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Nat Immunol ; 23(1): 50-61, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1545628


NP105-113-B*07:02-specific CD8+ T cell responses are considered among the most dominant in SARS-CoV-2-infected individuals. We found strong association of this response with mild disease. Analysis of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell clones and single-cell sequencing were performed concurrently, with functional avidity and antiviral efficacy assessed using an in vitro SARS-CoV-2 infection system, and were correlated with T cell receptor usage, transcriptome signature and disease severity (acute n = 77, convalescent n = 52). We demonstrated a beneficial association of NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells in COVID-19 disease progression, linked with expansion of T cell precursors, high functional avidity and antiviral effector function. Broad immune memory pools were narrowed postinfection but NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cells were maintained 6 months after infection with preserved antiviral efficacy to the SARS-CoV-2 Victoria strain, as well as Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Delta variants. Our data show that NP105-113-B*07:02-specific T cell responses associate with mild disease and high antiviral efficacy, pointing to inclusion for future vaccine design.

HLA-B7 Antigen/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Aged , Amino Acid Sequence , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Affinity/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , Cell Line, Transformed , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Humans , Immunologic Memory/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology , Severity of Illness Index , Vaccinia virus/genetics , Vaccinia virus/immunology , Vaccinia virus/metabolism
Nucleic Acids Res ; 50(D1): D883-D887, 2022 01 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1358469


Rapidly appearing SARS-CoV-2 mutations can affect T cell epitopes, which can help the virus to evade either CD8 or CD4 T-cell responses. We developed T-cell COVID-19 Atlas (T-CoV, - the comprehensive web portal, which allows one to analyze how SARS-CoV-2 mutations alter the presentation of viral peptides by HLA molecules. The data are presented for common virus variants and the most frequent HLA class I and class II alleles. Binding affinities of HLA molecules and viral peptides were assessed with accurate in silico methods. The obtained results highlight the importance of taking HLA alleles diversity into account: mutation-mediated alterations in HLA-peptide interactions were highly dependent on HLA alleles. For example, we found that the essential number of peptides tightly bound to HLA-B*07:02 in the reference Wuhan variant ceased to be tight binders for the Indian (Delta) and the UK (Alpha) variants. In summary, we believe that T-CoV will help researchers and clinicians to predict the susceptibility of individuals with different HLA genotypes to infection with variants of SARS-CoV-2 and/or forecast its severity.

COVID-19/immunology , Databases, Factual , HLA Antigens/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Alleles , COVID-19/virology , Codon, Terminator , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA Antigens/genetics , HLA Antigens/immunology , HLA-B7 Antigen/immunology , Host-Pathogen Interactions , Humans , India , Mutation , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , United Kingdom , Viral Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/immunology
Immunity ; 54(5): 1055-1065.e5, 2021 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179683


Efforts are being made worldwide to understand the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the virus responsible for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, including the impact of T cell immunity and cross-recognition with seasonal coronaviruses. Screening of SARS-CoV-2 peptide pools revealed that the nucleocapsid (N) protein induced an immunodominant response in HLA-B7+ COVID-19-recovered individuals that was also detectable in unexposed donors. A single N-encoded epitope that was highly conserved across circulating coronaviruses drove this immunodominant response. In vitro peptide stimulation and crystal structure analyses revealed T cell-mediated cross-reactivity toward circulating OC43 and HKU-1 betacoronaviruses but not 229E or NL63 alphacoronaviruses because of different peptide conformations. T cell receptor (TCR) sequencing indicated that cross-reactivity was driven by private TCR repertoires with a bias for TRBV27 and a long CDR3ß loop. Our findings demonstrate the basis of selective T cell cross-reactivity for an immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 epitope and its homologs from seasonal coronaviruses, suggesting long-lasting protective immunity.

CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/chemistry , Cross Reactions , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , HLA-B7 Antigen/chemistry , HLA-B7 Antigen/genetics , HLA-B7 Antigen/immunology , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/chemistry , Immunologic Memory , Models, Molecular , Peptides/chemistry , Peptides/immunology , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/chemistry , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/genetics , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell/immunology