends , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/epidemiology , Ebolavirus/drug effects , HIV/drug effects , History, 21st Century , Humans , Hydroxychloroquine/pharmacology , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Malaria/drug therapy , Pandemics , Plasmodium malariae/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Signal Transduction/drug effects , Signal Transduction/immunology
15.
Infection ; 48(5): 681-686, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are still scarce. This case series of 33 PLWH patients with COVID-19 reveals symptoms and outcome in this special population. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of anonymized data including age, gender, HIV-associated parameters, symptoms, and outcome. RESULTS: Three out of 32 patients with documented outcomes died (9%). 91% of the patients recovered and 76% have been classified as mild cases. All patients were on antiretroviral treatment, of them 22 on tenofovir-containing regimen and 4 on the protease inhibitor darunavir. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary case series does not support excess morbidity and mortality among symptomatic COVID-19 PLWH and with viral suppression on ART. SARS-CoV-2 infections may occur during boosted darunavir-based and/or on tenofovir-containing ART.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Darunavir/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , HIV/drug effects , HIV/immunology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Viral Load/drug effects
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL