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2.
Ann Glob Health ; 87(1): 56, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1296122

ABSTRACT

Background: The adherence of medical laboratory technicians (MLT) to infection control guidelines is essential for reducing the risk of exposure to infectious agents. This study explored the adherence of MLT towards infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. Method: The study population consisted of MLT (n = 444) who worked in private and government health sectors in Jordan. A self-reported survey was used to collect data from participants. Findings: More than 87% of the participants reported adherence to hand-washing guidelines and using personal protective equipment (PPE) when interacting with patients (74.5%), and handling clinical samples (70.0%). Besides, 88.1%, 48.2%, and 7.7% reported wearing of lab coats, face masks, and goggles, at all times, respectively. The majority reported increased adherence to infection control practices during the COVID-19 pandemic. This includes increased PPE use at the workplace (94.2%), increased frequency of disinfection of laboratory surfaces (92.4%) and laboratory equipment (86.7%), and increased frequency of handwashing/use of antiseptics (94.6%). Having a graduate degree was significantly associated with increased adherence of participants to the daily use of goggles/eye protection (p = 0.002), and the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.011). Having work experience of >10 years was associated with increased adherence to the use of PPE while handling clinical samples (p = 0.001). Conclusion: MLT reported very good adherence with most assessed infection control practices. In addition, they reported increased conformity with infection control guidelines during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Guideline Adherence , Infection Control , Laboratories , Medical Laboratory Personnel , Personal Protective Equipment , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence/standards , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Care Surveys , Humans , Infection Control/instrumentation , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Jordan/epidemiology , Laboratories/organization & administration , Laboratories/standards , Male , Medical Laboratory Personnel/standards , Medical Laboratory Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2 , Self Report
3.
PLoS One ; 16(6): e0252271, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1269918

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (CoViD-19), with the fatality rate in elder (60 years old or more) being much higher than young (60 years old or less) patients, was declared a pandemic by the World Health Organization on March 11, 2020. A mathematical model considering young and elder subpopulations under different fatality rates was formulated based on the natural history of CoViD-19 to study the transmission of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The model considered susceptible, exposed, asymptomatic, pre-symptomatic, mild CoViD-19, severe CoViD-19, and recovered compartments, besides compartments of isolated individuals and those who were caught by test. This model was applied to study the epidemiological scenario resulting from the adoption of quarantine (isolation or lockdown) in many countries to control the rapid propagation of CoViD-19. We chose as examples the isolation adopted in São Paulo State (Brazil) in the early phase but not at the beginning of the epidemic, and the lockdown implemented in Spain when the number of severe CoViD-19 cases was increasing rapidly. Based on the data collected from São Paulo State and Spain, the model parameters were evaluated, and we obtained a higher estimation for the basic reproduction number R0 (9.24 for São Paulo State, and 8 for Spain) compared to the currently accepted estimation of R0 around 2 using the SEIR (susceptible, exposed, infectious, and recovered compartments) model. In comparison with the lockdown in Spain, the relatively early adoption of the isolation in São Paulo State resulted in enlarging the period of the first wave of the epidemic and delaying its peak. The model allowed to explain the flattening of the epidemic curves by quarantine when associated with the protective measures (face mask, washing hands with alcohol and gel, and social distancing) adopted by the population. The description of the epidemic under quarantine and protections can be a background to foreseen the epidemiological scenarios from the release strategies, which can help guide public health policies by decision-makers.


Subject(s)
Basic Reproduction Number/statistics & numerical data , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Models, Statistical , Pandemics/prevention & control , Quarantine/standards , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brazil/epidemiology , Decision Making, Organizational , Hand Disinfection/standards , Humans , Life Expectancy , Masks/standards , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Public Policy , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spain/epidemiology
4.
J Hosp Infect ; 112: 27-30, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1261926

ABSTRACT

In the ongoing SARS CoV-2 pandemic, effective disinfection measures are needed, and guidance based on the methodological framework of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN) may enable the choice of effective disinfectants on an immediate basis. This study aimed to elucidate whether disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' as specified in the European Standard EN 14476 as well as in the German Association for the Control of Viral Diseases/Robert Koch Institute (DVV/RKI) guideline are effectively inactivating SARS-CoV-2. Two commercially available formulations for surface disinfection and one formulation for hand disinfection were studied regarding their virucidal activity. Based on the data of this study the enveloped SARS-CoV-2 is at least equally susceptible compared to the standard test virus vaccinia used in the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines. Thus, chemical disinfectants claiming 'virucidal activity against enveloped viruses' based on the EN 14476 and DVV/RKI guidelines will be an effective choice to target enveloped SARS-CoV-2 as a preventive measure.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Disinfection/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/chemistry , Disinfection/classification , Hand Disinfection/methods , Humans , Virus Diseases/prevention & control
5.
Pediatr Clin North Am ; 68(5): 1103-1118, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240538

ABSTRACT

Limiting exposure to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus has been the major principle guiding public health measures. Masking, social distancing, as well as frequent hand hygiene have been the chief nonpharmaceutical interventions as preventive strategies for all age groups. Advancement in vaccine development and vaccination of large populations offer a glimmer of hope for containing and ending this pandemic. However, until immunization is widespread in the community, masking, social distancing, and frequent handwashing, as well as early detection and isolation of infected persons, should be continued to curb the spread of illness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Child Welfare/statistics & numerical data , Health Education/methods , Quarantine/standards , Adolescent , Child , Hand Disinfection/standards , Humans , Public Health , Social Isolation
6.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 235: 113756, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230517

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Schools, depending on their access to and quality of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and the implementation of healthy behaviours, can be critical for the control and spread of many infectious diseases, including COVID-19. Schools provide opportunities for pupils to learn about the importance of hygiene and WASH-related practice, and build healthy habits and skills, with beneficial medium- and long-term consequences particularly in low- and middle-income countries: reducing pupils' absenteeism due to diseases, promoting physical, mental and social health, and improving learning outcomes. WASH services alone are often not sufficient and need to be combined with educational programmes. As pupils disseminate their acquired health-promoting knowledge to their (extended) families, improved WASH provisions and education in schools have beneficial effects also on the community. International organisations frequently roll out interventions in schools to improve WASH services and, in some cases, train pupils and teachers on safe WASH behaviours. How such interventions relate to local school education on WASH, health promotion and disease prevention knowledge, whether and how such knowledge and school books are integrated into WASH education interventions in schools, are knowledge gaps we fill. METHODS: We analyzed how Kenyan primary school science text book content supports WASH and health education by a book review including books used from class 1 through class 8, covering the age range from 6 to 13 years. We then conducted a rapid literature review of combined WASH interventions that included a behaviour change or educational component, and a rapid review of international policy guidance documents to contextualise the results and understand the relevance of books and school education for WASH interventions implemented by international organisations. We conducted a content analysis based on five identified thematic categories, including drinking water, sanitation, hygiene, environmental hygiene & health promotion and disease risks, and mapped over time the knowledge about WASH and disease prevention. RESULTS: The books comprehensively address drinking water issues, including sources, quality, treatment, safe storage and water conservation; risks and transmission pathways of various waterborne (Cholera, Typhoid fever), water-based (Bilharzia), vector-related (Malaria) and other communicable diseases (Tuberculosis); and the importance of environmental hygiene and health promotion. The content is broadly in line with internationally recommended WASH topics and learning objectives. Gaps remain on personal hygiene and handwashing, including menstrual hygiene, sanitation education, and related health risks and disease exposures. The depth of content varies greatly over time and across the different classes. Such locally available education materials already used in schools were considered by none of the WASH education interventions in the considered intervention studies. CONCLUSIONS: The thematic gaps/under-representations in books that we identified, namely sanitation, hygiene and menstrual hygiene education, are all high on the international WASH agenda, and need to be filled especially now, in the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic. Disconnects exist between school book knowledge and WASH education interventions, between policy and implementation, and between theory and practice, revealing missed opportunities for effective and sustainable behaviour change, and underlining the need for better integration. Considering existing local educational materials and knowledge may facilitate the buy-in and involvement of teachers and school managers in strengthening education and implementing improvements. We suggest opportunities for future research, behaviour change interventions and decision-making to improve WASH in schools.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water/standards , Health Education , Hygiene/standards , Sanitation/standards , Adolescent , Child , Communicable Disease Control , Communicable Diseases/transmission , Curriculum/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Behavior , Health Education/statistics & numerical data , Health Promotion , Humans , Kenya , Schools , Textbooks as Topic
8.
GMS J Med Educ ; 38(1): Doc22, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1110241

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The corona virus pandemic rendered most live education this spring term impossible. Many classes were converted into e-learning formats. But not all learning content and outcomes can readily be transferred into digital space. Project outline: Emergency medicine teaching relies on hands-on simulation training. Therefore, we had to devise a catalogue of measures, that would enable us to offer simulation training for Advanced Life Support. Summary of work: Strict hygienic rules including disinfection of hands, wearing personal protective gear at all times and disinfection of equipment were implemented. Group size and number of staff was reduced, introducing fixed student teams accompanied by the same teacher. Only large rooms with good ventilation were used. Under these conditions, we were allowed to carry out core Advanced Life Support simulations. Other content had to be transferred to online platforms. Discussion: Heeding general hygiene advise and using personal protective gear, a central cluster of simulations was carried out. Students and staff adhered to rules without complaint. No infections within faculty or student body were reported. Conclusion: It seems feasible to conduct core simulations under strict hygienic protocol.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Education, Medical, Graduate/organization & administration , Emergency Medicine/education , Physical Distancing , Disinfection/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , Humans , Naphthoquinones , Pandemics , Personal Protective Equipment/supply & distribution , Pyrans , SARS-CoV-2
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 37(Suppl 1): 47, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1069980

ABSTRACT

The recent Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) caused by the novel strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2 virus) has become a worldwide public health crisis with associated high mortality rates globally. Human to human transmission of the infection emphasizes the importance of adhering to public and social measure to halt its spread. However, the recent #ENDSARS protests led by angry youths in Nigeria resulted to complete flouting of all WHO guidelines meted to curb the spread of the virus. Given that the nation is the most populous African country with over 50 percent of her population been youths, this situation has huge implications for the country and Africa as a whole. The risk of community transmission occasioned by the protest, coupled with travels and active mobility across countries within the continent increases the risk of community transmission with possible increases in new cases over the next few weeks to months. From the foregoing, it is expedient to increase awareness and enforcement of the use of personal protective equipment especially use of nose masks, face shields and frequent hand washing or sanitizing in public places. These individual-targeted measures will go a long way to curtail the imminent community transmission of COVID-19 across Nigeria. It is therefore recommended that Government and non-governmental agencies across the region actively engage to increase collaborative efforts; screening facilities and access to these services across the country, as well as accentuate regular adherence to preventive measures to the general public.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Civil Disorders , Public Health , Adolescent , Africa/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cooperative Behavior , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Masks/standards , Nigeria/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(3): 874-883, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060758

ABSTRACT

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), hand sanitizer may be a convenient alternative to soap and water to increase hand hygiene practices. We explored perceptions, acceptability, and use of hand sanitizer in rural Bangladesh. We enrolled 120 households from three rural villages. Promoters distributed free alcohol-based hand sanitizer, installed handwashing stations (bucket with tap, stand, basin, and bottle for soapy water), and conducted household visits and community meetings. During Phase 1, promoters recommended handwashing with soap or soapy water, or hand sanitizer after defecation, after cleaning a child's anus/feces, and before food preparation. In Phase 2, they recommended separate key times for hand sanitizer: before touching a child ≤ 6 months and after returning home. Three to 4 months after each intervention phase, we conducted a survey, in-depth interviews, and group discussions with child caregivers and male household members. After Phase 1, 82/89 (92%) households reported handwashing with soap after defecation versus 38 (43%) reported hand sanitizer use. Participants thought soap and water removed dirt from their hands, whereas hand sanitizer killed germs. In Phase 2, 76/87 (87%) reported using hand sanitizer after returning home and 71/87 (82%) before touching a child ≤ 6 months. Qualitative study participants reported that Phase 2-recommended times for hand sanitizer use were acceptable, but handwashing with soap was preferred over hand sanitizer when there was uncertainty over choosing between the two. Hand sanitizer use was liked by household members and has potential for use in LMICs, including during the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohols/chemistry , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Sanitizers/analysis , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
11.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 12, 2021 01 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1007169

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the COVID-19 pandemic, billions of people have to change their behaviours to slow down the spreading of the virus. Protective measures include self-isolation, social (physical) distancing and compliance with personal hygiene rules, particularly regular and thorough hand washing. Prevalence estimates for the compliance with the COVID-19 measures are often based on direct self-reports. However, during a health crisis there is strong public pressure to comply with health and safety regulations so that people's responding in direct self-reports may be seriously compromised by social desirability. METHODS: In an online survey, an indirect questioning technique was used to test whether the prevalence of hygiene practices may be lower than in conventional surveys when confidentiality of responding is guaranteed. The Extended Crosswise Model is an indirect questioning technique that guarantees the confidentiality of responding. To the degree that direct self-reports are biased by social desirability, prevalence estimates of hygiene practices such as thorough hand washing based on the Extended Crosswise Model should be lower than those based on direct self-reports. RESULTS: We analysed data of 1434 participants. In the direct questioning group 94.5% of the participants claimed to practice proper hand hygiene; in the indirect questioning group a significantly lower estimate of only 78.1% was observed. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that estimates of the degree of commitment to measures designed to counter the spread of the disease may be significantly inflated by social desirability in direct self-reports. Indirect questioning techniques with higher levels of confidentiality seem helpful in obtaining more realistic estimates of the degree to which people follow the recommended personal hygiene measures. More realistic estimates of compliance can help to inform and to adjust public information campaigns on COVID-19 hygiene recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Disinfection/standards , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
12.
Diabetes Metab Syndr ; 15(1): 69-75, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-965082

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Health care workers (HCWs) are at increased risk of getting infected with Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and suboptimal preventive practices have been identified as an important risk factor in this regard. This study was done to evaluate the preventive practices being followed by health care workers and identify reasons for suboptimal compliance. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey was done in HCWs belonging to various occupational roles and socio-cultural backgrounds across India through online platforms and telephonic interviews from July 30, 2020 to August 30, 2020. A scientifically designed and pre-validated questionnaire with good validity (CVR = 0.87, S-CVI/Av = 0.978) and internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha coefficient = 0.85) was used. RESULTS: The responses of 956 participants were analysed. Various suboptimal practices like touching outer surface of masks, lack of social distancing in cafeteria and duty rooms, inability to wash hands for adequate duration and properly follow steps of hand hygiene, inability to don and doff PPE properly, carrying PPE to duty rooms before completely doffing, use of personal mobile phones during duty and improper sleep were identified. Lack of knowledge, long duty hours, shortage of PPE, high patient workload, and casual attitude regarding own safety were identified as important barriers. Resident doctors and paramedical staff in the age group 18-30 years reported lower adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Suboptimal compliance in preventive practices like handling PPE, distancing in cafeteria/duty rooms and hand hygiene is not uncommon in HCWs. Certain barriers are identified which should be addressed to ensure adequate safety of HCWs against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Personnel/standards , Infection Control/standards , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment/standards , Physical Distancing , Young Adult
13.
J Drugs Dermatol ; 19(11): 1127-1129, 2020 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-941794

ABSTRACT

As the coronavirus pandemic continues into the second half of 2020, states across the US remain steadfast in their search to determine the safest methods of returning to normalcy. Without a readily available, effective COVID-19 vaccine, and as the numbers of infected individuals continues to climb, the best practices to ensure public safety are rooted in good personal hygiene and prevention of transmission of the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2. To that end, in addition to properly wearing adequate facial covering, individuals should properly wash their hands to prevent direct auto-inoculation. J Drugs Dermatol. 2020;19(11): 1127-1129 doi:10.36849/JDD.2020.5557.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Humans , Masks , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , United States/epidemiology
14.
Eur Rev Med Pharmacol Sci ; 24(21): 11432-11439, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-934955

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Soap has been used by humankind since ancient times and was probably already known to the Sumerians. It is a fatty acid salt obtained from the reaction of a strong base with a fatty substance of animal (tallow) or plant origin (oil). This reaction is called saponification. Syndets, on the other hand, are much more recent and have been in use for about a century. In the case of liquid syndets, they are mainly alkyl sulphates and their derivatives alkyl ether sulphates while isethionates and sarcosinates are more commonly found in solid syndets. Synthetic soaps and detergents are surfactants and, as such, they have detergent properties. The way soap works accounts for its antimicrobial properties. Thanks to its amphiphilic structure, it is able to interact with the lipid membranes of microorganisms (viruses, bacteria, etc.) and inactivate them. In this coronavirus pandemic period, health authorities worldwide recommend hand washing with soap and water. We therefore wanted to provide a summary of the chemical characteristics and applications of soaps, on the one hand, and synthetic detergents, on the other. Soap is not the only product used for hand hygiene and, given the current situation, alternatives are complex and varied.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents/pharmacology , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Detergents/pharmacology , Hand Disinfection/methods , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Soaps/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents/chemistry , Anti-Infective Agents/standards , COVID-19 , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Communicable Disease Control/standards , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Detergents/chemistry , Detergents/standards , Hand Disinfection/standards , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps/chemistry , Soaps/standards
15.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(5): 1762-1764, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-809306

ABSTRACT

The highly infectious nature of the SARS-CoV-2 virus requires rigorous infection prevention and control (IPC) to reduce the transmission of COVID-19 within healthcare facilities, but in low-resource settings, the lack of water access creates a perfect storm for low-handwashing adherence, ineffective surface decontamination, and other environmental cleaning functions that are critical for IPC compliance. Data from the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme show that one in four healthcare facilities globally lacks a functional water source on premises (i.e., basic water service); in sub-Saharan Africa, half of all healthcare facilities have no basic water services. But even these data do not tell the whole story, other water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) assessments in low-resource healthcare facilities have shown the detrimental effects of seasonal or temporary water shortages, nonfunctional water infrastructure, and fluctuating water quality. The rapid spread of COVID-19 forces us to reexamine prevailing norms within national health systems around the importance of WASH for quality of health care, the prioritization of WASH in healthcare facility investments, and the need for focused, cross-sector leadership and collaboration between WASH and health professionals. What COVID-19 reveals about infection prevention in low-resource healthcare facilities is that we can no longer afford to "work around" WASH deficiencies. Basic WASH services are a fundamental prerequisite to compliance with the principles of IPC that are necessary to protect patients and healthcare workers in every setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Facilities , Infection Control/standards , Africa , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Facilities/economics , Health Facilities/standards , Humans , Infection Control/economics , Sanitation/standards , Water Supply/standards
16.
J Hosp Infect ; 106(2): 264-270, 2020 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-765088

ABSTRACT

The World Health Organization (WHO) hand-rub formulations have been in use around the world for at least the past 10 years. The advent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has further enhanced their use. We reviewed published efficacy data for the original and modified formulations. Only efficacy data according to the European Norms (EN) were found. The bactericidal efficacy of the original formulations was, under practical conditions, partly insufficient (EN 1500, only effective in 60 s; EN 12791, efficacy too low in 5 min). The first modification with higher alcohol concentrations improves their efficacy as hygienic hand rub (effective in 30 s). The second (0.725% glycerol) and third (0.5% glycerol) modification improves their efficacy for surgical hand preparation (effective in 5 and 3 min). The original and second modified formulations were tested and demonstrate activity against enveloped viruses including severe acute resiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in 30 s. The ethanol-based formulation is also active against some non-enveloped test viruses in 60 s (suspension tests, EN 14476). In-vivo data on the formulations would provide a more reliable result on the virucidal efficacy on contaminated hands but are currently not available. Nevertheless, the most recent modifications should be adopted for use in healthcare.


Subject(s)
2-Propanol/standards , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/standards , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Disinfection/standards , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , World Health Organization
18.
Cont Lens Anterior Eye ; 44(4): 101359, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731731

ABSTRACT

AIM: Contact lens wearers need to maintain optimal hygiene practices during the COVID-19 pandemic to minimise contact-lens complications including microbial keratitis and corneal infiltrative events. This online survey (UK and Ireland) explored contact lens wearers' compliance behaviours, attitudes and concerns during the pandemic. METHOD: The 60-item anonymous online survey was distributed during a 1-month period via Qualtrics (starting on 14/04/20). The survey captured: a) demographic information, b) type of lenses worn and compliance with lens wear and care procedures, c) adherence to recommendations and d) concerns associated with contact lens wear during the pandemic. RESULTS: Two hundred and forty seven responses were received (34.3 ±â€¯11.7 years old, 79% female). Seventy nine percent of participants reported that they were self-isolating or rigorously following social distance advice. Fifty-six percent of participants reported using their lenses less during the pandemic. Eighty-seven percent of respondents reported following the recommended 20-second rule most times/every time and 96% used soap and water during handwashing. Eleven percent of respondents admitted not following recommendations regarding disposal of lenses and 18% would not consider ceasing lens wear if unwell (with flu/cold) during the pandemic. CONCLUSION: Respondents reported wearing their contact lenses less than usual. Good compliance with handwashing was observed but soft reusable lens wearers showed a statistically significant lower compliance with lens wear and care compared to daily disposable lens wearers (p=<0.001).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Contact Lenses, Hydrophilic/statistics & numerical data , Disposable Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Hand Disinfection/standards , Hygiene/standards , Patient Compliance/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Attitude to Health , Contact Lens Solutions , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
19.
Am J Infect Control ; 49(1): 30-33, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-722966

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Achieving high levels of hand hygiene compliance of health care personnel has been an ongoing challenge. The objective of this study was to examine the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on hand hygiene performance (HHP) rates in acute care hospitals. METHODS: HHP rates were estimated using an automated hand hygiene monitoring system installed in 74 adult inpatient units in 7 hospitals and 10 pediatric inpatient units in 2 children's hospitals. A segmented regression model was used to estimate the trajectory of HHP rates in the 10 weeks leading up to a COVID-19-related milestone event (eg, school closures) and for 10 weeks after. RESULTS: Three effects emerged, all of which were significant at P < .01. Average HHP rates increased from 46% to 56% in the months preceding pandemic-related school closures. This was followed by a 6% upward shift at the time school closures occurred. HHP rates remained over 60% for 4 weeks before declining to 54% at the end of the study period. CONCLUSIONS: Data from an automated hand hygiene monitoring system indicated that HHP shifted in multiple directions during the early stages of the pandemic. We discuss possible reasons why HHP first increased as the pandemic began and then decreased as it progressed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Guideline Adherence/trends , Hand Disinfection/trends , Health Personnel , Infection Control/trends , Automation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/standards , Hand Hygiene/standards , Hand Hygiene/trends , Hand Sanitizers , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control/standards , SARS-CoV-2 , Soaps , United States/epidemiology
20.
J Popul Ther Clin Pharmacol ; 27(S Pt 1): e37-e52, 2020 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-699428

ABSTRACT

After officially declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization (WHO), drastic measures to restrict human movements to contain the COVID-19 infection are employed by most of the countries. Maintaining high personal hygiene by frequent handwashing and be vigilant of clinical signs are widely recommended to reduce the disease burden. The national and international health agencies, including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the WHO, have provided guidelines for prevention and treatment suggestions. Here, in this brief article, based on available clinical information, the author discusses why handwashing could be protective of COVID-19 infections. Although a detailed and in-depth discussion of various preventive and protective measures is beyond the scope of this article, this review will focus on the utility of frequent handwashing in minimizing the risk of spreading COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Guidelines as Topic , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission
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