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1.
Eur J Med Res ; 27(1): 255, 2022 Nov 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139417

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The presentation of peptides and the subsequent immune response depend on the MHC characteristics and influence the specificity of the immune response. Several studies have found an association between HLA variants and differential COVID-19 outcomes and have shown that HLA genotypes are associated with differential immune responses against SARS-CoV-2, particularly in severely ill patients. Information, whether HLA haplotypes are associated with the severity or length of the disease in moderately diseased individuals is absent. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing-based HLA typing was performed in 303 female and 231 male non-hospitalized North Rhine Westphalian patients infected with SARS-CoV2 during the first and second wave. For HLA-Class I, we obtained results from 528 patients, and for HLA-Class II from 531. In those patients, who became ill between March 2020 and January 2021, the 22 most common HLA-Class I (HLA-A, -B, -C) or HLA-Class II (HLA -DRB1/3/4, -DQA1, -DQB1) haplotypes were determined. The identified HLA haplotypes as well as the presence of a CCR5Δ32 mutation and number of O and A blood group alleles were associated to disease severity and duration of the disease. RESULTS: The influence of the HLA haplotypes on disease severity and duration was more pronounced than the influence of age, sex, or ABO blood group. These associations were sex dependent. The presence of mutated CCR5 resulted in a longer recovery period in males. CONCLUSION: The existence of certain HLA haplotypes is associated with more severe disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/genetics , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , Prognosis , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2 , HLA-DRB1 Chains
2.
Ann Med ; 54(1): 617-621, 2022 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1692413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), an acute respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2), is emerging as a worldwide public health emergency. Several scientific contributions reported the potential relevance of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) polymorphism and susceptibility to viruses, such as SARS-CoV. In our study, we examined a population of coeliac subjects presenting the HLA haplotype DQ2 and/or DQ8. Our aim was to evaluate whether HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotype play a role in SARS-CoV-2-infection. The aim was also to evaluate the difficulty in following the gluten-free diet due to all the adversities produced by the pandemic, such as the food supply disruption, and the difficulties in managing the clinical follow-up. METHODS: 191 consecutive coeliac patients completed a questionnaire on their current clinical status, psychological effects, and management of the gluten-free diet experienced during the COVID-19 pandemic and questions regarding possible SARS-CoV-2 infection. RESULTS: Out of the 191 patients who participated in the study, 42 were full-blown coeliac and 149 were in remission. From the answers provided, 84.8% of patients declared that they no longer consider themselves vulnerable to COVID-19 as they suffer from coeliac disease; 94.2% of patients did not encounter any difficulties in managing the gluten-free diet or in acquiring specific foods and 64.9% of patients in our study underwent diagnostic testing for SARS-CoV-2. Out of this number, 31.5% did so due to contacts with subjects affected by COVID-19, 26.6% for work related reasons, 11.3% due to flu-like symptoms and 30.6% for other reasons. Only 5.8% of the enrolled patients received a diagnosis of COVID-19. Out of all the patients in our population who were diagnosed with COVID-19, 94.8% developed no symptoms and none of them needed hospitalization or intensive care. CONCLUSION: The hypothesis that the HLADQ2 and/or DQ8 haplotype plays a protective role against SARS-CoV-2 infection, as against other viral infections, is intriguingly suggestive.KEY MESSAGESCOVID-19 as a public health emergency;SARS-CoV-2 and possible complications in coeliac disease;Role of HLA DQ2 and/or DQ8 in SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Celiac Disease , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/genetics , Celiac Disease/diagnosis , Celiac Disease/epidemiology , Celiac Disease/genetics , Critical Care , Haplotypes , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Cell Mol Immunol ; 18(8): 1847-1860, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1387308

ABSTRACT

CD4+ T cells orchestrate adaptive immune responses via binding of antigens to their receptors through specific peptide/MHC-II complexes. To study these responses, it is essential to identify protein-derived MHC-II peptide ligands that constitute epitopes for T cell recognition. However, generating cells expressing single MHC-II alleles and isolating these proteins for use in peptide elution or binding studies is time consuming. Here, we express human MHC alleles (HLA-DR4 and HLA-DQ6) as native, noncovalent αß dimers on yeast cells for direct flow cytometry-based screening of peptide ligands from selected antigens. We demonstrate rapid, accurate identification of DQ6 ligands from pre-pro-hypocretin, a narcolepsy-related immunogenic target. We also identify 20 DR4-binding SARS-CoV-2 spike peptides homologous to SARS-CoV-1 epitopes, and one spike peptide overlapping with the reported SARS-CoV-2 epitope recognized by CD4+ T cells from unexposed individuals carrying DR4 subtypes. Our method is optimized for immediate application upon the emergence of novel pathogens.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , HLA-DQ Antigens/metabolism , HLA-DR4 Antigen/metabolism , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolism , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Two-Hybrid System Techniques , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/genetics , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Flow Cytometry , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , HLA-DQ Antigens/immunology , HLA-DR4 Antigen/genetics , HLA-DR4 Antigen/immunology , Ligands , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genetics , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
4.
HLA ; 98(1): 14-22, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1199731

ABSTRACT

The impact of COVID-19 varies markedly, not only between individual patients but also between different populations. We hypothesised that differences in human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes might influence this variation. Using next generation sequencing, we analysed the class I and class II classical HLA genes of 147 individuals of European descent experiencing variable clinical outcomes following COVID-19 infection. Forty-nine of these patients were admitted to hospital with severe respiratory disease. They had no significant pre-existing comorbidities. We compared the results to those obtained from a group of 69 asymptomatic hospital workers who evidence of COVID exposure based on blood antibody testing. Allele frequencies in both the severe and asymptomatic groups were compared to local and national healthy controls with adjustments made for age and sex. With the inclusion of hospital staff who had reported localised symptoms only (limited to loss of smell/taste, n = 13) or systemic symptoms not requiring hospital treatment (n = 16), we carried out ordinal logistic regression modelling to determine the relative influence of age, BMI, sex and the presence of specific HLA genes on symptomatology. We found a significant difference in the allele frequency of HLA-DRB1*04:01 in the severe patient compared to the asymptomatic staff group (5.1% vs. 16.7%, P = .003 after adjustment for age and sex). There was a significantly lower frequency of the haplotype DQA1*01:01-DQB1*05:01-DRB1*01:01 in the asymptomatic group compared to the background population (P = .007). Ordinal logistic regression modelling confirmed the significant influence of DRB1*04:01 on the clinical severity of COVID-19 observed in the cohorts. These alleles are found in greater frequencies in the North Western European population. This regional study provides evidence that HLA genotype influences clinical outcome in COVID-19 infection. Validation studies must take account of the complex genetic architecture of the immune system across different geographies and ethnicities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Alleles , Gene Frequency , Genotype , HLA-DQ Antigens/genetics , HLA-DQ alpha-Chains , HLA-DQ beta-Chains/genetics , HLA-DRB1 Chains/genetics , Haplotypes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
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