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1.
Anal Bioanal Chem ; 415(17): 3327-3340, 2023 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2318864

ABSTRACT

During the Covid-19 pandemic, health agencies worldwide have recommended frequent handwashing and sanitizing. A variety of hand gel products were made available on the market, often with fragrances added to curtail the strong smell of alcohol. Commonly used Citrus fragrances contain volatile aroma constituents and non-volatile oxygen heterocyclic compounds (OHCs), consisting mostly of polymethoxyflavones, coumarins, and furocoumarins. The latter have long been investigated for their phototoxic properties, and their safety as cosmetic product ingredients has been debated recurrently. To this concern, twelve commercial Citrus-scented products were investigated in this study. An extraction method was optimized for thirty-seven OHC compounds, obtaining absolute mean recovery values in the 73.5-116% range with only few milliliters of solvent consumption. Analysis by ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry detection evidenced that three samples did not conform to the labeling requirements for fragrance allergens (coumarin) laid down by the European Union Regulation on Cosmetic Products. The total furocoumarin (FC) content of the samples investigated was in the 0.003-3.7ppm range, with some noteworthy exceptions. Specifically, in two samples, the total FCs were quantified as 89 and 219 ppm, thus exceeding the safe limits recommended up to a factor of 15. Finally, the consistency of the volatile fingerprint attained by gas chromatography allowed drawing conclusions on the authenticity of the Citrus fragrances labeled, and several products did not conform to the information reported on the label concerning the presence of essential oils. Besides the issue of product authenticity, analytical tools and regulatory actions for widespread testing of hand hygiene products are urgent, to protect consumers' health and safety.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Citrus , Cosmetics , Furocoumarins , Hand Hygiene , Perfume , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry , Cosmetics/analysis , Perfume/analysis , Furocoumarins/analysis , Citrus/chemistry
2.
Nurs Stand ; 38(5): 62-67, 2023 05 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317503

ABSTRACT

Managing community-acquired infections remains an ongoing challenge for community nursing teams. The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic meant that community nurses had to ensure they were using evidence-based infection prevention and control measures to limit the effects of the pandemic and maintain patient safety. Community environments can be unpredictable, and compared with acute settings nurses will often lack the appropriate resources when visiting patients in their homes or in residential care. This article outlines effective infection prevention and control measures that nurses can implement in the community, such as the appropriate use of personal protective equipment, optimal hand hygiene, safe waste management and adherence to an aseptic technique.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Infection Control/methods
5.
J Bras Nefrol ; 42(2 suppl 1): 12-14, 2020 Aug 26.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291145

ABSTRACT

Patients with Chronic Kidney Disease are among those individuals at increased risk for developing more serious forms of Covid-19. This increased risk starts in the pre-dialysis phase of the disease. Providing useful information for these patients, in language that facilitates the understanding of the disease, can help nephrologists and other healthcare professionals to establish a more effective communication with these patients and help minimize contagion and the risks of serious illness in this population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Education as Topic/standards , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic/complications , Activities of Daily Living , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Elective Surgical Procedures , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Hygiene/standards , Health Facilities , Health Personnel , Humans , Nephrology/standards , Personal Space , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renal Dialysis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Symptom Assessment
6.
Rev Esc Enferm USP ; 56: e20220283, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2291682

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the hygiene behaviors of individuals during the Coronavirus Disease-2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. METHOD: During the pandemic (April 2021-September 2021), 439 adults were surveyed online via Google Forms, which assessed the individuals' introductory information and hygiene behaviors as determined by the COVID-19 Hygiene Scale. RESULTS: Out of the participants, 71.3% were female and 68.3% were 18-33 years old. The mean COVID-19 Hygiene Scale score of the participants was 94.62 ± 26.56. Individuals belonging to the 18-33 years age group had significantly higher hand hygiene scores than the other age groups (p < 0.05). Women showed a higher mean total and subdomain scores in the COVID-19 Hygiene Scale than men. A significant difference between the social distance and mask use and hand hygiene subdomains was observed (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The hand hygiene scores of the individuals varied by age and gender, whereas the social distance and mask use scores varied by only gender. Based on the above mentioned results, the nurses should focus on the individuals' development of effective hygiene behaviors, and schedule and implement trainings according to the sociodemographic differences among the individuals.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Male , Adult , Female , Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Health Behavior
7.
Environ Health Prev Med ; 28: 18, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2263922

ABSTRACT

During the recent emergence of COVID-19, an increased practice of hand hygiene coincided with the reduced incidence of the norovirus epidemic in Japan, which is similar to experience with the pandemic flu in 2009. We investigated the relationship between the sales of hand hygiene products, including liquid hand soap and alcohol-based hand sanitizer, and the trend of norovirus epidemic. We used national gastroenteritis surveillance data across Japan in 2020 and 2021 and compared the base statistics of incidence of these two years with the average of the previous 10 years (2010-2019). We calculated the correlations (Spearman's Rho) between monthly sales of hand hygiene products and monthly norovirus cases and fitted them to a regression model. In 2020, there was no epidemic, and the incidence peak was the lowest in recent norovirus epidemics. In 2021, the incidence peak was delayed for five weeks to the usual epidemic seasons. Correlation coefficients between monthly sales of liquid hand soap and skin antiseptics and norovirus incidence showed a significantly negative correlation (Spearman's Rho = -0.88 and p = 0.002 for liquid hand soap; Spearman's Rho = -0.81 and p = 0.007 for skin antiseptics). Exponential regression models were fitted between the sales of each hand hygiene product and norovirus cases, respectively. The results suggest hand hygiene using these products is a potentially useful prevention method against norovirus epidemics. Effective ways of hand hygiene for increasing the prevention of norovirus should therefore be studied.


Subject(s)
Anti-Infective Agents, Local , COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Norovirus , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Soaps
8.
J Dr Nurs Pract ; 16(1): 54-61, 2023 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2284671

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 hand hygiene recommendation had resulted in a hand eczema -exacerbation. The guidelines of care for the management of hand eczema recommend the use of educational interventions for patients. Objective: An educational intervention was designed to increase the patient's knowledge of appropriate hand hygiene and improve the patient's symptoms. Methods: The validated self-assessment patient-oriented eczema measure tool and pre- and post-tests were used to measure outcomes prior to educational intervention and again in 1-2 months postintervention. Of the 26 participants enrolled, 21 completed the study. The study included newly diagnosed or established patients with eczema, and the education material was available for all patients. Results: The difference between the average pretest and initial posttest was statistically significant (df = 20, P (T ≤ t) = 0.000663535, p < .05). Similarly, the difference between the average pretest and follow-up posttest was also statistically significant (df = 20, P (T ≤ t) < 0.001, p < .05). Participants also had a 2.04 mean point decrease in symptoms severity. Conclusions: The results demonstrated an improvement in patient's knowledge and reduction in symptoms. Implications for Nursing: The program can serve as a new guideline for managing hand eczema symptoms due to COVID-19 in the adult population in the private office setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eczema , Hand Hygiene , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Eczema/prevention & control , Quality of Life , Severity of Illness Index
9.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6): 330-332, 2020.
Article in Italian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2240354

ABSTRACT

Systematic reviews have shown a prevalence close to 20% of gastrointestinal symptoms in COVID-19 positive patients, with nearly 40% of patients shedding viral RNA in their faeces, even if it may not be infectious, possibly because of inactivation by colonic fluid.According to current evidence, this virus is primarily transmitted by respiratory droplets and contact routes, including contaminated surfaces. The virus is quite stable on stainless steel, being detected up to 48-72 hours after application. Therefore, some individuals can be infected touching common contaminated surfaces, such as bathroom taps. Taps can be underestimated critical points in the transmission chain of the infection. Indeed, just by turning the knob, people leave germs on it, especially after coughing over their hands, sneezing, and/or blowing their nose. After handwashing with soap, user take back their germs when turning the knob. Paradoxically, the following user collects the germs back on his/her fingers by implementing a preventive measure, maybe before putting food into the mouth or wearing contact lenses.The Italian National Institute of Health recommends to clean and disinfect high-touched surfaces, but it is unrealistic and inefficient to do so after each tap use. As an alternative, new toilets should install long elbow-levers - or at least short levers - provided that people are educated to close them with the forearm or the side of the hand. This is already a standard measure in hospitals, but it is particularly important also in high-risk communities, such as retirement homes and prisons. It would be important also in schools, in workplaces, and even in families, contributing to the prevention both of orofaecal and respiratory infections.In the meantime, people should be educated to close existing knobs with disposable paper towel wipes or with toilet paper sheets.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment/virology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Fomites/virology , Hand Hygiene , Health Education , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , COVID-19/transmission , Equipment Contamination , Equipment Design , Feces/virology , Female , Humans , Italy , Male , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Touch
10.
Infect Dis Health ; 28(2): 95-101, 2023 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2245202

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) compliance among health-care workers is important for preventing transmission of infectious diseases. AIM: To describe health-care worker hand hygiene activity in ICU and non-ICU patients' rooms, using an automated monitoring system (AMS), before and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: At the Intercommunal Hospital of Créteil, near Paris, France, alcohol-based hand sanitizer (ABHS) consumption in the Department of Medicine (DM) and ICU was recorded using an AMS during four periods: before, during, and after the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, and during its second wave. FINDINGS: From 1st February to 30th November 2020, in the DM, the mean number of doses per patient-day for each of the four periods was, respectively, 5.7 (±0.3), 19.4 (±1.3), 17.6 (±0.7), and 7.9 (±0.2, P < 0.0001). In contrast, ICU ABHS consumption remained relatively constant. In the DM, during the pandemic waves, ABHS consumption was higher in rooms of COVID-19 patients than in other patients' rooms. Multivariate analysis showed ABHS consumption was associated with the period in the DM, and with the number of HCWs in the ICU. CONCLUSION: An AMS allows real-time collection of ABHS consumption data that can be used to adapt training and prevention measures to specific hospital departments.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Hospitals
11.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(1)2022 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2242613

ABSTRACT

Personal and household hygiene measures are important for preventing upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) and other infectious diseases, including coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). An online survey recruited 414 eligible parents in Hong Kong to study their hygiene knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAPs) regarding the prevention of URTIs among their children. The average knowledge score was high (10.2/12.0), but some misconceptions were identified. The majority of the participants agreed that good personal hygiene (93.5%) and good environmental hygiene (92.8%) can prevent URTIs. The average score for hand hygiene practices was high (3.78/4.00), but only 56.8% of the parents always performed hand hygiene before touching their mouths, noses, or eyes. In terms of environmental hygiene, only some household items were disinfected with disinfectants (door handles in 69.8% of the households, toilet seats in 60.4% of the households, the floor in 42.8% of the households, dining chairs in 24.2% of the households, and dining tables in 20.5% of the households). A higher knowledge score was associated with parents having tertiary educational levels or above, working as healthcare professionals, living in private residential flats or staff quarters, or having household incomes of HKD 70,000 or above. The results of multiple regression analyses also indicated that parents who were healthcare professionals and with higher household income had a better parental knowledge of hygiene measures after adjusting the attitude score. For hand hygiene, parents who achieved higher attitude scores obtained higher practice scores. Under the fifth wave of the COVID-19 epidemic, there were some misconceptions regarding hygiene among parents. Any health promotion program should target parents regarding taking proper personal and household hygienic measures, especially for those who had relatively lower socio-economic status and/or from a non-healthcare background. Motivating attitudes toward hand hygiene can lead to better practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , Hygiene , Surveys and Questionnaires
12.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 63(1): E59-E68, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2243914

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Handwashing has been recognized as a convenient, effective, and cost-effective means of preventing communicable diseases. However, many people overlook the importance of handwashing when engaging in activities that require handwashing due to various factors. The objectives of this study were to assess the level of handwashing knowledge, attitudes, and practices and determine their relationships and how they are affected by sex, educational background, and age. Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 636 respondents who received and completed an online questionnaire that was disseminated to the contacts of the researchers via WhatsApp, Email, LinkedIn, and Facebook. Respondents were presented with several statements to assess their handwashing knowledge, attitudes, and practices. Results: Overall, 82.2% of respondents had good knowledge, 91% had a positive attitude, and 48.4% adhered to good handwashing practices. Having a high school level of education (OR = 0.193, p = 0.034.), (OR = 0.145, p = 0.000) and (OR = 0.448, p = 0.049) decreased the likelihood of having good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices than in persons with tertiary level education. Predictors of good handwashing practices were knowledge (OR = 1.059, p = 0.37) and attitude (OR = 1.095, p = 0.000). These results suggest that having a higher level of education could increase a person's knowledge and attitude, which in turn enhances the likelihood that the person would adhere to most handwashing and hand hygiene practices. Conclusions: Enhancing people's handwashing practices requires positive attitudes and good knowledge about handwashing. These need to be complemented by enhanced access to handwashing facilities and innovative measures to enforce and encourage compliance.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ghana , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans
14.
HERD ; 16(2): 24-37, 2023 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2214441

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Evaluate the relationship between nurses' perception of the long-term care (LTC) environment, specifically having visible and accessible hand hygiene stations (HHS), and nurses' fatigue during the COVID-19 pandemic. BACKGROUND: LTC nurses experience not only heavy workloads and fatigue but also a high risk of infection during the COVID-19 pandemic. Few studies have evaluated the relationship between safety measures such as having visible and accessible HHS and nurses' fatigue. METHODS: The cross-sectional COVID-19 Impact on Nurses Study (COINS) was an online survey distributed to members of the American Association of Post-Acute Care Nursing through the REDCap survey platform, between June 1, 2020, and January 31, 2021. Logistic regression modeling was conducted to identify the relationship between nurses' perception of having visible and accessible HHS and fatigue among LTC nurses. RESULTS: The majority of LTC nurse respondents (78.35%) reported having moderate to very severe fatigue. Nurses who reported not having enough visible and accessible HHS in their work environment have statistically significantly higher odds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.20, 0.70], p = .002) of reporting experiencing moderate to very severe fatigue compared to nurses who perceived there was adequate HHS. The logistic regression is significant while controlling for sociodemographic differences, guilt for family and patients, support from work, and confidence in the future of LTC. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the LTC environment that incorporates better considerations of more visible and accessible HHS might mitigate nurses' fatigue during the pandemic. A conceptual framework has been proposed for future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Nurses , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Long-Term Care , Pandemics , Cross-Sectional Studies , Fatigue/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
JMIR Mhealth Uhealth ; 11: e43241, 2023 02 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2198178

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is an effective behavior for preventing the spread of the respiratory disease COVID-19 and was included in public health guidelines worldwide. Behavior change interventions addressing hand hygiene have the potential to support the adherence to public health recommendations and, thereby, prevent the spread of COVID-19. However, randomized trials are largely absent during a pandemic; therefore, there is little knowledge about the most effective strategies to promote hand hygiene during an ongoing pandemic. This study addresses this gap by presenting the results of the optimization phase of a Multiphase Optimization Strategy of Soapp, a smartphone app for promoting hand hygiene in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to identify the most effective combination and sequence of 3 theory- and evidence-based intervention modules (habit, motivation, and social norms) for promoting hand hygiene. To this end, 9 versions of Soapp were developed (conditions), and 2 optimization criteria were defined: the condition with the largest increase in hand hygiene at follow-up and condition with the highest engagement, usability, and satisfaction based on quantitative and qualitative analyses. METHODS: This study was a parallel randomized trial with 9 intervention conditions defined by the combination of 2 intervention modules and their sequence. The trial was conducted from March to August 2021 with interested participants from the Swiss general population (N=232; randomized). Randomization was performed using Qualtrics (Qualtrics International Inc), and blinding was ensured. The duration of the intervention was 34 days. The primary outcome was self-reported hand hygiene at follow-up, which was assessed using an electronic diary. The secondary outcomes were user engagement, usability, and satisfaction assessed at follow-up. Nine participants were further invited to participate in semistructured exit interviews. A set of ANOVAs was performed to test the main hypotheses, whereas a thematic analysis was performed to analyze the qualitative data. RESULTS: The results showed a significant increase in hand hygiene over time across all conditions. There was no interaction effect between time and intervention condition. Similarly, no between-group differences in engagement, usability, and satisfaction emerged. Seven themes (eg, "variety and timeliness of the task load" and "social interaction") were found in the thematic analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of Soapp in promoting hand hygiene laid the foundation for the next evaluation phase of the app. More generally, the study supported the value of digital interventions in pandemic contexts. The findings showed no differential effect of intervention conditions involving different combinations and sequences of the habit, motivation, and social norms modules on hand hygiene, engagement, usability, and satisfaction. In the absence of quantitative differences, we relied on the results from the thematic analysis to select the best version of Soapp for the evaluation phase. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT04830761; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT04830761. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): RR2-10.1136/bmjopen-2021-055971.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Mobile Applications , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control
16.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(7): 834-839, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An accurate estimate of the average number of hand hygiene opportunities per patient hour (HHO rate) is required to implement group electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (GEHHMSs). We sought to identify predictors of HHOs to validate and implement a GEHHMS across a network of critical care units. DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study (10 hospitals) followed by quality improvement intervention involving 24 critical care units across 12 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Critical care patient beds were randomized to receive 1 hour of continuous direct observation to determine the HHO rate. A Poisson regression model determined unit-level predictors of HHOs. Estimates of average HHO rates across different types of critical care units were derived and used to implement and evaluate use of GEHHMS. RESULTS: During 2,812 hours of observation, we identified 25,417 HHOs. There was significant variability in HHO rate across critical care units. Time of day, day of the week, unit acuity, patient acuity, patient population and use of transmission-based precautions were significantly associated with HHO rate. Using unit-specific estimates of average HHO rate, aggregate HH adherence was 30.0% (1,084,329 of 3,614,908) at baseline with GEHHMS and improved to 38.5% (740,660 of 1,921,656) within 2 months of continuous feedback to units (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Unit-specific estimates based on known predictors of HHO rate enabled broad implementation of GEHHMS. Further longitudinal quality improvement efforts using this system are required to assess the impact of GEHHMS on both HH adherence and clinical outcomes within critically ill patient populations.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Critical Care , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Electronics , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Ontario
17.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 2360, 2022 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2196159

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Handwashing with soap and water is an important way to prevent transmission of viruses and bacteria and worldwide it is estimated handwashing can prevent 1 in 5 viral respiratory infections. Frequent handwashing is associated with a decreased risk for infection with SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using a hand sanitizer with at least 60% alcohol when handwashing is not feasible can also help prevent the transmission of viruses and bacteria. OBJECTIVE: Since early 2020, the public has been encouraged to handwash frequently with soap and water and use alcohol-based hand sanitizer when soap and water are not available to reduce COVID-19 transmission. This study's objectives were to assess U.S. adults' perceptions of components of the Capability, Opportunity, Motivation and Behavior (COM-B) Model in relation to these two hand hygiene behaviors and to identify relationships between these components and hand hygiene behaviors. METHODS: Items assessing capability, opportunity, motivation, and hand hygiene behaviors were included in FallStyles, a survey completed by 3,625 adults in the fall of 2020 through an online panel representative of the U.S. POPULATION: We calculated composite capability, opportunity, and motivation measures and descriptive statistics for all measures. Finally, we conducted multiple logistic regressions to identify predictors of handwashing and hand sanitizer use. RESULTS: Most respondents reported frequently washing hands with soap and water (89%) and using alcohol-based hand sanitizer (72%) to prevent coronavirus. For capability, over 90% of respondents said that neither behavior takes a lot of effort, but fewer agreed that they knew when, or how, they should engage in handwashing (67%; 74%) and hand sanitizer use (62%; 64%). For opportunity, over 95% of respondents said lack of time didn't make it hard to engage in either behavior; fewer said visual cues reminded them to engage in the behaviors (handwashing: 30%; sanitizer use: 48%). For motivation, the majority believed the two behaviors were good ways to prevent coronavirus illness (handwashing: 76%; sanitizer use: 59%). Regressions indicated that capability, opportunity, and particularly motivation were positively associated with both hand hygiene behaviors. CONCLUSIONS: The COM-B model was a helpful framework for increasing understanding of hand hygiene behavior; it identified capability, opportunity, and motivation as predictors of both handwashing and hand sanitizer use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers , Adult , Humans , Hand Disinfection , COVID-19/prevention & control , Soaps , Self Report , Motivation , SARS-CoV-2 , Ethanol , Water
18.
Mymensingh Med J ; 32(1): 228-235, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2170074

ABSTRACT

Most of the published reports of Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (KAP) surveys with regard to the COVID-19 pandemic are on healthy population or selective groups. We hypothesised that knowledge gap regarding COVID-appropriate behaviour (face-mask use technique and hand hygiene) was responsible for the spread of COVID-19 infection. The participants of our study were unique in the sense that they were already afflicted with COVID-19 infection before getting enrolled in the study. We conducted an online questionnaire-based survey among the COVID-19 positive patients admitted at the district COVID Care Centre at Vidisha, Madhya Pradesh, India to study the KAP of COVID-appropriate behaviour of individuals already afflicted with COVID-19. Two-hundred COVID-19 positive patients were approached, out of which 175 consented and participated in the survey, a response rate of >85.0%. The average knowledge score was 3.21±1.85 (out of 5). The average attitude score was 9.51±4.94 (out of 35). The average practice score was 12.4 (out of 72). Knowledge, attitude as well as practice scores were higher for the participants who were young (18 to 37 years of age), had higher education (university) and those with higher monthly income (>?10,000 per month). No significant difference was noted in these scores based on gender, and on the place of residence (rural vs. urban). Positive correlation was noted using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient for the practice of COVID-appropriate behaviour with higher knowledge and attitude scores. Overall, the KAP scores of our study participants were poor. Low knowledge scores were associated with still lower attitude scores for COVID-appropriate behaviour. The strong positive correlation was noted between knowledge, attitude and practice. The results of this KAP survey suggest the need to improve dissemination of knowledge and suitable modification of messaging strategies to improve attitude as well as practice of COVID-appropriate behaviour among the population.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Cross-Sectional Studies , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires
19.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 20(2)2023 Jan 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2166566

ABSTRACT

Non-pharmacological measures, such as hand hygiene and face mask use, continue to play an important role in the fight against the COVID-19 pandemic. However, there is a paucity of studies on the adherence to these measures among students in Bhutan. Therefore, we aimed to investigate hand hygiene and face mask-wearing behaviours, as well as their associated factors, among the students of Mongar Higher Secondary School, Bhutan. We conducted a cross-sectional study amongst the students of Mongar Higher Secondary School in Bhutan. The students self-answered the questionnaire on web-based Google Forms. Multivariable logistic regression for good hand washing and face mask use was conducted in order to identify statistically significant socio-demographic covariates. The correlation between hand hygiene and mask use was investigated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A total of 533 students completed the survey questionnaire, 52.9% (282) of whom were female students. Facebook (44.3%, 236) and TV (35.5%, 189) were the two most popular sources of information on COVID-19 prevention and control. Good (scores of ≥80% of total scores) hand hygiene and face mask use were reported in 33.6% (179) and 22.1% (118) of students. In multivariable logistic regression, male students presented 79% (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.79, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.23−2.613) odds of engaging in good hand hygiene, compared to female students. Compared to grade 9, those in grade 10 were 60% (AOR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.158−0.998) less likely to engage in good hand hygiene. Boarding students presented 68% (AOR = 1.68, 95% CI 1.001, 2.813) higher odds of wearing a face mask compared to day students. There was a significant positive correlation between good hand hygiene and face mask use (r = 0.3671, p-value < 0.001). Good hand hygiene and face mask use were reported in less than one-third of the study participants. It is recommended to continue educating students on good hand hygiene and face mask use through popular information sources.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Bhutan/epidemiology , Schools , Students
20.
Int J Public Health ; 67: 1604981, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2163209

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Poor hand hygiene among healthcare workers is an important driver of infectious disease transmission. Although social norms are considered a key determinant of hand hygiene behaviour, little is known about them among healthcare workers. This study describes hand hygiene social norms among health workers, assesses their predictors, and tests if social expectations increased during the early stages of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted a cross-sectional survey of healthcare workers from 77 countries (n = 1,233) from April to August 2020 assessing healthcare workers' hand hygiene social expectations, personal normative beliefs, punishment and reward, and demographic factors. Linear regressions and hierarchical linear modelling were used to analyse the responses. Results: We find high social expectations, personal beliefs, punishment, and rewards. Doctors tend to have lower social expectations than other occupation groups (e.g., nurses/midwives) and older respondents have higher social expectations. Social expectations increased during our survey, which may have been driven by COVID-19. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that hand hygiene social norms are strong among healthcare workers with variation across occupation and age; their strength increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. These have implications for behaviour change in healthcare environments that could leverage more norm-targeting interventions.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Social Norms , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel
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