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1.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262874, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1643288

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has circulated worldwide and causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). At the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, infection control measures were taken, such as hand washing, mask wearing, and behavioral restrictions. However, it is not fully clear how the effects of these non-pharmaceutical interventions changed the prevalence of other pathogens associated with respiratory infections. In this study, we collected 3,508 nasopharyngeal swab samples from 3,249 patients who visited the Yamanashi Central Hospital in Japan from March 1, 2020 to February 28, 2021. We performed multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the FilmArray Respiratory Panel and singleplex quantitative reverse transcription PCR targeting SARS-CoV-2 to detect respiratory disease-associated pathogens. At least one pathogen was detected in 246 (7.0%) of the 3,508 samples. Eleven types of pathogens were detected in the samples collected from March-May 2020, during which non-pharmaceutical interventions were not well implemented. In contrast, after non-pharmaceutical interventions were thoroughly implemented, only five types of pathogens were detected, and the majority were SARS-CoV-2, adenoviruses, or human rhinoviruses / enteroviruses. The 0-9 year age group had a higher prevalence of infection with adenoviruses and human rhinoviruses / enteroviruses compared with those 10 years and older, while those 10 years and older had a higher prevalence of infection with SARS-CoV-2 and other pathogens. These results indicated that non-pharmaceutical interventions likely reduced the diversity of circulating pathogens. Moreover, differences in the prevalence of pathogens were observed among the different age groups.


Subject(s)
Adenoviruses, Human/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , Enterovirus/genetics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Rhinovirus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adenoviruses, Human/classification , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child, Preschool , Enterovirus/classification , Female , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Japan/epidemiology , Male , Masks/supply & distribution , Middle Aged , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Nasopharynx/virology , Prevalence , Quarantine/organization & administration , Respiratory Tract Infections/diagnosis , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/virology , Rhinovirus/classification , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
2.
Contact Dermatitis ; 86(4): 276-285, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1583613

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has increased the frequency of handwashing. There is scarce evidence regarding the impact of different hand hygiene procedures on skin barrier function in clinical practice. OBJECTIVE: To compare the impact on skin barrier function of different hand hygiene measures in healthcare workers in daily practice. METHODS: A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted. Participants were randomized to sanitize their hands with water and soap, alcohol-based hand sanitizers (ABHSs), or disinfectant wipes during their 8-hour working shift. Epidermal barrier functional parameters, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and the microbial load were assessed before and immediately after the working day. Tolerance and acceptability of each product were recorded after work. RESULTS: Sixty-two participants were included and 20, 21, and 21 were randomized to use water and soap, ABHS, and disinfectant wipes, respectively. After the 8-hour shift, TEWL increase was higher with disinfectant wipes than with soaps or ABHS (+5.45 vs +3.87 vs -1.46 g h-1  m-2 , respectively; P = .023). Bacteria and fungi colony-forming unit (CFU) count reductions were lower for the water and soap group than for ABHS and disinfectant wipes. Disinfectant wipes were considered more difficult to use (P = .013) compared with water and soap and ABHS. CONCLUSION: Daily hand hygiene with ABHS showed the lowest rates of skin barrier disruption and the highest reduction of CFU.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact , Hand Hygiene , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol , Hand/microbiology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps
3.
BMJ ; 375: e068302, 2021 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1522938

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To review the evidence on the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: Medline, Embase, CINAHL, Biosis, Joanna Briggs, Global Health, and World Health Organization COVID-19 database (preprints). ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA FOR STUDY SELECTION: Observational and interventional studies that assessed the effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The main outcome measure was incidence of covid-19. Secondary outcomes included SARS-CoV-2 transmission and covid-19 mortality. DATA SYNTHESIS: DerSimonian Laird random effects meta-analysis was performed to investigate the effect of mask wearing, handwashing, and physical distancing measures on incidence of covid-19. Pooled effect estimates with corresponding 95% confidence intervals were computed, and heterogeneity among studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and the I2 metrics, with two tailed P values. RESULTS: 72 studies met the inclusion criteria, of which 35 evaluated individual public health measures and 37 assessed multiple public health measures as a "package of interventions." Eight of 35 studies were included in the meta-analysis, which indicated a reduction in incidence of covid-19 associated with handwashing (relative risk 0.47, 95% confidence interval 0.19 to 1.12, I2=12%), mask wearing (0.47, 0.29 to 0.75, I2=84%), and physical distancing (0.75, 0.59 to 0.95, I2=87%). Owing to heterogeneity of the studies, meta-analysis was not possible for the outcomes of quarantine and isolation, universal lockdowns, and closures of borders, schools, and workplaces. The effects of these interventions were synthesised descriptively. CONCLUSIONS: This systematic review and meta-analysis suggests that several personal protective and social measures, including handwashing, mask wearing, and physical distancing are associated with reductions in the incidence covid-19. Public health efforts to implement public health measures should consider community health and sociocultural needs, and future research is needed to better understand the effectiveness of public health measures in the context of covid-19 vaccination. SYSTEMATIC REVIEW REGISTRATION: PROSPERO CRD42020178692.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Public Health , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , Global Health , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Incidence , Masks , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Travel , World Health Organization
4.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496511

ABSTRACT

We aimed to apply the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model to increase effectiveness and sustainability of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) hand hygiene (HH) guidelines within healthcare systems. Our cross-sectional, mixed-methods study took place at Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), a tertiary care hospital in Jimma, Ethiopia, between November 2018 and August 2020 and consisted of three phases: baseline assessment, intervention, and follow-up assessment. We conducted questionnaires addressing HH knowledge and attitudes, interviews to identify HH barriers and facilitators within the SEIPS framework, and observations at the WHO's 5 moments of HH amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) at JUMC. We then implemented HH interventions based on WHO guidelines and results from our baseline assessment. Follow-up HH observations were conducted months later during the Covid-19 pandemic. 250 HCWs completed questionnaires with an average knowledge score of 61.4% and attitude scores indicating agreement that HH promotes patient safety. Interview participants cited multiple barriers to HH including shortages and location of HH materials, inadequate training, minimal Infection Prevention Control team presence, and high workload. We found an overall baseline HH compliance rate of 9.4% and a follow-up compliance rate of 72.1%. Drastically higher follow-up compared to baseline compliance rates were likely impacted by our HH interventions and Covid-19. HCWs showed motivation for patient safety despite low HH knowledge. Utilizing the SEIPS model helped identify institution-specific barriers that informed targeted interventions beyond WHO guidelines aimed at increasing effectiveness and sustainability of HH efforts.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
6.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0257112, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398939

ABSTRACT

Public health and social interventions are critical to mitigate the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Ethiopia has implemented a variety of public health and social measures to control the pandemic. This study aimed to assess social distancing and public health preventive practices of government employees in response to COVID-19. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,573 government employees selected from 46 public institutions located in Addis Ababa. Data were collected from 8th to 19th June 2020 using a paper-based self-administered questionnaire and analyzed using SPSS version 23.0. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize the data. Binary logistic regression analyses were used to identify factors associated with outcome variables (perceived effectiveness of facemask wearing to prevent coronavirus infection, and COVID-19 testing). Majority of the participants reported facemask wearing (96%), avoiding close contact with people including handshaking (94.8%), consistently followed government recommendations (95.6%), frequent handwashing (94.5%), practiced physical distancing (89.5%), avoided mass gatherings and crowded places (88.1%), restricting movement and travelling (71.8%), and stayed home (35.6%). More than 80% of the participants perceived that consistently wearing a facemask is highly effective in preventing coronavirus infection. Respondents from Oromia perceived less about the effectiveness of wearing facemask in preventing coronavirus infection (adjusted OR = 0.27, 95% CI:0.17-0.45). About 19% of the respondents reported that they had ever tested for COVID-19. Respondents between 40-49 years old (adjusted OR = 0.41, 95% CI:0.22-0.76) and 50-66 years (adjusted OR = 0.43, 95% CI:0.19-0.95) were less likely tested for coronavirus than the younger age groups. Similarly, respondents from Oromia were less likely to test for coronavirus (adjusted OR = 0.26, 95% CI:0.12-0.56) than those from national level. Participants who were sure about the availability of COVID-19 testing were more likely to test for coronavirus. About 57% of the respondents perceived that the policy measures in response to the pandemic were inadequate. The findings showed higher social distancing and preventive practices among the government employees in response to COVID-19. Rules and regulations imposed by the government should be enforced and people should properly apply wearing facemasks, frequent handwashing, social and physical distancing measures as a comprehensive package of COVID-19 prevention and control strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Government Employees/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Male , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
7.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0256159, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1398931

ABSTRACT

What influences the adoption of SARS-CoV-2 mitigation behaviors-both personal, such as mask wearing and frequent handwashing, and social, such as avoiding large gatherings and physical contact-across countries? Understanding why some individuals are more willing to change their behavior to mitigate the spread of a pandemic will not only help us to address the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic but also to respond to future ones. Researchers have pointed to a variety of factors that may influence individual adoption of personal and social mitigation behaviors, including social inequality, risk perception, personality traits, and government policies. While not denying the importance of these factors, we argue that the role of trust and confidence has received insufficient attention to date. Our study explores whether there is a difference in the way trust and confidence in particular leaders and organizations affect individual compliance and whether this effect is consistent across different types of mitigation behaviors. Specifically, we utilize an original cross-national survey conducted during the first wave of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (May-June 2020) to investigate how trust in scientists, medical professionals, politicians, and religious leaders and confidence in global, national, and local health organizations affects individual compliance in 16 countries/territories across five world regions. Our analyses, which control for the aforementioned factors as well as several others, suggest that trust in politicians and confidence in national health ministries have the most consistent influence on whether individuals adopt both personal and social mitigation behaviors. Across our sample, we find that greater trust in politicians is associated with lower levels of individual compliance with public health directives, whereas greater confidence in the national health ministry is associated with higher levels of individual compliance. Our findings suggest the need to understand trust and confidence as among the most important individual level characteristics driving compliance when developing and delivering messaging about the adoption of mitigation behaviors. The content of the message, it seems, will be most effective when citizens across countries trust its source. Trusted sources, such as politicians and the national health ministry, should thus consider working closely together when determining and communicating recommended health behaviors to avoid contradicting one another.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Health Behavior/physiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Trust/psychology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Government , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Behavior , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(4): 678-697, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1385931

ABSTRACT

During the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic new studies are emerging daily providing novel information about sources, transmission risks and possible prevention measures. In this review, we aimed to comprehensively summarize the current evidence on possible sources for SARS-CoV-2, including evaluation of transmission risks and effectiveness of applied prevention measures. Next to symptomatic patients, asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic carriers are a possible source with respiratory secretions as the most likely cause for viral transmission. Air and inanimate surfaces may be sources; however, viral RNA has been inconsistently detected. Similarly, even though SARS-CoV-2 RNA has been detected on or in personal protective equipment (PPE), blood, urine, eyes, the gastrointestinal tract and pets, these sources are currently thought to play a negligible role for transmission. Finally, various prevention measures such as handwashing, hand disinfection, face masks, gloves, surface disinfection or physical distancing for the healthcare setting and in public are analysed for their expected protective effect.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , Carrier State/transmission , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Carrier State/virology , Gloves, Protective/virology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Masks/virology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/virology
9.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 21(8): e209-e221, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1331321

ABSTRACT

Health-care-associated infections are the most prevalent adverse events of hospital care, posing a substantial threat to patient safety and burden on society. Hand hygiene with alcohol-based hand rub is the most effective preventive strategy to reduce health-care-associated infections. Over the past two decades, various interventions have been introduced and studied to improve hand hygiene compliance among health-care workers. The global implementation of the WHO multimodal hand hygiene improvement strategy and constant efforts to replace the use of soap and water with alcohol-based hand rub have led to a faster and more efficient hand cleaning method. These strategies have strongly contributed to the success of behaviour change and a subsequent decrease in health-care-associated infections and cross-transmission of multidrug-resistant organisms worldwide. The WHO multimodal behaviour change strategy requires a series of elements including system change as a prerequisite for behaviour, change, education, monitoring and performance feedback, reminders in the workplace, and an institutional safety climate. Successful adoption of the promotion strategy requires adaptation to available resources and sociocultural contexts. This Review focuses on the major advances and challenges in hand hygiene research and practices in the past 20 years and sets out various ways forward for improving this lifesaving action.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene/history , Health Personnel , Publications/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Hygiene/trends , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Research/trends
11.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 56, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296122

ABSTRACT

Background: The adherence of medical laboratory technicians (MLT) to infection control guidelines is essential for reducing the risk of exposure to infectious agents. This study explored the adherence of MLT towards infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The study population consisted of MLT (n = 444) who worked in private and government health sectors in Jordan. A self-reported survey was used to collect data from participants. Findings: More than 87% of the participants reported adherence to hand-washing guidelines and using personal protective equipment (PPE) when interacting with patients (74.5%), and handling clinical samples (70.0%). Besides, 88.1%, 48.2%, and 7.7% reported wearing of lab coats, face masks, and goggles, at all times, respectively. The majority reported increased adherence to infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes increased PPE use at the workplace (94.2%), increased frequency of disinfection of laboratory surfaces (92.4%) and laboratory equipment (86.7%), and increased frequency of handwashing/use of antiseptics (94.6%). Having a graduate degree was significantly associated with increased adherence of participants to the daily use of goggles/eye protection (p = 0.002), and the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.011). Having work experience of >10 years was associated with increased adherence to the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.001). Conclusion: MLT reported very good adherence with most assessed infection control practices. In addition, they reported increased conformity with infection control guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Laboratories , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence/standards , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories/organization & administration , Laboratories/standards , Male , Medical Laboratory Personnel/standards , Medical Laboratory Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
12.
S Afr Fam Pract (2004) ; 63(1): e1-e3, 2021 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296012

ABSTRACT

The use of hand sanitisers is common practice to prevent the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). However, the safety thereof requires consideration as this may be hazardous in children. Recent studies have shown that the misuse and increased unsupervised availability of alcohol-based hand sanitisers may result in adverse events in children such as skin irritation, dryness, cracking and peeling. Unintentional or intentional ingestion of hand sanitisers in children under the age of 12 years may occur because of the colour, smell and flavour added to it. Consumption of alcohol in children may result in hypoglycaemia, apnoea and acidosis. This allows the invasion of other bacterial and viral infections. Children may also rub their eyes with sanitised hands and cause ocular injury. Therefore, the use of hand sanitisers in general needs to be revised in both children and adults. Other interventions on lowering the risk of adverse events because of misuse of hand sanitiser should be practised more often. These include promoting washing of hands over sanitisers where possible, training children on how to use hand sanitisers and creating awareness of the dangers if ingested or in contact with the eyes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions , Hand Sanitizers , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , Child , Child Health , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Drug Misuse/adverse effects , Drug Misuse/prevention & control , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/etiology , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Eye Diseases/chemically induced , Eye Diseases/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Hand Sanitizers/toxicity , Humans , Risk Adjustment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Skin Diseases/prevention & control
13.
Regul Toxicol Pharmacol ; 124: 104978, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283630

ABSTRACT

An in vivo pharmacokinetic study was conducted using consumer antiseptic wash containing 0.13% benzalkonium chloride (BAC) to assess the effect of dermal absorption on long-term systemic exposure to BAC. The objective of the study was to determine blood levels of BAC under maximal use conditions. Subjects were enlisted to wash their hands 60 s with soap containing 0.13% BAC 30 times per day over an 8-9 h time period for 5 consecutive days. The test product with the highest absorption potential was selected based on market share and results from in vitro permeation testing. Blood plasma was collected from subjects on 32 occasions over the 6-day study period. Plasma samples were analyzed for the C12 and C14 homologs of BAC using LC-MS/MS with a lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) of 106.9 and 32.6 ng/L, respectively. For the 32 subjects, C12 homolog was detected above the LLOQ in only four of 1,024 plasma samples at 117.8-191.7 ng/L, and C14 homolog was detected in only one sample at 59.5 ng/L. Consequently, systemic exposure to BAC in antimicrobial soap is very low and below the level of concern identified by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (500 ng/L) even under maximal use conditions.


Subject(s)
Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacokinetics , Hand Disinfection/methods , Soaps/pharmacokinetics , Administration, Cutaneous , Adult , Benzalkonium Compounds/administration & dosage , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Skin Absorption , Soaps/administration & dosage , Soaps/chemistry , Young Adult
14.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(6): 149-170, 2021 05 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281063

ABSTRACT

The disease COVID-19 caused by SARS-CoV-2 is the third highly infectious human Coronavirus epidemic in the 21s⁢t century due to its high transmission rate and quick evolution of its pathogenicity. Genomic studies indicate that it is zoonotic from bats. The COVID-19 has led to significant loss of lives and a tremendous economic decline in the world. Generally, the population at risk of a fatal outcome are the elderly and those who are debilitated or are immune compromised. The fatality rate is high, but now is reduced after the development of preventive vaccine although an effective treatment by drug against the virus is yet to be developed. The treatment is narrowed to the use of several anti-viral drugs, or other re-purposed drugs. Social distancing, therefore, has emerged as a putative method to decrease the rate of infection. In this review, we summarize the aspects of the disease that is so far have come to light and review the impact of the infection on our society, healthcare, economy, education, and environment.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19/drug therapy , Communicable Disease Control/methods , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Physical Distancing , Public Health/economics , Public Health/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology
15.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 27-30, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261926

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, effective disinfection measures are needed, and guidance based on the methodological framework of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) may enable the choice of effective disinfectants on an immediate basis. This study aimed to elucidate whether disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' as specified in the European Standard EN 14476 as well as in the German Association for the Control of Viral Diseases/Robert Koch Institute (DVV/RKI) guideline are effectively inactivating SARS-CoV-2. Two commercially available formulations for surface disinfection and one formulation for hand disinfection were studied regarding their virucidal activity. Based on the data of this study the enveloped SARS-CoV-2 is at least equally susceptible compared to the standard test virus vaccinia used in the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines. Thus, chemical disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' based on the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines will be an effective choice to target enveloped SARS-CoV-2 as a preventive measure.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/classification , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
18.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1229-1231, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1147201

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 can persist on surfaces, suggesting possible surface-mediated transmission of this pathogen. We found that fomites might be a substantial source of transmission risk, particularly in schools and child daycares. Combining surface cleaning and decontamination with mask wearing can help mitigate this risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Disease Transmission, Infectious/prevention & control , Fomites/virology , Infection Control , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Basic Reproduction Number , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Child , Child Day Care Centers/standards , Decontamination/methods , Equipment Contamination/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Masks , Nursing Homes/standards , Schools/standards , United States/epidemiology
19.
J Hosp Infect ; 111: 35-39, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1122084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has resulted in high levels of exposure of medical workers to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Hand decontamination is one of the actions recommended to reduce the risk of infection. AIM: Two disinfectants - BIAKOS antimicrobial skin and wound cleanser (AWC) and AWC2 (Sanara MedTech, Fort Worth, TX, USA) - were tested to determine whether they can inactivate SARS-CoV-2 upon contact or as a coating applied before contact with the virus. METHODS: The ability of AWC and AWC2 to inactivate SARS-CoV-2 was tested in liquid and dried form on plastic surfaces and porcine skin. FINDINGS: AWC and AWC2 were effective in reducing the infectious titre of SARS-CoV-2 in liquid form during application and in dried form 4 h after application. Virus on skin was reduced up to 2 log10-fold and 3.5 log10-fold after treatment with AWC and AWC2, respectively. CONCLUSION: Application of AWC and AWC2 to skin reduces the level of SARS-CoV-2 and the risk of infection.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Sanitizers/administration & dosage , Microbial Viability/drug effects , Skin/virology , Administration, Topical , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
20.
mSphere ; 6(2)2021 03 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1117328

ABSTRACT

Hand sanitizers have been developed as a convenient means to decontaminate an individual's hands of bacterial pathogens in situations in which soap and water are not available. Yet to our knowledge, no study has compared the antibacterial efficacy of a large collection of hand sanitizers. Using zone of growth inhibition and kill curve assays, we assessed the performance of 46 commercially available hand sanitizers that were obtained from national chain big-box stores, gasoline stations, pharmacies, and boutiques for antibacterial activity toward prototypical Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacterial pathogens. Results revealed substantial variability in the efficacy of many sanitizers evaluated. Formulations following World Health Organization-recommended ingredients (80% ethanol or 75% isopropyl alcohol) or those including benzalkonium chloride as the active principal ingredient displayed excellent antibacterial activity, whereas others exhibited modest or poor activity in the assays performed. Results also revealed that E. coli was generally more susceptible to most sanitizers in comparison to S. aureus and that there was significant strain-to-strain variability in hand sanitizer antimicrobial efficacy regardless of the organism evaluated. Further, tests of a subset of hand sanitizers toward severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) revealed no direct correlation between antibacterial and antiviral performance, with all ethyl alcohol formulations performing equally well and displaying improved activity in comparison to benzalkonium chloride-containing sanitizer. Taken together, these results indicate that there is likely to be substantial variability in the antimicrobial performance of commercially available hand sanitizers, particularly toward bacterial pathogens, and a need to evaluate the efficacy of sanitizers under development.IMPORTANCE In response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, hand hygiene has taken on a prominent role in efforts to mitigate SARS-CoV-2 transmission and infection, which has led to a radical increase in the number and types of hand sanitizers manufactured to meet public demand. To our knowledge, no studies have evaluated or compared the antimicrobial performance of hand sanitizers that are being produced under COVID-19 emergency authorization. Tests of 46 commercially available hand sanitizers purchased from national chain brick-and-mortar stores revealed considerable variability in their antibacterial performance toward two bacterial pathogens of immediate health care concern, S. aureus and E. coli Expanded testing of a subset of hand sanitizers revealed no direct correlation between antibacterial performance of individual sanitizers and their activity toward SARS-CoV-2. These results indicate that as the pandemic subsides, there will be a need to validate the antimicrobial efficacy of sanitizers being produced.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Staphylococcus aureus/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/transmission , Cell Line , Chlorocebus aethiops , Escherichia coli Infections/prevention & control , Escherichia coli Infections/transmission , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcal Infections/prevention & control , Staphylococcal Infections/transmission , Vero Cells
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