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1.
J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc ; 12(3): 135-142, 2023 Apr 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-20237722

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn), Haemophilus influenzae (Hflu), and Moraxella catarrhalis (Mcat) nasopharyngeal colonization precedes disease pathogenesis and varies among settings and countries. We sought to assess colonization prevalence, density, Spn serotypes, and antibiotic resistance in children in the first 6 months of life in pediatric primary care settings. METHODS: Prospective cohort study in Rochester, NY during 2018-2020. Nasopharyngeal swabs were collected from 101 children at age 1, 2, and 3 weeks, then 1, 2, 4, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18, and 24 months. Spn serotypes were determined by Quellung. Oxacillin resistance for Spn and ß-lactamase production by Hflu and Mcat was tested. All children received PCV13 vaccine according to U.S. recommended schedule. RESULTS: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat colonization was detected in only 5% of infants before age 2 months old. Cumulative prevalence was 34% for Spn, 10% for Hflu, and 53% for Mcat in children ≤6 months of age. Nasopharyngeal bacterial density of Spn, Hflu, and Mcat (x = 2.71 log) in children ≤6 months of age was lower than at 7-24 months of age (x = 3.15 log, p < 0.0001). Predominant serotypes detected ≤6 months of age were 23B (16.7%), 22F (12.9%), 15B/C (11%), and 16F (9.2%). In total, 14.8% of Spn isolates were oxacillin resistant and 66.7% of Hflu isolates were ß-lactamase producing. CONCLUSION: Spn, Hflu, and Mcat nasopharyngeal colonization was uncommon and of low density among children ≤6 months old, especially among children <2 months of age. Non-PCV13 serotypes predominated and a different serotype distribution was observed in ≤6-month olds compared to 7- to 24-month olds.


Subject(s)
Pneumococcal Infections , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Humans , Infant , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/microbiology , Moraxella catarrhalis , Prospective Studies , New York/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Drug Resistance, Microbial , beta-Lactamases , Oxacillin , Carrier State
2.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 17(4): e0011189, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2321356

ABSTRACT

The leading infectious cause of death in children worldwide is lower acute respiratory infection (LARI), particularly pneumonia. We enrolled a total of 538 acute respiratory infection (ARI) cases according to WHO criteria and age-sex matched 514 controls in the Forcibly Displaced Myanmar National (FDMN) refugee camps in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, between June 2018 and March 2020 to investigate the role of bacteria, viruses, and their co-infection patterns and observe Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) serotype distribution. According to the etiological findings, children ≤5 years of age have a higher bacterial positivity (90%) and viral positivity (34%) in nasopharyngeal samples (NPS) compared to those >5 years of age, in both ARI cases as well as for the control group. Among the bacteria, S. pneumoniae was predominant in both cases and controls (85% and 88%). Adenovirus (ADV)(34), influenza virus A and B (IFV-A, B)(32,23), and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)(26) were detected as the highest number among the viruses tested for the ARI cases. The total number of viruses was also found higher in ≤5 years of age group. Within this group, positive correlation was observed between bacteria and viruses but negative correlation was observed between bacteria. Both single and co-infection for viruses were found higher in the case group than the control group. However, co-infection was significantly high for Streptococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Haemophilus influenzae b (H. influenza b) (p<0.05). Additionally, semi-quantitative bacterial and viral load was found higher for the ARI cases over control considering Cycle threshold (Ct)≤30. Pathogen identification from blood specimens was higher by qRT-PCR than blood culture (16% vs 5%, p<0.05). In the S. pneumoniae serotype distribution, the predominant serotypes in ARI cases were 23F, 19A, 16F, 35B, 15A, 20 and 10F, while 11A, 10A, 34, 35A and 13 serotypes were predominant in the control group. Pathogen correlation analysis showed RSV positively correlated with human metapneumovirus (HMPV), S. aureus and H. influenza b while S. pneumoniae was negatively correlated with other pathogens in ≤5 years age group of ARI cases. However, in >5 years age group, S. aureus and H. influenza b were positively correlated with IFVs, and S. pneumoniae was positively correlated with HMPV and ADV. Logistic regression data for viruses suggested among the respondents in cases were about 4 times more likely to be RSV positive than the control. Serotype distribution showed 30% for PCV10 serotypes, 41% for PCV13 and 59% for other serotypes. Also, among the 40 serotypes of S. pneumoniae tested, the serotypes 22F, Sg24, 9V, 38, 8, and 1 showed strong positive correlation with viruses in the case group whereas in the control group, it was predominant for serotypes 14, 38, 17F and 39 ARI cases were prevalent mostly in monsoon, post-monsoon, and winter periods, and peaked in September and October. Overall these region-specific etiological data and findings, particularly for crisis settings representing the FDMNs in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh, is crucial for disease management and disease prevention control as well as immunization strategies more generally in humanitarian crisis settings.


Subject(s)
Coinfection , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Viruses , Child , Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Coinfection/microbiology , Case-Control Studies , Myanmar/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacteria/genetics , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Streptococcus , Haemophilus influenzae
3.
J Korean Med Sci ; 38(16): e127, 2023 Apr 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2304027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has contributed to the change in the epidemiology of many infectious diseases. This study aimed to establish the pre-pandemic epidemiology of pediatric invasive bacterial infection (IBI). METHODS: A retrospective multicenter-based surveillance for pediatric IBIs has been maintained from 1996 to 2020 in Korea. IBIs caused by eight bacteria (Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella species) in immunocompetent children > 3 months of age were collected at 29 centers. The annual trend in the proportion of IBIs by each pathogen was analyzed. RESULTS: A total of 2,195 episodes were identified during the 25-year period between 1996 and 2020. S. pneumoniae (42.4%), S. aureus (22.1%), and Salmonella species (21.0%) were common in children 3 to 59 months of age. In children ≥ 5 years of age, S. aureus (58.1%), followed by Salmonella species (14.8%) and S. pneumoniae (12.2%) were common. Excluding the year 2020, there was a trend toward a decrease in the relative proportions of S. pneumoniae (rs = -0.430, P = 0.036), H. influenzae (rs = -0.922, P < 0.001), while trend toward an increase in the relative proportion of S. aureus (rs = 0.850, P < 0.001), S. agalactiae (rs = 0.615, P = 0.001), and S. pyogenes (rs = 0.554, P = 0.005). CONCLUSION: In the proportion of IBIs over a 24-year period between 1996 and 2019, we observed a decreasing trend for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae and an increasing trend for S. aureus, S. agalactiae, and S. pyogenes in children > 3 months of age. These findings can be used as the baseline data to navigate the trend in the epidemiology of pediatric IBI in the post COVID-19 era.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Meningitis, Bacterial , Child , Humans , Infant , Meningitis, Bacterial/epidemiology , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacteria , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Republic of Korea
4.
Sci Rep ; 13(1): 2443, 2023 02 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242340

ABSTRACT

Respiratory infections are one of the most common causes of death among children under the age of five years. Data on prevalence and relevance of specific organisms in African children are still lacking. This case-control-study investigated prevalence and relevance of specific organisms in Ghanaian children admitted to hospital with symptoms of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI). Pharyngeal swabs were taken and tested by PCR for 19 respiratory isolates. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were calculated to estimate associations between isolates and admission with LRTI. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated to assess the proportion of LRTI cases due to a particular pathogen. The study included 327 cases and 562 controls. We found associations between detection and admission for LRTI for influenza (aOR 98.6; 95% confidence interval (CI) 20.0-1789.6), respiratory syncytial virus (aOR 40.2; 95% CI 7.2-758.6), H. influenzae (aOR 4.1; 95% CI 2.2-7.9) and S. pneumoniae (aOR 2.4; 95% CI 1.7-3.4). PAFs ≥ 10% were observed for S. pneumoniae (30%; 95% CI 26-42), H. influenzae (10%; 95% CI 2-19) and influenza (10%; 95% CI 2-18). This study highlights the need for heightened surveillance and development of effective vaccines for respiratory pathogens other than SARS-CoV-2 in the future.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections , Respiratory Syncytial Virus, Human , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child , Infant , Child, Preschool , Ghana/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Hospitalization , Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infections/epidemiology
5.
J Infect Dis ; 227(7): 907-916, 2023 04 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2222662

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Descriptions of changes in invasive bacterial disease (IBD) epidemiology during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic in the United States are limited. METHODS: We investigated changes in the incidence of IBD due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, group A Streptococcus (GAS), and group B Streptococcus (GBS). We defined the COVID-19 pandemic period as 1 March to 31 December 2020. We compared observed IBD incidences during the pandemic to expected incidences, consistent with January 2014 to February 2020 trends. We conducted secondary analysis of a health care database to assess changes in testing by blood and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) culture during the pandemic. RESULTS: Compared with expected incidences, the observed incidences of IBD due to S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, GAS, and GBS were 58%, 60%, 28%, and 12% lower during the pandemic period of 2020, respectively. Declines from expected incidences corresponded closely with implementation of COVID-19-associated nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs). Significant declines were observed across all age and race groups, and surveillance sites for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae. Blood and CSF culture testing rates during the pandemic were comparable to previous years. CONCLUSIONS: NPIs likely contributed to the decline in IBD incidence in the United States in 2020; observed declines were unlikely to be driven by reductions in testing.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , United States/epidemiology , Humans , Infant , Incidence , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus agalactiae
6.
Arch Argent Pediatr ; 121(4): e202202805, 2023 08 01.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2202774

ABSTRACT

Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causes invasive disease. There are encapsulated strains, such as serotype b (Hib), and non-typeable strains (NTHi). One year after the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of cases increased. In this report we describe the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of children hospitalized with invasive Hi disease (July 2021-July 2022). There were 14 cases; 12 were previously healthy children. Isolations: Hib (n = 6), Hi serotype a (n = 2), NTHi (n = 5); 1 case was not typified. Median age: 8.5 months (IQR: 4­21). Manifestations: meningitis (n = 5), pneumonia (n = 6), cellulitis (n = 2), arthritis (n = 1). Incomplete Hib immunization was observed in 9 children. Invasive Hi disease increased 2.5 times from previous years. These data suggest the reemergence of Hib due to a decline in vaccination coverage and an increase in other non-b-type Hi serotypes.


El Haemophilus influenzae (Hi) causa enfermedad invasiva (EI). Se distinguen cepas capsuladas, como el serotipo b (Hib), y cepas no tipificables (HNT). Al año de declarada la pandemia por COVID-19, observamos un aumento de casos. Se describen las características clínico-epidemiológicas de niños con EI por Hi internados en el hospital (julio 2021-julio 2022). Hubo 14 casos; 12 previamente sanos. Aislamientos: Hib (n = 6), Hi serotipo a (n = 2), HNT (n = 5), 1 no se tipificó. Mediana de edad: 8,5 meses (RIC 4-21). Manifestaciones: meningitis (n = 5), neumonía (n = 6), celulitis (n = 2), artritis (n = 1). Nueve presentaron vacunación incompleta para Hib. Observamos un incremento de EI por Hi de 2,5 veces respecto a años previos. Estos datos sugieren el resurgimiento de Hib por la caída de las coberturas de vacunación y porque otras cepas de Hi no b están en aumento.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Haemophilus Infections , Child , Humans , Infant , Pandemics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Incidence , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus influenzae , Disease Outbreaks
7.
Przegl Epidemiol ; 76(3): 371-384, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2205909

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Meningitis and/or encephalitis are one of the main infectious diseases of the nervous system. These diseases are most commonly caused by bacterial and viral etiological factors. In this publication, meningitis and/or encephalitis caused by Neisseria meningitidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and those with a viral origin - in Poland, most often caused by tick-borne encephalitis virus - are presented in detail. In addition to epidemiological surveillance, immunoprophylaxis in the form of mandatory and recommended vaccinations is used in Poland to prevent these infections. AIM OF THE STUDY: The aim of this study was to to assess the epidemiological situation of meningitis and encephalitis in Poland, in 2020. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To analyse the epidemiological situation of neuroinfections in Poland were used data sent to NIPH NIH - NRI by Voivodeship Sanitary and Epidemiological Stations and published in the annual bulletins: "Infectious diseases and poisonings in Poland in 2020" and "Protective vaccination in Poland in 2020" and individual epidemiological interviews registered in the EpiBaza system. RESULTS: In 2020, a total of 831 cases of meningitis and/or encephalitis were registered in Poland. This is a decrease in incidence of up to 62.9% compared to 2019. For infections of bacterial etiology, including cases of neuroborreliosis (incidence of 2.40 per 100,000), the number of cases decreased by 60.4% (from 931 to 369). In the viral infection group, there was a 64.9% decrease (from 1,318 to 462 cases). Of all registered cases, 56% were infections with a viral etiology. Compared to 2019, the number of cases with an S. pneumoniae etiology decreased by 61.3% and for N. meningitidis by 41.1%. It is interesting to note that, in the case of H. influenzae, we can speak of a 20% increase in cases compared to the previous year. In addition, we can see a decrease in the incidence of tick-borne encephalitis - from 265 in 2019 to 158 in 2020 (a decrease of 40.4%). SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS: Overall, a downward trend in incidence was shown for both bacterial and viral meningitis and/or encephalitis. The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic and the introduction of restrictions on personto-person contact and various forms of activity, resulting in a reduction in pathogen transmission, were key to the significant reduction in the number of meningitis and/or encephalitis cases in 2020, but a reduction in the availability of medical facilities or the completeness of case reports due to the burden of anti-epidemic measures on the Sanitary Inspectorate cannot be excluded either. Only in the case of cases caused by H. influenzae was a slight increase observed compared to the previous year (12 versus 10 cases). Meningoencephalitis and/or encephalitis, due to its wide etiological range, poses a major challenge to the health care system, particularly in terms of correct clinical diagnosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Encephalitis , Meningitis , Neisseria meningitidis , Humans , Infant , Poland/epidemiology , Age Distribution , SARS-CoV-2 , Meningitis/epidemiology , Encephalitis/epidemiology , Incidence , Haemophilus influenzae , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Registries
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 22(1): 860, 2022 Nov 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2115641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the influence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection on bacterial colonization in the children's upper nasopharyngeal tract during the coronavirus infectious disease (COVID-19) pandemic is limited. This study aimed to determine whether there were any differences in bacterial colonization between asymptomatic children with or without a positive SARS-CoV-2 quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) results in the community setting. METHODS: A cross-sectional community-based exploratory study was conducted from March to May 2021 in Semarang, Central Java Province, Indonesia. Using stored nasopharyngeal swabs collected from children under 18 years as a contact tracing program, we performed a real-time quantitative (qPCR) for the most important bacterial colonizing pathogens: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Staphylococcus aureus, and Klebsiella pneumoniae. RESULTS: Swabs from a total of 440 children were included in this study, of which 228 (51.8%) were RT-qPCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive. In the 440 children, colonization rates were highest for H. influenzae (61.4%), followed by S. pneumoniae (17.5%), S. aureus (12.0%), and K. pneumoniae (1.8%). The co-occurrence of both S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae in the upper respiratory tract was significantly associated with a SARS-CoV-2 negative RT-qPCR. In contrast, colonization with only S. aureus was more common in SARS-CoV-2-positive children. CONCLUSION: Overall, this exploratory study concludes that there is a significant difference in the bacterial nasopharyngeal colonization pattern between SARS-CoV-2 positive and negative in asymptomatic children in the community in Indonesia.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Child , Humans , Adolescent , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Staphylococcus aureus , Cross-Sectional Studies , Haemophilus influenzae/genetics , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
9.
Infection ; 50(3): 767-770, 2022 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1872772

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The impact of SARS-CoV-2 pandemic on other pathogens is largely unknown. We aimed to compare the prevalence of vaccine-preventable invasive bacterial infections before and during the pandemic in Piedmont (Italy). METHODS: We defined the monthly incidence of S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae and N. meningitides-invasive diseases from January 2010 to June 2021. Then, we compared the mean monthly cases during the previous 5 years (2015-2019) and the monthly cases in 2020 or 2021. RESULTS: We found significant reductions for invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPDs) in adults and H. influenzae-invasive diseases in 2020 and 2021 in comparison to the previous years, but not for invasive meningococcal diseases and IPDs in children. CONCLUSIONS: Further data are needed to confirm these findings and define possible post-pandemic evolutions in the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable invasive bacterial diseases.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections , COVID-19 , Pneumococcal Infections , Vaccines , Adult , Bacteria , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Infant , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumococcal Infections/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Streptococcus pneumoniae
11.
Euro Surveill ; 26(42)2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485004

ABSTRACT

The incidence of most respiratory-transmitted diseases decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic as a result of containment measures. In contrast, in the Netherlands we noted an increase in invasive disease caused by Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib) (from < 0.3/100,000 before 2019 to 0.39 and 0.33/100,000 in 2020 and 2021) in vaccinated and unvaccinated age groups. We did not find a change in vaccine effectiveness against Hib invasive disease (effectiveness > 90%). We discuss factors that may have contributed to this rise.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Haemophilus Infections , Haemophilus Vaccines , Haemophilus influenzae type b , Haemophilus Infections/epidemiology , Haemophilus Infections/prevention & control , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Infant , Netherlands/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264469

ABSTRACT

Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is the standard in nucleic acid amplification technology for infectious disease pathogen detection and has been the primary diagnostic tool employed during the global COVID-19 pandemic. Various PCR technology adaptations, typically using two-oligonucleotide dye-binding methods or three-oligonucleotide hydrolysis probe systems, enable real-time multiplex target detection or single-base specificity for the identification of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). A small number of two-oligonucleotide PCR systems facilitating both multiplex detection and SNP identification have been reported; however, these methods often have limitations in terms of target specificity, production of variable or false-positive results, and the requirement for extensive optimisation or post-amplification analysis. This study introduces 3' Tth endonuclease cleavage PCR (3TEC-PCR), a two-oligonucleotide PCR system incorporating a modified primer/probe and a thermostable cleavage enzyme, Tth endonuclease IV, for real-time multiplex detection and SNP identification. Complete analytical specificity, low limits of detection, single-base specificity, and simultaneous multiple target detection have been demonstrated in this study using 3TEC-PCR to identify bacterial meningitis associated pathogens. This is the first report of a two-oligonucleotide, real-time multiplex PCR technology with single-base specificity using Tth endonuclease IV.


Subject(s)
DNA-Directed DNA Polymerase/metabolism , Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/isolation & purification , DNA, Bacterial/metabolism , Haemophilus influenzae/genetics , Humans , Meningitis, Bacterial/diagnosis , Meningitis, Bacterial/microbiology , Neisseria meningitidis/genetics , Streptococcus pneumoniae/genetics
14.
Lancet Digit Health ; 3(6): e360-e370, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240696

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Neisseria meningitidis, which are typically transmitted via respiratory droplets, are leading causes of invasive diseases, including bacteraemic pneumonia and meningitis, and of secondary infections subsequent to post-viral respiratory disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of invasive disease due to these pathogens during the early months of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In this prospective analysis of surveillance data, laboratories in 26 countries and territories across six continents submitted data on cases of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis from Jan 1, 2018, to May, 31, 2020, as part of the Invasive Respiratory Infection Surveillance (IRIS) Initiative. Numbers of weekly cases in 2020 were compared with corresponding data for 2018 and 2019. Data for invasive disease due to Streptococcus agalactiae, a non-respiratory pathogen, were collected from nine laboratories for comparison. The stringency of COVID-19 containment measures was quantified using the Oxford COVID-19 Government Response Tracker. Changes in population movements were assessed using Google COVID-19 Community Mobility Reports. Interrupted time-series modelling quantified changes in the incidence of invasive disease due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in 2020 relative to when containment measures were imposed. FINDINGS: 27 laboratories from 26 countries and territories submitted data to the IRIS Initiative for S pneumoniae (62 837 total cases), 24 laboratories from 24 countries submitted data for H influenzae (7796 total cases), and 21 laboratories from 21 countries submitted data for N meningitidis (5877 total cases). All countries and territories had experienced a significant and sustained reduction in invasive diseases due to S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis in early 2020 (Jan 1 to May 31, 2020), coinciding with the introduction of COVID-19 containment measures in each country. By contrast, no significant changes in the incidence of invasive S agalactiae infections were observed. Similar trends were observed across most countries and territories despite differing stringency in COVID-19 control policies. The incidence of reported S pneumoniae infections decreased by 68% at 4 weeks (incidence rate ratio 0·32 [95% CI 0·27-0·37]) and 82% at 8 weeks (0·18 [0·14-0·23]) following the week in which significant changes in population movements were recorded. INTERPRETATION: The introduction of COVID-19 containment policies and public information campaigns likely reduced transmission of S pneumoniae, H influenzae, and N meningitidis, leading to a significant reduction in life-threatening invasive diseases in many countries worldwide. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust (UK), Robert Koch Institute (Germany), Federal Ministry of Health (Germany), Pfizer, Merck, Health Protection Surveillance Centre (Ireland), SpID-Net project (Ireland), European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (European Union), Horizon 2020 (European Commission), Ministry of Health (Poland), National Programme of Antibiotic Protection (Poland), Ministry of Science and Higher Education (Poland), Agencia de Salut Pública de Catalunya (Spain), Sant Joan de Deu Foundation (Spain), Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation (Sweden), Swedish Research Council (Sweden), Region Stockholm (Sweden), Federal Office of Public Health of Switzerland (Switzerland), and French Public Health Agency (France).


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19 , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/transmission , COVID-19/prevention & control , Haemophilus influenzae , Humans , Incidence , Interrupted Time Series Analysis , Neisseria meningitidis , Population Surveillance , Prospective Studies , Public Health Practice , Streptococcus agalactiae , Streptococcus pneumoniae
15.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 39(2): 240-244, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1157423

ABSTRACT

During the current pandemic of COVID-19, the authors observed that during screening test for SARS-CoV-2 targeting the E-gene by qRT-PCR, few nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal samples showed amplification signals at late cycle threshold (CT-value) > 35 despite being negative for other confirmatory target genes. Thirty such samples (taken as cases) showing detectable CT of > 35 cycle in E-gene which were negative for other target genes of SARS-CoV-2 and 30 samples with undetectable fluorescence in E-gene were taken as controls for investigation. An in-vitro diagnostic approved commercial qRT-PCR multiplex kit detecting 33 respiratory pathogens which can also detect Haemophilus influenzae was used for screening the samples. It was observed that out of the 30 samples showing detectable CT> 35 in E-gene, 11 samples were positive for Haemophilus influenzae whereas in the controls only three samples were positive for H. influenzae (p-value: 0.03) which was statistically significant. Further, the probes and primers were screened against H. influenzae for matches in the genome. It was observed that all primers and probes for the E-gene of SARS-CoV-2 had over 13 bp long sequences matching 100% with multiple sites across the H. influenzae genome. This qRT-PCR primer & probes are being used extensively across India, and laboratories using them should be aware of the cross-reactivity of primers & probes with the H. influenzae genome. Further, the authors observed that 95.9% (5415/5642) of COVID-19 positive cases detected in their laboratory were asymptomatic at the time of collection of samples. This warrants further investigations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus Envelope Proteins/genetics , Haemophilus influenzae/isolation & purification , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
16.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(2): 81-92, 2021 Apr.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145772

ABSTRACT

From a microbiological point of view, both empirical and targeted antimicrobial treatment in respiratory infection is based on the sensitivity profile of isolated microorganisms and the possible resistance mechanisms that they may present. The latter may vary in different geographic areas according to prescription profiles and vaccination programs. Beta-lactam antibiotics, fluoroquinolones, and macrolides are the most commonly used antimicrobials during the exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and community-acquired pneumonia. In their prescription, different aspects such as intrinsic activity, bactericidal effect or their ability to prevent the development of resistance must be taken into account. The latter is related to the PK/PD parameters, the mutant prevention concentration and the so-called selection window. More recently, the potential ecological impact has grown in importance, not only on the intestinal microbiota, but also on the respiratory one. Maintaining the state of eubiosis requires the use of antimicrobials with a low profile of action on anaerobic bacteria. With their use, the resilience of the bacterial populations belonging to the microbiota, the state of resistance of colonization and the collateral damage related to the emergence of resistance to the antimicrobials in pathogens causing the infections and in the bacterial populations integrating the microbiota.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/drug therapy , Respiratory Tract Infections/drug therapy , Administration, Oral , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Chlamydophila pneumoniae/drug effects , Community-Acquired Infections/drug therapy , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Disease Progression , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Moraxella catarrhalis/drug effects , Mycoplasma pneumoniae/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/microbiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/microbiology , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(1): e24256, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1024164

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT: Brochoalvelolar lavages (BALs) from patients suffering from hospitalized infections with SARS-CoV-2, other corona viruses (human coronavirus (HCoV)-229E, HCoV-OC43, HCoV-NL63, and HCoV-HKU1), Influenza virus type A and B, Haemophilus influenzae and Pneumocystis jirovecii were compared cytopathologically.The aim of the study was to evaluate if the cellular profile detectable in BAL may be specific for the respective pathogens and could lead to diagnosis of COVID-19 even in the absence of PCR results.Differential cytology and flow cytometry datasets of 62 patients were observed and compared.We observed a significant association between individual cell pattern changes and the causing pathogen, but no general cell distribution pattern.The cytology pattern of the BAL fluid in COVID-19 is not specific enough to use it as a sole diagnostic criterion, although it may support clinical decision making.


Subject(s)
Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/virology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Haemophilus influenzae/isolation & purification , Orthomyxoviridae/isolation & purification , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bronchoalveolar Lavage , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/microbiology , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumocystis carinii/isolation & purification
18.
IUBMB Life ; 72(10): 2097-2111, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-696287

ABSTRACT

The pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has affected millions of people worldwide. To date, there are no proven effective therapies for this virus. Efforts made to develop antiviral strategies for the treatment of COVID-19 are underway. Respiratory viral infections, such as influenza, predispose patients to co-infections and these lead to increased disease severity and mortality. Numerous types of antibiotics such as azithromycin have been employed for the prevention and treatment of bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infections in patients with a viral respiratory infection (e.g., SARS-CoV-2). Although antibiotics do not directly affect SARS-CoV-2, viral respiratory infections often result in bacterial pneumonia. It is possible that some patients die from bacterial co-infection rather than virus itself. To date, a considerable number of bacterial strains have been resistant to various antibiotics such as azithromycin, and the overuse could render those or other antibiotics even less effective. Therefore, bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection are considered critical risk factors for the severity and mortality rates of COVID-19. Also, the antibiotic-resistant as a result of overusing must be considered. In this review, we will summarize the bacterial co-infection and secondary bacterial infection in some featured respiratory viral infections, especially COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Bacterial/epidemiology , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/pathogenicity , Bacterial Infections/drug therapy , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/virology , COVID-19/microbiology , COVID-19/virology , Coinfection , Haemophilus influenzae/drug effects , Haemophilus influenzae/pathogenicity , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Humans , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Legionella pneumophila/drug effects , Legionella pneumophila/pathogenicity , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus/pathogenicity , Pneumonia, Bacterial/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/microbiology , Pneumonia, Bacterial/virology , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/drug effects , Pseudomonas aeruginosa/pathogenicity , Respiratory System/drug effects , Respiratory System/microbiology , Respiratory System/pathology , Respiratory System/virology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pneumoniae/drug effects , Streptococcus pneumoniae/pathogenicity , Streptococcus pyogenes/drug effects , Streptococcus pyogenes/pathogenicity , COVID-19 Drug Treatment
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