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1.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261832, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1595434

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationships of food safety knowledge, attitude and eating behavior of consumers during national lockdowns in the advent of the COVID-19 pandemic. A total of 157 respondents completed the online survey using a structured questionnaire worldwide. Overall, the respondents exhibited good attitude and good knowledge towards public health including food safety especially on the importance of social distancing, mask wearing, well-balanced diet, physical exercise and personal hygiene, such as hand washing during the pandemic lockdowns. A Structural Equation Modeling (SEM) was used to test the relationships among food safety knowledge, attitude and behavior under the pandemic conditions. Results showed that attitude towards food safety under the coronavirus pandemic and lockdowns positively affected the eating behavior of the respondents, which exhibited a high ß (0.686) among the variables tested (p<0.05). Food safety knowledge was apparently not affected by the food safety behavior of the respondents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Feeding Behavior/psychology , Food Safety , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Global Health , Hand Disinfection , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Public Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
2.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E621-E624, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574980

ABSTRACT

Ignác Fülöp Semmelweis (1818-1865) and Florence Nightingale (1820-1910) were two important personalities in the history of medicine and public health. They dealt with the problem of handwashing. Semmelweis is also known as the "father of hand hygiene"; just in 1847 he discovered the etiology and prophylaxis of puerperal sepsis and imposed a new rule mandating handwashing with chlorine for doctors. He also tried to persuade European scientific community of the advantages of handwashing. During the Crimean War, in Scutary (Turkey), Florence Nightingale strengthened handwashing and other hygiene practices in the war hospital where she worked and her handwashing practices reached a reductions in infections. Unfortunately the hygiene practices promoted by Semmelweis and Nightingale were not widely adopted. In general handwashing promotion stood still for over a century. During current pandemic SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) one of the most important way to prevent the spread of the virus is still to wash the hands frequently.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Puerperal Infection , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Pregnancy , Public Health , Puerperal Infection/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572449

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of hand hygiene (HH) on reducing the transmission of contagious diseases is widely known, although its use has been commonly associated with the area of healthcare. During the COVID-19 pandemic, HH was one of the main measures established to contain the transmission of this virus. The identification of the main barriers and facilitators of HH in young adults (aged 18-29 years old) will contribute to the better planning of HH training and its posterior success. A total of 716 young adults participated in the study by completing the ad hoc online questionnaire (#YesWeHand), which analyzed, among other aspects, the age range, gender and field of study that they belonged to. From the total participants, 81.3% indicated knowing how to perform HH correctly, while 49.4% affirmed having received training. The main reason for performing HH was concern for their own safety and that of others (75.8%), while forgetfulness (36.5%) was the main reason for not performing HH. In the group of young adults, being female, aged between 22 and 25 years old, and having studied in the area of Health Sciences, had a positive influence on correct HH. It is deemed necessary to maintain HH beyond the primary education stages, and to adapt it to different fields of education, ages, and genders, in order to maximize its success. Given the overrepresentation of participants from the healthcare field, it would be desirable to conduct more studies to ensure a better representation of the different educational levels and fields of study of the participants, in order to identify, in a more reliable way, the variables that influence HH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
4.
Adv Skin Wound Care ; 34(12): 651-655, 2021 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1528177

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of hand dermatitis among nurses during the COVID-19 pandemic and factors affecting its prevalence. METHODS: The research sample consisted of 175 nurses working in state hospitals. Research data were collected via Google survey between September and October 2020. The data were collected using a sociodemographic data collection form, and a self-assessment form was used to determine dermatologic symptoms. RESULTS: The frequency of hand dermatitis among nurses was 70.9%. A statistically significant difference was found between sex, allergy history, and increased frequency of handwashing and the frequency of hand dermatitis. No significant difference in terms of the frequency of hand dermatitis was found between nurses who provided care to patients who were COVID-19 positive versus nurses who provided care to patients who were COVID-19 negative. However, the frequency of washing hands and using hand disinfectants and hand creams was found to have increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the prepandemic period. CONCLUSIONS: The frequency of hand dermatitis increased among nurses during the pandemic. The increased frequency of handwashing during the pandemic poses a risk for hand dermatitis among nurses, although this should not discourage nurses from appropriate hygiene.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis/diagnosis , Hand/physiopathology , Nurses/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Dermatitis/epidemiology , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Personal Protective Equipment/adverse effects , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Prevalence , Turkey/epidemiology
5.
BMJ ; 375: e068302, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Biosis, Joanna Briggs, Global Health, and World Health Organization COVID-19 database (preprints). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Observational and interventional studies that assessed the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was incidence of covid-19. Secondary outcomes included SARS-CoV-2 transmission and covid-19 mortality. DATA SYNTHESIS: DerSimonian Laird random effects meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of mask wearing, handwashing, and physical distancing measures on incidence of covid-19. Pooled effect estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed, and heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and the I2 metrics, with two tailed P values. RESULTS: 72 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 evaluated individual public health measures and 37 assessed multiple public health measures as a "package of interventions." Eight of 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which indicated a reduction in incidence of covid-19 associated with handwashing (relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.12, I2=12%), mask wearing (0.47, 0.29 to 0.75, I2=84%), and physical distancing (0.75, 0.59 to 0.95, I2=87%). Owing to heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of quarantine and isolation, universal lockdowns, and closures of borders, schools, and workplaces. The effects of these interventions were synthesised descriptively. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that several personal protective and social measures, including handwashing, mask wearing, and physical distancing are associated with reductions in the incidence covid-19. Public health efforts to implement public health measures should consider community health and sociocultural needs, and future research is needed to better understand the effectiveness of public health measures in the context of covid-19 vaccination. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178692.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Public Health , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Global Health , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Incidence , Masks , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Travel , World Health Organization
6.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0259257, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504723

ABSTRACT

Protective behaviors such as mask wearing and physical distancing are critical to slow the spread of COVID-19, even in the context of vaccine scale-up. Understanding the variation in self-reported COVID-19 protective behaviors is critical to developing public health messaging. The purpose of the study is to provide nationally representative estimates of five self-reported COVID-19 protective behaviors and correlates of such behaviors. In this cross-sectional survey study of US adults, surveys were administered via internet and telephone. Adults were surveyed from April 30-May 4, 2020, a time of peaking COVID-19 incidence within the US. Participants were recruited from the probability-based AmeriSpeak® national panel. Brief surveys were completed by 994 adults, with 73.0% of respondents reported mask wearing, 82.7% reported physical distancing, 75.1% reported crowd avoidance, 89.8% reported increased hand-washing, and 7.7% reported having prior COVID-19 testing. Multivariate analysis (p critical value .05) indicates that women were more likely to report protective behaviors than men, as were those over age 60. Respondents who self-identified as having low incomes, histories of criminal justice involvement, and Republican Party affiliation, were less likely to report four protective behaviors, though Republicans and individuals with criminal justice histories were more likely to report having received COVID-19 testing. The majority of Americans engaged in COVID-19 protective behaviors, with low-income Americans, those with histories of criminal justice involvement, and self-identified Republicans less likely to engage in these preventive behaviors. Culturally competent public health messaging and interventions might focus on these latter groups to prevent future infections. These findings will remain highly relevant even with vaccines widely available, given the complementarities between vaccines and protective behaviors, as well as the many challenges in delivering vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Masks , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Communicable Disease Control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Geography , Health Behavior , Humans , Infectious Disease Medicine/methods , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Poverty , Probability , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(11): e0258320, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1502065

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic presents a global crisis and authorities have encouraged the population to promote preventive health behaviors to slow the spread of the virus. While the literature on psychological factors influencing health behaviors during the COVID-19 is flourishing, there is a lack of cross-national research focusing on multiple health behaviors. The present study overcomes this limitation and affords a validation of the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) as a conceptual framework for explaining the adoption of handwashing and limitation of social contacts, two health behaviors that highly differ in their nature. Specifically, we compare TPB model on these two protective behaviors among people living in Belgium (N = 3744) and France (N = 1060) during the COVID-19 sanitary crisis. Data were collected from March 18 until April 19, 2020, which corresponds to the spring lockdown and the first peak of the pandemic in these countries. Results indicated that more positive attitudes, greater social norms, increased perceived control and higher intentions were related to higher adherence to handwashing and limitation of social contacts, for both Belgian and French residents. Ultimately, we argued that the TPB model tends to manifest similarly across countries in explaining health behaviors, when comparing handwashing and limitation of social contacts among individuals living in different national contexts.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Behavior , Social Behavior , Adult , Belgium/epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Female , France/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Health Communication , Humans , Intention , Male , Middle Aged , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Psychological Theory , SARS-CoV-2
8.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259108, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496529

ABSTRACT

Governments around the globe use non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to curb the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) cases. Making decisions under uncertainty, they all face the same temporal paradox: estimating the impact of NPIs before they have been implemented. Due to the limited variance of empirical cases, researchers could so far not disentangle effects of individual NPIs or their impact on different demographic groups. In this paper, we utilize large-scale agent-based simulations in combination with Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR) models to investigate the spread of COVID-19 for some of the most affected federal states in Germany. In contrast to other studies, we sample agents from a representative survey. Including more realistic demographic attributes that influence agents' behavior yields accurate predictions of COVID-19 transmissions and allows us to investigate counterfactual what-if scenarios. Results show that quarantining infected people and exploiting industry-specific home office capacities are the most effective NPIs. Disentangling education-related NPIs reveals that each considered institution (kindergarten, school, university) has rather small effects on its own, yet, that combined openings would result in large increases in COVID-19 cases. Representative survey-characteristics of agents also allow us to estimate NPIs' effects on different age groups. For instance, re-opening schools would cause comparatively few infections among the risk-group of people older than 60 years.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Quarantine/methods , Computer Simulation , Early Medical Intervention/trends , Germany , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Masks , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Schools
9.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0259037, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496524

ABSTRACT

Epidemiological simulations as a method are used to better understand and predict the spreading of infectious diseases, for example of COVID-19. This paper presents an approach that combines a well-established approach from transportation modelling that uses person-centric data-driven human mobility modelling with a mechanistic infection model and a person-centric disease progression model. The model includes the consequences of different room sizes, air exchange rates, disease import, changed activity participation rates over time (coming from mobility data), masks, indoors vs. outdoors leisure activities, and of contact tracing. It is validated against the infection dynamics in Berlin (Germany). The model can be used to understand the contributions of different activity types to the infection dynamics over time. It predicts the effects of contact reductions, school closures/vacations, masks, or the effect of moving leisure activities from outdoors to indoors in fall, and is thus able to quantitatively predict the consequences of interventions. It is shown that these effects are best given as additive changes of the reproduction number R. The model also explains why contact reductions have decreasing marginal returns, i.e. the first 50% of contact reductions have considerably more effect than the second 50%. Our work shows that is is possible to build detailed epidemiological simulations from microscopic mobility models relatively quickly. They can be used to investigate mechanical aspects of the dynamics, such as the transmission from political decisions via human behavior to infections, consequences of different lockdown measures, or consequences of wearing masks in certain situations. The results can be used to inform political decisions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Contact Tracing/methods , Berlin , COVID-19/metabolism , Cell Phone/trends , Computer Simulation , Germany , Hand Disinfection/trends , Humans , Masks/trends , Models, Theoretical , Physical Distancing , Population Dynamics/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Systems Analysis
10.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258840, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the development and enforcement of preventive guidelines by governments, COVID-19 continues to spread across nations, causing unprecedented economic losses and mortality. Public places remain hotspots for COVID-19 transmission due to large numbers of people present; however preventive measures are poorly enforced. Supermarkets are among the high-risk establishments due to the high interactions involved, which makes compliance with the COVID-19 preventive guidelines of paramount importance. However, until now, there has been limited evidence on compliance with the set COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Therefore, this study aimed to measure compliance with the COVID-19 prevention guidelines among supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among selected supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality in September 2020. A total of 229 supermarkets (195 in Kampala City and 34 in Mukono Municipality) were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected through structured observations on the status of compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, and entered using the KoboCollect software, which was preinstalled on mobile devices (smart phones and tablets). Descriptive statistics were generated to measure compliance to the set COVID-19 Ministry of Health prevention guidelines using Stata 14 software. RESULTS: Only 16.6% (38/229) of the supermarkets complied with the COVID-19 prevention and control guidelines. In line with the specific measures, almost all supermarkets 95.2% (218/229) had hand washing facilities placed at strategic points such as the entrance, and 59.8% (137/229) of the supermarkets surveyed regularly disinfected commonly touched surfaces. Only 40.6% and 30.6% of the supermarkets enforced mandatory hand washing and use of face masks respectively for all customers accessing the premises. Slightly more than half, 52.4% (120/229) of the supermarkets had someone or a team in charge of enforcing compliance to COVID-19 measures and more than half, 55.5% (127/229) of the supermarkets had not provided their staff with job-specific training/mentorship on infection prevention and control for COVID-19. Less than a third, 26.2% (60/229) of the supermarkets had an infrared temperature gun for screening every customer, and only 5.7% (13/229) of the supermarkets captured details of clients accessing the supermarket as a measure to ease follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study revealed low compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, which required mandatory preventive measures such as face masking, regular disinfection, social distancing, and hand hygiene. This study suggests the need for health authorities to strengthen enforcement of these guidelines, and to sensitise the supermarket managers on COVID-19 in order to increase the uptake of the different measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uganda
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496511

ABSTRACT

We aimed to apply the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model to increase effectiveness and sustainability of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) hand hygiene (HH) guidelines within healthcare systems. Our cross-sectional, mixed-methods study took place at Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), a tertiary care hospital in Jimma, Ethiopia, between November 2018 and August 2020 and consisted of three phases: baseline assessment, intervention, and follow-up assessment. We conducted questionnaires addressing HH knowledge and attitudes, interviews to identify HH barriers and facilitators within the SEIPS framework, and observations at the WHO's 5 moments of HH amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) at JUMC. We then implemented HH interventions based on WHO guidelines and results from our baseline assessment. Follow-up HH observations were conducted months later during the Covid-19 pandemic. 250 HCWs completed questionnaires with an average knowledge score of 61.4% and attitude scores indicating agreement that HH promotes patient safety. Interview participants cited multiple barriers to HH including shortages and location of HH materials, inadequate training, minimal Infection Prevention Control team presence, and high workload. We found an overall baseline HH compliance rate of 9.4% and a follow-up compliance rate of 72.1%. Drastically higher follow-up compared to baseline compliance rates were likely impacted by our HH interventions and Covid-19. HCWs showed motivation for patient safety despite low HH knowledge. Utilizing the SEIPS model helped identify institution-specific barriers that informed targeted interventions beyond WHO guidelines aimed at increasing effectiveness and sustainability of HH efforts.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480761

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Numerous educational interventions have been conducted to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance and effectiveness among nursing students, with mixed results. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of posters as a teaching tool and factors associated with HH quality. (2) Methods: A pre-post experimental intervention study was conducted with a total of 293 nursing students randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control) who, before and after HH, took cell culture samples from their non-dominant hands. Only the experimental group was exposed to the poster. (3) Results: In the experimental group, significant differences were observed among students older than 22 years (p = 0.017; V = 0.188), with a higher percentage of failures (15.7% vs. 3.6%). Poster displaying was associated with passing, other variables being equal, although without statistical significance (ORa = 2.07; 95% CI = 0.81-5.26). Pre-practice hand contamination was weakly associated with lower HH quality (ORa = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.99-0.99). (4) Conclusions: The use of posters as a teaching method shows indications of efficacy. Prior hand contamination slightly affects the quality of HH. Further evaluation of teaching methods is needed to ensure good technical performance of HH to prevent the spread of infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Case-Control Studies , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
13.
Biomedica ; 41(Sp. 2): 48-61, 2021 10 15.
Article in English, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1478423

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The studies on knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) regarding COVID-19 help to identify erroneous concepts and inadequate practices related to the disease. This baseline information is essential to design effective strategies and improve adherence to prevention measures. OBJECTIVE: To identify the COVID-19-related KAP in Venezuelan patients screened at the Hospital Universitario de Caracas triage tent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 215 patients between April 25th and May 25th, 2020, with in-person interviews using a KAP survey. RESULTS: Most surveyed patients (53.5%) were asymptomatic. Most of them, both from the symptomatic and the asymptomatic groups, had adequate knowledge about the symptoms and transmission of the disease and the majority said they were practicing quarantine, frequent handwashing, and the use of face masks in public areas. However, the daily replacement of cloth face masks was more frequent in the asymptomatic group whereas replacement every three days was more frequent in the symptomatic group. Finally, more than half of the participants admitted having been in crowded places, a common practice among the symptomatic compared to the asymptomatic patients. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first KAP study in Venezuela about COVID-19. Knowledge and practices among Venezuelans could be improved by strengthening education and training programs. This information from the early phase of the pandemic in Venezuela may contribute to the design of COVID-19 promotion and prevention strategies.


Introducción: Los estudios sobre conocimientos, actitudes y prácticas (CAP) sobre COVID-19 ayudan a identificar conceptos erróneos y prácticas inadecuadas relacionadas con la enfermedad. Esta información de referencia es fundamental para diseñar estrategias efectivas y mejorar la adherencia a las medidas de prevención. Objetivo: Identificar la CAP relacionada con COVID-19 en pacientes venezolanos cribados en la carpa de triaje del Hospital Universitario de Caracas. Materiales y métodos: Realizamos un estudio transversal entre 215 pacientes entre el 25 de abril y el 25 de mayo de 2020, con entrevistas en persona utilizando una encuesta KAP. Resultados: La mayoría de los pacientes encuestados (53,5%) se encontraban asintomáticos. La mayoría de ellos, tanto del grupo sintomático como asintomático, tenían un conocimiento adecuado sobre los síntomas y la transmisión de la enfermedad y la mayoría dijo que practicaban la cuarentena, el lavado frecuente de manos y el uso de mascarillas en las áreas públicas. Sin embargo, el reemplazo diario de mascarillas de tela fue más frecuente en el grupo asintomático, mientras que el reemplazo cada tres días fue más frecuente en el grupo sintomático. Finalmente, más de la mitad de los participantes admitieron haber estado en lugares concurridos, una práctica común entre los sintomáticos en comparación con los asintomáticos. Conclusiones: Este es el primer estudio CAP en Venezuela sobre COVID-19. El conocimiento y las prácticas entre los venezolanos podrían mejorarse fortaleciendo los programas de educación y capacitación. Esta información de la fase inicial de la pandemia en Venezuela puede contribuir al diseño de estrategias de promoción y prevención del COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Crowding , Female , Hand Disinfection , Health Surveys/methods , Health Surveys/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Symptom Assessment , Triage , Venezuela/epidemiology
15.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1857, 2021 10 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1465324

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Handwashing with soap is a cost-effective, efficient health behavior to prevent various diseases. Despite its immense health benefits, the lowest prevalence of handwashing is found in low-income countries. Here, its practice is not only determined by individual behavior, but also heavily shaped by deprivations in the social and structural ecology. Moreover, handwashing barriers are not equally experienced as overlapping social identities (e.g., age and gender) intersect and create inequities between members of different social groups. To embrace the complexities of handwashing beyond individual-level behavior and singular social identities, a combined socioecological and intersectional perspective is employed. This multi-level approach with regards to intersecting privileges and disadvantages serves as a basis to promote this highly important health behavior. METHODS: This study used a qualitative, theory-based approach and combined data from two samples: experts in health promotion (n = 22) and local citizens stratified by gender and rural/urban location (n = 56). Data was collected in face-to-face interviews in Sierra Leone between November 2018 and January 2019 and analyzed using thematic analysis and typology of the qualitative data. RESULTS: The conceptualization of multi-level determinants of handwashing within a socioecological model showed the high relevance of inhibiting social and structural factors for handwashing practice. By establishing seven distinguishing social identity dimensions, data demonstrates that individuals within the same social setting yet with distinct social identities experience strikingly differing degrees of power and privileges to enact handwashing. While a local leader is influential and may also change structural-level determinants, a young, rural wife experiences multiple social and structural constraints to perform handwashing with soap, even if she has high handwashing intentions. CONCLUSION: This study provides a holistic analytical framework for the identification of determinants on multiple levels and accumulating intersections of socially produced inequalities for handwashing and is applicable to other health topics. As the exploration of handwashing was approached from a solution-focused instead of a problem-focused perspective, the analysis can guide multi-level intervention approaches (e.g., using low-cost, participatory activities at the community level to make use of the available social capital).


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Soaps , Female , Health Behavior , Humans , Poverty , Sierra Leone
16.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(10): e26104, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463394

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Washing hands helps prevent transmission of seasonal and pandemic respiratory viruses. In a randomized controlled trial (RCT) during the swine flu outbreak, participants with access to a fully automated, digital intervention promoting handwashing reported washing their hands more often and experienced fewer respiratory tract infections than those without access to the intervention. Based on these findings, the intervention was adapted, renamed as "Germ Defence," and a study was designed to assess the preliminary dissemination of the intervention to the general public to help prevent the spread of seasonal colds and flu. OBJECTIVE: This study compares the process evaluations of the RCT and Germ Defence dissemination to examine (1) how web-based research enrollment procedures affected those who used the intervention, (2) intervention usage in the 2 contexts, and (3) whether increased intentions to wash hands are replicated once disseminated. METHODS: The RCT ran between 2010 and 2012 recruiting participants offline from general practices, with restricted access to the intervention (N=9155). Germ Defence was disseminated as an open access website for use by the general public from 2016 to 2019 (N=624). The process evaluation plan was developed using Medical Research Council guidance and the framework for Analyzing and Measuring Usage and Engagement Data. Both interventions contained a goal-setting section where users self-reported current and intended handwashing behavior across 7 situations. RESULTS: During web-based enrolment, 54.3% (17,511/32,250) of the RCT participants dropped out of the study compared to 36.5% (358/982) of Germ Defence users. Having reached the start of the intervention, 93.8% (8586/9155) of RCT users completed the core section, whereas 65.1% (406/624) of Germ Defence users reached the same point. Users across both studies selected to increase their handwashing in 5 out of 7 situations, including before eating snacks (RCT mean difference 1.040, 95% CI 1.016-1.063; Germ Defence mean difference 0.949, 95% CI 0.766-1.132) and after blowing their nose, sneezing, or coughing (RCT mean difference 0.995, 95% CI 0.972-1.019; Germ Defence mean difference 0.842, 95% CI 0.675-1.008). CONCLUSIONS: By comparing the preliminary dissemination of Germ Defence to the RCT, we were able to examine the potential effects of the research procedures on uptake and attrition such as the sizeable dropout during the RCT enrolment procedure that may have led to a more motivated sample. The Germ Defence study highlighted the points of attrition within the intervention. Despite sample bias in the trial context, the intervention replicated increases in intentions to handwash when used "in the wild." This preliminary dissemination study informed the adaptation of the intervention for the COVID-19 health emergency, and it has now been disseminated globally. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry ISRCTN75058295; https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN75058295.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internet-Based Intervention , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
17.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(10): e26840, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456200

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The outbreak of COVID-19 in China occurred around the Chinese New Year (January 25, 2020), and infections decreased continuously afterward. General adoption of preventive measures during the Chinese New Year period was crucial in driving the decline. It is imperative to investigate preventive behaviors among Chinese university students, who could have spread COVID-19 when travelling home during the Chinese New Year break. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we investigated levels of COVID-19-related personal measures undertaken during the 7-day Chinese New Year holidays by university students in China, and associated COVID-19-related cognitive factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional anonymous web-based survey was conducted during the period from February 1 to 10, 2020. Data from 23,863 students (from 26 universities, 16 cities, 13 provincial-level regions) about personal measures (frequent face-mask wearing, frequent handwashing, frequent home staying, and an indicator that combined the 3 behaviors) were analyzed (overall response rate 70%). Multilevel multiple logistic regression analysis was performed. RESULTS: Only 28.0% of respondents (6684/23,863) had left home for >4 hours, and 49.3% (11,757/23,863) had never left home during the 7-day Chinese New Year period; 79.7% (19,026/23,863) always used face-masks in public areas. The frequency of handwashing with soap was relatively low (6424/23,863, 26.9% for >5 times/day); 72.4% (17,282/23,863) had frequently undertaken ≥2 of these 3 measures. COVID-19-related cognitive factors (perceptions on modes of transmission, permanent bodily damage, efficacy of personal or governmental preventive measures, nonavailability of vaccines and treatments) were significantly associated with preventive measures. Associations with frequent face-mask wearing were stronger than those with frequent home staying. CONCLUSIONS: University students had strong behavioral responses during the very early phase of the COVID-19 outbreak. Levels of personal prevention, especially frequent home staying and face-mask wearing, were high. Health promotion may modify cognitive factors. Some structural factors (eg, social distancing policy) might explain why the frequency of home staying was higher than that of handwashing. Other populations might have behaved similarly; however, such data were not available to us.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Masks , Physical Distancing , Students , Surveys and Questionnaires , Universities
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1791, 2021 10 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455956

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected people's engagement in health behaviors, especially those that protect individuals from SARS-CoV-2 transmission, such as handwashing/sanitizing. This study investigated whether adherence to the World Health Organization's (WHO) handwashing guidelines (the outcome variable) was associated with the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic, as measured by the following 6 indicators: (i) the number of new cases of COVID-19 morbidity/mortality (a country-level mean calculated for the 14 days prior to data collection), (ii) total cases of COVID-19 morbidity/mortality accumulated since the onset of the pandemic, and (iii) changes in recent cases of COVID-19 morbidity/mortality (a difference between country-level COVID-19 morbidity/mortality in the previous 14 days compared to cases recorded 14-28 days earlier). METHODS: The observational study (#NCT04367337) enrolled 6064 adults residing in Australia, Canada, China, France, Gambia, Germany, Israel, Italy, Malaysia, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Singapore, and Switzerland. Data on handwashing adherence across 8 situations (indicated in the WHO guidelines) were collected via an online survey (March-July 2020). Individual-level handwashing data were matched with the date- and country-specific values of the 6 indices of the trajectory of COVID-19 pandemic, obtained from the WHO daily reports. RESULTS: Multilevel regression models indicated a negative association between both accumulation of the total cases of COVID-19 morbidity (B = -.041, SE = .013, p = .013) and mortality (B = -.036, SE = .014 p = .002) and handwashing. Higher levels of total COVID-related morbidity and mortality were related to lower handwashing adherence. However, increases in recent cases of COVID-19 morbidity (B = .014, SE = .007, p = .035) and mortality (B = .022, SE = .009, p = .015) were associated with higher levels of handwashing adherence. Analyses controlled for participants' COVID-19-related situation (their exposure to information about handwashing, being a healthcare professional), sociodemographic characteristics (gender, age, marital status), and country-level variables (strictness of containment and health policies, human development index). The models explained 14-20% of the variance in handwashing adherence. CONCLUSIONS: To better explain levels of protective behaviors such as handwashing, future research should account for indicators of the trajectory of the COVID-19 pandemic. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Clinical Trials.Gov, # NCT04367337.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Germany , Hand Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 117: 111-116, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene remains both the major strategy and an ongoing challenge for infection control. The main issues in the sustainability of hand hygiene automatic monitoring are healthcare worker (HCW) turnover rates and declining participation. AIM: To assess hand hygiene compliance and the impact of real-time reminders over three years. METHODS: HCW compliance was observed for the use of alcohol-based hand rubs (AHR) on room entry and exit. Linear multi-level mixed models with time autocorrelations were performed to analyse the repeated measurements of daily room compliance and the effect of reminders over eight quarters (24 months). FINDINGS: In all, 111 HCWs were observed and 525,576 activities were identified in the database. There was an improvement in compliance both on room entry and exit over two years, and the rooms which had activated reminders had better performance than the rooms which did not have activated reminders. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the benefit of using real-time reminders; even 20% of rooms with an activated reminder improved overall hand hygiene compliance. A randomized real-time reminder setting may be a potential solution in reducing user fatigue and enhancing HCW self-awareness.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(19)2021 09 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438590

ABSTRACT

In the context of COVID-19 in Belgium, face-to-face teaching activities were allowed in Belgian universities at the beginning of the 2020-2021 academic year. Nevertheless, several control measures were established to control COVID-19 transmission on the campuses. To ensure compliance with these measures, a random observational survey, based on five barrier gestures, was implemented at the University of Liege (greetings without contact, hand sanitisation, following a one-way traffic flow, wearing a mask and physical distancing). Each barrier gesture was weighted, based on experts' elicitation, and a scoring system was developed. The results were presented as a diagram (to identify the margin of improvement for each barrier gesture) and a risk management barometer. In total, 526 h of observations were performed. The study revealed that some possible improvements could be made in the management of facilities, in terms of room allocation, the functionality of hydro-alcoholic gel dispensers, floor markings and one-way traffic flow. Compliance with the barrier gestures reached an overall weighted score of 68.2 (between 0 and 100). Three barrier gestures presented a lower implementation rate and should be addressed: the use of hydro-alcoholic gel (particularly when exiting buildings), compliance with the traffic flow and the maintenance of a 1.5 m physical distance outside of the auditoriums. The methodology and tool developed in the present study can easily be applied to other settings. They were proven to be useful in managing COVID-19, as the barometer that was developed and the outcomes of this survey enabled an improved risk assessment on campuses, and identified the critical points to be addressed in any further public health communication or education messages.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Gestures , Hand Disinfection , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
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