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1.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(50): 55614-55623, 2020 Dec 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387129

ABSTRACT

Multiplexed detection of viral nucleic acids is important for rapid screening of viral infection. In this study, we present a molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheet-modified dendrimer droplet microarray (DMA) for rapid and sensitive detection of retroviral nucleic acids of human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) and human immunodeficiency virus-2 (HIV-2) simultaneously. The DMA platform was fabricated by omniphobic-omniphilic patterning on a surface-grafted dendrimer substrate. Functionalized MoS2 nanosheets modified with fluorescent dye-labeled oligomer probes were prepatterned on positively charged amino-modified omniphilic spots to form a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensing microarray. With the formation of separated microdroplets of sample on the hydrophobic-hydrophilic micropattern, prepatterned oligomer probes specifically hybridized with the target HIV genes and detached from the MoS2 nanosheet surface due to weakening of the adsorption force, leading to fluorescence signal recovery. As a proof of concept, we used this microarray with a small sample size (<150 nL) for simultaneous detection of HIV-1 and HIV-2 nucleic acids with a limit of detection (LOD) of 50 pM. The multiplex detection capability was further demonstrated for simultaneous detection of five viral genes (HIV-1, HIV-2, ORFlab, and N genes of SARS-COV-2 and M gene of Influenza A). This work demonstrated the potential of this novel MoS2-DMA FRET sensing platform for high-throughput multiplexed viral nucleic acid screening.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19/diagnosis , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV/isolation & purification , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/virology , Disulfides/chemistry , Fluorescence , Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/genetics , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Molybdenum/chemistry , Nanostructures/chemistry , Nucleic Acids/genetics , Nucleic Acids/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234832

ABSTRACT

By the middle of 2021, we are still immersed in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The concurrence of this new pandemic in regions where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) infections possess the same epidemiological consideration, has arisen concerns about the prognosis, clinical management, symptomatology, and treatment of patients with triple infection. At the same time, healthcare services previously devoted to diagnosis and treatment of TB and HIV are being jeopardized by the urgent need of resources and attention for COVID-19 patients. The aim of this review was to collect any article considering the three conditions (HIV, TB, and SARS-CoV-2), included in PubMed/Medline and published in the English language since the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic. We focused on detailed descriptions of the unusual cases describing the three co-infections. Eighty-four out of 184 publications retrieved met our inclusion criteria, but only three of them reported cases (five in total) with the three concomitant infections. The clinical evolution, management, and therapy of all of them were not different from mild/severe cases with exclusive COVID-19; the outcome was not worse either, with recovery for the five patients. Cases of patients with COVID-19 besides HIV and TB infections are scarce in literature, but studies deliberately embracing the triple infection as a priori inclusion criterion should be carried out in order to provide a complete understanding of joint influence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Coinfection/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Tuberculosis/complications , Tuberculosis/epidemiology
4.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 726-732, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1196407

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. Several medical comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether people living with human immunodefeciency virus (PLWH) are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and severe disease manifestation, with controversial suggestion that HIV-infected individuals could be protected from severe COVID-19 by means of antiretroviral therapy or HIV-related immunosuppression. Several cases of coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have been reported from different parts of the globe. This review seeks to provide a holistic overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , HIV/drug effects , HIV/growth & development , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(1)2020 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1006614

ABSTRACT

Being opportunistic intracellular pathogens, viruses are dependent on the host for their replication. They hijack host cellular machinery for their replication and survival by targeting crucial cellular physiological pathways, including transcription, translation, immune pathways, and apoptosis. Immediately after translation, the host and viral proteins undergo a process called post-translational modification (PTM). PTMs of proteins involves the attachment of small proteins, carbohydrates/lipids, or chemical groups to the proteins and are crucial for the proteins' functioning. During viral infection, host proteins utilize PTMs to control the virus replication, using strategies like activating immune response pathways, inhibiting viral protein synthesis, and ultimately eliminating the virus from the host. PTM of viral proteins increases solubility, enhances antigenicity and virulence properties. However, RNA viruses are devoid of enzymes capable of introducing PTMs to their proteins. Hence, they utilize the host PTM machinery to promote their survival. Proteins from viruses belonging to the family: Togaviridae, Flaviviridae, Retroviridae, and Coronaviridae such as chikungunya, dengue, zika, HIV, and coronavirus are a few that are well-known to be modified. This review discusses various host and virus-mediated PTMs that play a role in the outcome during the infection.


Subject(s)
Protein Processing, Post-Translational , RNA Virus Infections/enzymology , RNA Virus Infections/virology , RNA Viruses/metabolism , RNA Viruses/pathogenicity , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Acetylation , Chikungunya virus/metabolism , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Cytopathogenic Effect, Viral , Glycosylation , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , Host Microbial Interactions , Humans , Phosphorylation , RNA Virus Infections/immunology , RNA Virus Infections/metabolism , RNA Viruses/immunology , Ubiquitination , Virus Replication/physiology , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/pathogenicity
6.
Rev Med Virol ; 31(6): e2228, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1126517

ABSTRACT

Chloroquine (CQ) and hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) have been used as antiviral agents for the treatment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV2) infection. We performed a systematic review to examine whether prior clinical studies that compared the effects of CQ and HCQ to a control for the treatment of non-SARS-CoV2 infection supported the use of these agents in the present SARS-CoV2 outbreak. PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus and Web of Science (PROSPERO CRD42020183429) were searched from inception through 2 April 2020 without language restrictions. Of 1766 retrieved reports, 18 studies met our inclusion criteria, including 17 prospective controlled studies and one retrospective study. CQ or HCQ were compared to control for the treatment of infectious mononucleosis (EBV, n = 4), warts (human papillomavirus, n = 2), chronic HIV infection (n = 6), acute chikungunya infection (n = 1), acute dengue virus infection (n = 2), chronic HCV (n = 2), and as preventive measures for influenza infection (n = 1). Survival was not evaluated in any study. For HIV, the virus that was most investigated, while two early studies suggested HCQ reduced viral levels, four subsequent ones did not, and in two of these CQ or HCQ increased viral levels and reduced CD4 counts. Overall, three studies concluded CQ or HCQ were effective; four concluded further research was needed to assess the treatments' effectiveness; and 11 concluded that treatment was ineffective or potentially harmful. Prior controlled clinical trials with CQ and HCQ for non-SARS-CoV2 viral infections do not support these agents' use for the SARS-CoV2 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/drug therapy , Chloroquine/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Infectious Mononucleosis/drug therapy , Severe Dengue/drug therapy , Warts/drug therapy , Alphapapillomavirus/drug effects , Alphapapillomavirus/immunology , Alphapapillomavirus/pathogenicity , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/virology , Chikungunya Fever/immunology , Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Chikungunya Fever/virology , Chikungunya virus/drug effects , Chikungunya virus/immunology , Chikungunya virus/pathogenicity , Dengue Virus/drug effects , Dengue Virus/immunology , Dengue Virus/pathogenicity , HIV/drug effects , HIV/immunology , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/immunology , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepatitis C, Chronic/immunology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/drug effects , Herpesvirus 4, Human/immunology , Herpesvirus 4, Human/pathogenicity , Humans , Infectious Mononucleosis/immunology , Infectious Mononucleosis/pathology , Infectious Mononucleosis/virology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severe Dengue/immunology , Severe Dengue/pathology , Severe Dengue/virology , Treatment Outcome , Warts/immunology , Warts/pathology , Warts/virology
7.
mSphere ; 6(1)2021 02 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1088203

ABSTRACT

Many viruses, such as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), have a structure consisting of spikes protruding from an underlying spherical surface. Research in biological and colloidal sciences has revealed secrets of why spikes exist on virus surfaces. Specifically, the spikes favor virus attachment on surfaces via receptor-specific interactions (RSIs), mediate the membrane fusion, and determine or change viral tropism. The spikes also facilitate viruses to approach surfaces before attachment and subsequently escape back to the environment if RSIs do not occur (i.e., easy come and easy go). Therefore, virus spikes create the paradox of having a large capacity for binding with cells (high infectivity) and meanwhile great mobility in the environment. Such structure-function relationships have important implications for the fabrication of virus-like particles and analogous colloids (e.g., hedgehog- and raspberry-like particles) for applications such as the development of antiviral vaccines and drug delivery.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Animals , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/transmission , Humans , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Viral Tropism/physiology , Virus Internalization
8.
Molecules ; 25(21)2020 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983187

ABSTRACT

Viral infections and associated diseases are responsible for a substantial number of mortality and public health problems around the world. Each year, infectious diseases kill 3.5 million people worldwide. The current pandemic caused by COVID-19 has become the greatest health hazard to people in their lifetime. There are many antiviral drugs and vaccines available against viruses, but they have many disadvantages, too. There are numerous side effects for conventional drugs, and active mutation also creates drug resistance against various viruses. This has led scientists to search herbs as a source for the discovery of more efficient new antivirals. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 65% of the world population is in the practice of using plants and herbs as part of treatment modality. Additionally, plants have an advantage in drug discovery based on their long-term use by humans, and a reduced toxicity and abundance of bioactive compounds can be expected as a result. In this review, we have highlighted the important viruses, their drug targets, and their replication cycle. We provide in-depth and insightful information about the most favorable plant extracts and their derived phytochemicals against viral targets. Our major conclusion is that plant extracts and their isolated pure compounds are essential sources for the current viral infections and useful for future challenges.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Hepatitis C, Chronic/drug therapy , Herpes Simplex/drug therapy , Influenza, Human/drug therapy , Phytochemicals/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Antiviral Agents/classification , Antiviral Agents/isolation & purification , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Betacoronavirus/physiology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Drug Discovery , HIV/drug effects , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV/physiology , HIV Infections/pathology , HIV Infections/virology , Hepacivirus/drug effects , Hepacivirus/pathogenicity , Hepacivirus/physiology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/pathology , Hepatitis C, Chronic/virology , Herpes Simplex/pathology , Herpes Simplex/virology , Humans , Influenza, Human/pathology , Influenza, Human/virology , Orthomyxoviridae/drug effects , Orthomyxoviridae/pathogenicity , Orthomyxoviridae/physiology , Pandemics , Phytochemicals/chemistry , Phytochemicals/classification , Phytochemicals/isolation & purification , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Simplexvirus/drug effects , Simplexvirus/pathogenicity , Simplexvirus/physiology , Virus Internalization/drug effects , Virus Replication/drug effects
9.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1593-1596, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-890582

ABSTRACT

Coinfection of SARS-CoV-2/Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) in patients with HIV/AIDS has not been previously reported. Here, we present two cases of coinfection of SARS-CoV-2 and MTB in patients with HIV. The first case is a 39-year-old patient who was admitted with a 7-day history of fever, myalgia, headache, and cough. The second patient is a 43-year-old man who had a 1-month history of cough with hemoptoic sputum, evolving to mild respiratory distress in the last 7 days. Both patients already had pulmonary tuberculosis and subsequently developed SARS-CoV-2 infection during the 2020 pandemic. Nonadherence to antiretroviral treatment may have been a factor in the clinical worsening of the patients.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Cough/microbiology , HIV Infections/microbiology , Patient Compliance/psychology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Adult , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cough/drug therapy , Cough/immunology , Cough/virology , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/drug therapy , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/immunology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/drug therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/virology
10.
Viruses ; 12(10)2020 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-887617

ABSTRACT

Most cells can release extracellular vesicles (EVs), membrane vesicles containing various proteins, nucleic acids, enzymes, and signaling molecules. The exchange of EVs between cells facilitates intercellular communication, amplification of cellular responses, immune response modulation, and perhaps alterations in viral pathogenicity. EVs serve a dual role in inhibiting or enhancing viral infection and pathogenesis. This review examines the current literature on EVs to explore the complex role of EVs in the enhancement, inhibition, and potential use as a nanotherapeutic against clinically relevant viruses, focusing on neurotropic viruses: Zika virus (ZIKV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Overall, this review's scope will elaborate on EV-based mechanisms, which impact viral pathogenicity, facilitate viral spread, and modulate antiviral immune responses.


Subject(s)
Extracellular Vesicles/metabolism , Virus Diseases/metabolism , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Cell Communication/physiology , Coronavirus/metabolism , Coronavirus/pathogenicity , Exosomes/metabolism , HIV/metabolism , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/metabolism , Humans , Retroviridae/metabolism , Simplexvirus/metabolism , Therapeutics/methods , Virus Diseases/drug therapy , Virus Diseases/virology , Zika Virus/metabolism , Zika Virus/pathogenicity , Zika Virus Infection/metabolism
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(4): 1597-1599, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-725412

ABSTRACT

COVID-19, designated as SARS-CoV-2, has caused millions of infections worldwide, including in patients with concomitant infections. Here, we report two unusual cases of patients with triple infections of SARS-CoV-2, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and HIV. Both cases were confirmed through microbiological and immunological studies. The acute respiratory phase in both patients was treated with supplemental oxygen. Antituberculosis and antiretroviral therapies were started simultaneously. In 2 weeks, both patients demonstrated clinical improvement and recovery from COVID-19. Our findings suggest that even in cases of triple infection, clinical management together with respiratory therapy contributes to patient survival.


Subject(s)
Antitubercular Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , HIV Infections/therapy , Heparin/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/therapy , Adult , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Convalescence , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/microbiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/immunology , HIV Infections/microbiology , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/pathogenicity , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/microbiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/immunology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/microbiology , Tuberculosis, Pulmonary/virology
13.
J Med Virol ; 93(2): 726-732, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-659544

ABSTRACT

Since its first appearance in Wuhan, China, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has rapidly spread throughout the world and has become a global pandemic. Several medical comorbidities have been identified as risk factors for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, it remains unclear whether people living with human immunodefeciency virus (PLWH) are at an increased risk of COVID-19 and severe disease manifestation, with controversial suggestion that HIV-infected individuals could be protected from severe COVID-19 by means of antiretroviral therapy or HIV-related immunosuppression. Several cases of coinfection with HIV and SARS-CoV-2 have been reported from different parts of the globe. This review seeks to provide a holistic overview of SARS-CoV-2 infection in PLWH.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Immunocompromised Host , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active/statistics & numerical data , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Comorbidity , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiology , Diabetes Mellitus/physiopathology , Female , HIV/drug effects , HIV/growth & development , HIV/pathogenicity , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/virology , Humans , Hypertension/epidemiology , Hypertension/physiopathology , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Survival Analysis , Treatment Outcome
15.
Infection ; 48(5): 681-686, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-232706

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Data on people living with human immunodeficiency virus (PLWH) in the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are still scarce. This case series of 33 PLWH patients with COVID-19 reveals symptoms and outcome in this special population. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of anonymized data including age, gender, HIV-associated parameters, symptoms, and outcome. RESULTS: Three out of 32 patients with documented outcomes died (9%). 91% of the patients recovered and 76% have been classified as mild cases. All patients were on antiretroviral treatment, of them 22 on tenofovir-containing regimen and 4 on the protease inhibitor darunavir. CONCLUSIONS: This preliminary case series does not support excess morbidity and mortality among symptomatic COVID-19 PLWH and with viral suppression on ART. SARS-CoV-2 infections may occur during boosted darunavir-based and/or on tenofovir-containing ART.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Darunavir/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/virology , HIV/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Tenofovir/therapeutic use , Adult , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coinfection , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Female , HIV/drug effects , HIV/immunology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/mortality , HIV Infections/pathology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , Survival Analysis , Viral Load/drug effects
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