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1.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol ; 43(7): 834-839, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2185189

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: An accurate estimate of the average number of hand hygiene opportunities per patient hour (HHO rate) is required to implement group electronic hand hygiene monitoring systems (GEHHMSs). We sought to identify predictors of HHOs to validate and implement a GEHHMS across a network of critical care units. DESIGN: Multicenter, observational study (10 hospitals) followed by quality improvement intervention involving 24 critical care units across 12 hospitals in Ontario, Canada. METHODS: Critical care patient beds were randomized to receive 1 hour of continuous direct observation to determine the HHO rate. A Poisson regression model determined unit-level predictors of HHOs. Estimates of average HHO rates across different types of critical care units were derived and used to implement and evaluate use of GEHHMS. RESULTS: During 2,812 hours of observation, we identified 25,417 HHOs. There was significant variability in HHO rate across critical care units. Time of day, day of the week, unit acuity, patient acuity, patient population and use of transmission-based precautions were significantly associated with HHO rate. Using unit-specific estimates of average HHO rate, aggregate HH adherence was 30.0% (1,084,329 of 3,614,908) at baseline with GEHHMS and improved to 38.5% (740,660 of 1,921,656) within 2 months of continuous feedback to units (P < .0001). CONCLUSIONS: Unit-specific estimates based on known predictors of HHO rate enabled broad implementation of GEHHMS. Further longitudinal quality improvement efforts using this system are required to assess the impact of GEHHMS on both HH adherence and clinical outcomes within critically ill patient populations.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Critical Care , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Electronics , Guideline Adherence , Humans , Infection Control , Ontario
2.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 127, 2022 10 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2139414

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is universally recognized as a cornerstone measure for the prevention of healthcare-associated infections. Although the WHO "My five Moments for hand hygiene" poster has been used for more than a decade to delineate hand hygiene indications and promote action, adherence levels among healthcare workers are still notoriously low and disquieting. To compensate for the lack of effective hand hygiene communication, we aimed to evaluate emojis as possible surrogates for the non-verbal aspects of hand hygiene behaviour. METHODS: Following a thorough review of the Unicode version 12.0, the most applicable emojis to the terms used in the WHO 5 Moments poster were extracted. We developed a self-administered questionnaire to assess the view of infection prevention and control (IPC) practitioners regarding the use of emojis to show the WHO 5 Moments. Completed questionnaires were collected and analysed to determine the suitability of the existing emojis to illustrate a unified emoji poster. Data were analysed using R (version 3.6.3). RESULTS: A total of 95 IPC practitioners completed the questionnaire from May to October 2019 from different countries. Of these, 69 (74%) were female, and the mean age of the participants was 44.6 ± 10.87 years. We found appropriate emojis for six of the words used in the poster, including for touching (72%), for patient (63%), for clean (53%), for procedure (56%), for body fluid (58%), and for exposure risk (71%). The existing emojis proposed for the words "hygiene", "aseptic", and "surrounding" seemed to be less satisfactory. CONCLUSIONS: In summary, the findings of this study indicate that the existing emojis may not be able to substitute the words used in the WHO 5 Moments poster. Emojis might be helpful to address hand hygiene indications in healthcare that may eventually play a role in promoting this measure. However, emojis should be further studied to choose the most appropriate ones and avoid ambiguity and misinterpretation. More emojis to convey health related messages are needed. We recommend further research in this area to evaluate the effect of using emojis in healthcare-related behaviours.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Female , Humans , Adult , Middle Aged , Male , Hand Hygiene/methods , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Delivery of Health Care , World Health Organization
3.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19646, 2022 Nov 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2117428

ABSTRACT

Adequate hand hygiene practices throughout the continuum of care of maternal and newborn health are essential for infection prevention. However, the hand hygiene compliance of facility-based birth attendants, parents and other caregivers along this continuum is low and behavioural-science informed interventions targeting the range of caregivers in both the healthcare facility and home environments are scarce. We assessed the limited efficacy of a novel multimodal behaviour change intervention, delivered at the facility, to improve the hand hygiene practices among midwives and caregivers during childbirth through the return to the home environment. The 6-month intervention was implemented in 4 of 8 purposively selected facilities and included environmental restructuring, hand hygiene infrastructure provision, cues and reminders, and participatory training. In this controlled before-and-after study, the hand hygiene practices of all caregivers present along the care continuum of 99 women and newborns were directly observed. Direct observations took place during three time periods; labour, delivery and immediate aftercare in the facility delivery room, postnatal care in the facility ward and in the home environment within the first 48 h following discharge. Multilevel logistic regression models, adjusted for baseline measures, assessed differences in hand hygiene practices between intervention and control facilities. The intervention was associated with increased odds of improved practice of birth attendants during birth and newborn care in the delivery room (Adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 4.7; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 2.7, 7.7), and that of parental and non-parental caregivers prior to newborn care in the post-natal care ward (AOR = 9.2; CI = 1.3, 66.2); however, the absolute magnitude of improvements was limited. Intervention effects were not presented for the home environment due COVID-19 related restrictions on observation duration at endline which resulted in too low observation numbers to warrant testing. Our results suggest the potential of a facility-based multimodal behaviour change intervention to improve hand hygiene practices that are critical to maternal and neonatal infection along the continuum of care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Infant, Newborn , Female , Humans , Cambodia , Health Facilities , Hospitals
4.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(22)2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2110064

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to evaluate the effect of hand hygiene interventions on the overall hand hygiene (HH) status of teaching instruction of hand hygiene in kindergartens, given the vulnerability of kindergarten children and their high risk due to infectious diseases and the current COVID-19 epidemic. We investigated the HH status of teachers from two kindergartens in the same community. The participants were recruited from 28 classes in both kindergartens. After completing the baseline survey, the intervention program consisted of three components: lectures on infectious diseases, lectures on HH, and seven-step hand washing techniques conducted in two kindergartens. The intervention program effectively increased teachers' perceived disease susceptibility (p < 0.05), reduced the total bacterial colonization of children's hands (p < 0.001), and improved the HH environment (p < 0.01). We recommend that health authorities or kindergartens adopt this HH intervention program to effectively improve the HH status in kindergartens and allow for preventive responses to the COVID-19 epidemic or other emerging infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Child , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Schools
8.
Ann Behav Med ; 56(11): 1157-1173, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2029003

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Promoting the adoption of personal hygiene behaviors known to reduce the transmission of COVID-19, such as avoiding touching one's face with unwashed hands, is important for limiting the spread of infections. PURPOSE: We aimed to test the efficacy of a theory-based intervention to promote the avoidance of touching one's face with unwashed hands to reduce the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: We tested effects of an intervention employing imagery, persuasive communication, and planning techniques in two pre-registered studies adopting randomized controlled designs in samples of Australian (N = 254; Study 1) and US (N = 245; Study 2) residents. Participants were randomly assigned to theory-based intervention or education-only conditions (Study 1), or to theory-based intervention, education-only, and no-intervention control conditions (Study 2). The intervention was delivered online and participants completed measures of behavior and theory-based social cognition constructs pre-intervention and one-week postintervention. RESULTS: Mixed-model ANOVAs revealed a significant increase in avoidance of touching the face with unwashed hands from pre-intervention to follow-up irrespective of intervention condition in both studies, but no significant condition effects. Exploratory analyses revealed significant effects of the theory-based intervention on behavior at follow-up in individuals with low pre-intervention risk perceptions in Study 2. CONCLUSIONS: Results indicate high adoption of avoiding touching one's face with unwashed hands, with behavior increasing over time independent of the intervention. Future research should confirm risk perceptions as a moderator of the effect theory-based interventions on infection-prevention behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Australia , Health Behavior
9.
Front Public Health ; 10: 968231, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2022995

ABSTRACT

Background: The practice of hand washing is an effective way to prevent contamination and disease transmission. Following the COVID-19 pandemic, hand washing has become increasingly important. Therefore, this qualitative study aimed to understand barriers to hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and methods: Twenty-five healthcare workers from intensive care units were sampled using purposive sampling in a qualitative content analysis study. Data were collected through a semi-structured interview and field notes. Based on the Lundman and Graneheim approach, the data were analyzed. COREQ checklist was used to report the research. Results: According to the findings, there are three main categories of barriers to hand hygiene practice: barriers related to individuals (including two subcategories of lack of knowledge of healthcare workers and healthcare workers' improper attitude), barriers related to management (including two subcategories of wrong behavioral patterns and unsuitable training and planning), and barriers related to organizations (including four subcategories of heavy workloads, improperly designed wards, a lack of equipment, and lack of quality equipment). Conclusions: This research indicates that hand washing practice increased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, some barriers persist, resulting in a decline in hand washing compliance among health care workers. This finding can help managers and policymakers remove barriers to hand washing compliance and improve healthcare workers' adherence to hand washing.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Pandemics
10.
Ann Behav Med ; 56(11): 1174-1187, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2017702

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene, facemask wearing, and physical distancing play a crucial role in the prevention of the COVID-19 pandemic. Identifying the key psychosocial determinants of these precautionary behaviors contributes to effective intervention and policymaking for COVID-19 and future pandemics. PURPOSE: This study aimed to systematically review and meta-analyze available evidence on psychosocial determinants of the general population's practice of three precautionary behaviors, based on the Risk, Attitudes, Norms, Abilities, and Self-regulation (RANAS) framework. METHODS: Literature was identified by searching seven databases and relevant review papers. Observational and experimental studies targeting the general population (≥18 years) published between January 2020 to September 2021 were included. Pooled effect sizes were calculated with the inverse-variance method using random-effects models. RESULTS: A total of 51 studies (64 samples) were included in the qualitative synthesis, of which 30 studies (42 samples) were included in the meta-analysis. RANAS-based constructs including knowledge, pros attitudes, and perceived norms were identified as significant determinants of all three behaviors in the meta-analysis. Perceived susceptibility and cons attitudes showed no significant associations with any behaviors. Perceived severity, perceived control, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention were significantly associated with one or two behaviors. Country (western vs. eastern hemispheres) significantly moderated the effects of certain risk and ability factors. CONCLUSIONS: More research is needed with respect to the intention-behavior relationship, self-regulatory and reflexive factors of precautionary behaviors, as well as the exploration of the potential moderating effect of sociodemographic factors.


Identifying the psychosocial factors affecting the practice of three precautionary behaviors (hand hygiene, facemask wearing, and physical distancing) contributes to effective intervention and policymaking for the COVID-19 and future pandemics. Given the lack of summarized evidence, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. Through seven databases and relevant review papers, we summarized the research findings of 51 observational studies that targeted the general population (≥18 years) and were published between January 2020 and September 2021. We found that (a) more knowledge, positive behavioral attitudes, and better compliance with the norms were associated with better practices of all three precautionary behaviors; (b) perceived susceptibility to the disease and negative behavioral attitudes were not associated with any precautionary behaviors; (c) higher levels of perceived disease severity, perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, and behavioral intention were associated with better practices of one or two behaviors. In addition, we found that country (western vs. eastern hemispheres) differed in the relationship between psychosocial factors and behavioral practices. Specifically, both the association of perceived susceptibility with hand hygiene and the association of perceived severity with physical distancing were stronger among western populations. In contrast, the contribution of self-efficacy on the practice of physical distancing was stronger among eastern populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Pandemics/prevention & control , Masks
11.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1663, 2022 09 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2009372

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of social ties, other-regarding preferences, and cultural traits in boosting community resilience and minimizing citizens' vulnerability to crises such as COVID-19 is increasingly being recognized. However, little is presently known about the possible routes through which such personal preferences and cultural norms pertinent to social behaviors are formulated. Thus, in this paper, factors that can be potentially associated with individuals to self-regulate strict hand hygiene practices before the pandemic, during the state of emergency, and after the state of emergency was lifted in Japan are investigated. Focus is given to the handwashing education in primary school, a cultural practice originating from the old Shinto tradition, and individuals' reciprocal inclinations. As people in Japan are known to be highly conscious of hygiene in all aspects of their daily life and are less likely to contract an infection, evidence obtained in this specific context could contribute to the better understanding of individuals' health-related behaviors in general, and during crises in particular. METHODS: Using the data derived from a four-wave nationwide longitudinal online survey, we examined the extent to which elementary school education, childhood cultural experiences at shrines, and individual other-regarding preferences are associated with self-regulating hand hygiene practices prior to the pandemic and people's efforts to comply with the government-imposed measures aimed at preventing the spread of COVID-19 infection during the state of emergency. We also investigated the long-term trends in the relationships among these factors (i.e., after the abolishment of the state of emergency) using panel data. RESULTS: Our findings reveal that childhood education and cultural experiences related to handwashing practices, as well as reciprocal inclinations, are significantly associated with Japanese attitudes toward personal hygiene (beyond handwashing practices) prior to, during, and after the state of emergency. In recognition of the possible effects of recall bias and measurement errors, several important attempts to mitigate these issues were made to strengthen the value of our findings. CONCLUSIONS: The importance of school education received during childhood, as well as culture and other-regarding preferences, in the individual attitudes toward hand hygiene in adulthood highlighted in this study contributes to the better understanding of the role that these factors play in the variations in voluntary compliance with strict hand hygiene practices before and during an uncertain and prolonged crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Ceremonial Behavior , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Schools
12.
Public Health ; 212: 76-83, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2008057

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic spotlighted the importance of infection prevention and control (IPC) measures. Existing literature focuses on healthcare professionals, whereas this article explores changes in public knowledge of IPC, where knowledge is comparably sparse. STUDY DESIGN: National surveys were conducted before (March 2020) and after (March 2021) the COVID-19 lockdown across England. METHODS: A telephone survey of 1676 adults (2021) and a face-to-face survey of 2202 adults (2020) across England were conducted. Key demographics were representative of the population. Weighted logistic regression with composite Wald P-values was used to investigate knowledge change from 2020 to 2021. RESULTS: Compared with 2020, significantly more respondents correctly stated that infections can spread by shaking hands (86% post vs 79% pre; P < .001) and that microbes are transferred through touching surfaces (90% vs 80%; P < .001). More knew that hand gel is effective at removing microbes if water and soap are unavailable (94% vs 92%; P = .015); that when you cough, you may infect other people near you in a room (90% vs 80%; P < .001). Knowledge that vaccination protects others from infection also increased (63% post vs 50% pre; P < .001). There was also significant increase in those confident in their answers. CONCLUSION: Knowledge of IPC measures was higher in 2021 than before the pandemic. Future public health hygiene campaigns should capitalise on this and emphasise that continuing hygiene behaviours, and vaccination can help prevent acquisition and illnesses with other non-COVID-19 infections, thus reducing the strain on the national health service.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Adult , Humans , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine , Communicable Disease Control , Vaccination , Hygiene
13.
Health Psychol ; 41(11): 826-832, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991525

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the U.S. public was encouraged to practice good hand hygiene, such as hand washing or the use of hand sanitizer. Young adults reported lower levels of hand hygiene compared to adults of other ages. The aim of the current study was to test the effectiveness of different messages to promote hand sanitizer use among young adults. METHOD: Over a 6-week period, we examined whether 3 brief messages (gain-frame, static descriptive norms, dynamic descriptive norms), placed next to sanitizer dispensers in university residence halls, predicted dispenser use in comparison to dispensers with no sign. Amount of sanitizer usage was measured 3 times per week via the weight of dispenser units. We tracked and controlled for the number of positive COVID-19 cases in residence halls because we expected it might influence sanitizer usage. RESULTS: Compared to no signage, dispensers with signs had 35% greater usage, with the static descriptive norms sign associated with greatest usage (46% compared to no sign), although differences did not reach conventional levels of significance. The strongest predictor of sanitizer use was a residence hall's degree of COVID-19 risk based on the hall's case positivity. CONCLUSIONS: Dispensers with signs had higher use than those without signs, but this difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that compared to prior research, "nudges" such as evidence-based messaging may have had less of an effect on health behavior engagement due to methodological differences across studies or characteristics of the COVID-19 context. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers , COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Young Adult
14.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1526, 2022 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978773

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Handwashing is important considering the impact of communicable diseases on the public. We aimed to identify the association between years with incidence of communicable diseases during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic and hand hygiene in South Korea. METHODS: This cross-sectional study evaluated 5 years (2013, 2015, 2017, 2019, and 2020) of data from the Korea Community Health Survey and included 1,034,422 adults. Multinomial logistic regression analysis was performed to assess handwashing frequency by year. Receiver operating characteristic analysis was used to determine the cut-off point for handwashing frequency. RESULTS: The always/frequently handwashing rate was 44.7%. This tendency was stronger in adults with each ascending year, with reference to 2013 (2015, odds ratio [OR] = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.08, 1.13; 2017, OR = 1.10, 95% CI = 1.08, 1.13; 2019, OR = 1.17, 95% CI = 1.14, 1.20; 2020, OR = 3.21, 95% CI = 3.14, 3.29). Among women, the OR of frequently/always handwashing was 3.55 times higher (95% CI = 3.45, 3.66) in 2020 than in 2013. This OR was 2.95 among men (95% CI = 2.86, 3.04). In influenza-vaccinated participants, the OR of frequent/always handwashing was 3.25 times higher in 2020 than in 2013 (95% CI = 3.15, 3.36), while in non-vaccinated participants it was 3.17 (95% CI = 3.08, 3.27). Among adults who practiced physical distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic, the OR was 1.36 times higher (95% CI = 1.29, 1.42) with frequent handwashing, 1.64 times higher (95% CI = 1.57, 1.70) than those who did not practice it. CONCLUSIONS: There was a strong tendency toward frequent handwashing over the years; the trend was even greater in 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Given that communicable diseases and handwashing are closely related, it is necessary to promote hand hygiene for prevention.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Hand Hygiene , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Republic of Korea/epidemiology
15.
BMC Public Health ; 22(1): 1283, 2022 07 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974134

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Novel coronaviruses and influenza can cause infection, epidemics, and pandemics. Improving hand hygiene (HH) of the general public is recommended for preventing these infections. This systematic review examined the effectiveness of HH interventions for preventing transmission or acquisition of such infections in the community. METHODS: PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL and Web of Science databases were searched (January 2002-February 2022) for empirical studies related to HH in the general public and to the acquisition or transmission of novel coronavirus infections or influenza. Studies on healthcare staff, and with outcomes of compliance or absenteeism were excluded. Study selection, data extraction and quality assessment, using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care risk of bias criteria or Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal checklists, were conducted by one reviewer, and double-checked by another. For intervention studies, effect estimates were calculated while the remaining studies were synthesised narratively. The protocol was pre-registered (PROSPERO 2020: CRD42020196525). RESULTS: Twenty-two studies were included. Six were intervention studies evaluating the effectiveness of HH education and provision of products, or hand washing against influenza. Only two school-based interventions showed a significant protective effect (OR: 0.64; 95% CI 0.51, 0.80 and OR: 0.40; 95% CI 0.22, 0.71), with risk of bias being high (n = 1) and unclear (n = 1). Of the 16 non-intervention studies, 13 reported the protective effect of HH against influenza, SARS or COVID-19 (P < 0.05), but risk of bias was high (n = 7), unclear (n = 5) or low (n = 1). However, evidence in relation to when, and how frequently HH should be performed was inconsistent. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first systematic review of effectiveness of HH for prevention of community transmission or acquisition of respiratory viruses that have caused epidemics or pandemics, including SARS-CoV-1, SARS-CoV-2 and influenza viruses. The evidence supporting the protective effect of HH was heterogeneous and limited by methodological quality; thus, insufficient to recommend changes to current HH guidelines. Future work is required to identify in what circumstances, how frequently and what product should be used when performing HH in the community and to develop effective interventions for promoting these specific behaviours in communities during epidemics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
16.
J R Coll Physicians Edinb ; 50(2): 207-214, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969631
17.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(15)2022 08 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1969277

ABSTRACT

An online survey was circulated to employees from a wide range of organisations to gauge attitudes towards the idea of using smart hand sanitisers in the workplace. The sanitisers are capable of real-time monitoring and providing feedback that varies according to the hand hygiene behaviour of users. In certain circumstances, the sanitisers can monitor individuals, making it possible to identify workers whose hand hygiene falls below a certain standard. The survey was circulated between July and August 2021 during the COVID-19 pandemic. Data gathered from 314 respondents indicated support for some features of the technology, but also indicated concern about invasions of privacy and the possibility of coercion. Attitudes towards the possible implementation of the technology varied significantly according to certain characteristics of the sample, but particularly with age. Respondents above the median age were more likely to support the use of data in ways that could facilitate the promotion and enforcement of hand hygiene practices.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Internet of Things , Attitude , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Technology
18.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 11(1): 97, 2022 Jul 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1951353

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Healthcare workers often experience skin dryness and irritation from performing hand hygiene frequently. Low acceptability and tolerability of a formulation are barriers to hand hygiene compliance, though little research has been conducted on what specific types of formulation have higher acceptability than others. OBJECTIVE: To compare the acceptability and tolerability of an ethanol-based handrub gel with superfatting agents to the isopropanol-based formulations (a rub and a gel formulation) currently used by healthcare workers at the University of Geneva Hospitals, Geneva, Switzerland. METHODS: Forty-two participants were randomized to two sequences, testing the isopropanol-based formulation that they are using currently (Hopirub® or Hopigel®), and the ethanol-based formulation containing superfatting agents (Saniswiss Sanitizer Hands H1). Participants tested each of the formulations over 7-10 day work shifts, after which skin condition was assessed and feedback was collected. RESULTS: H1 scored significantly better than the control formulations for skin dryness (P = 0.0209), and participants felt less discomfort in their hands when using that formulation (P = 0.0448). H1 caused less skin dryness than Hopirub®/Hopigel® (P = 0.0210). Though overall preference was quite polarized, 21 participants preferred H1 intervention formulation and 17 preferred the Hopirub®/Hopigel® formulation that they normally used in their care activities. CONCLUSION: We observed a difference in acceptability and strongly polarized preferences among the participants' reactions to the formulations tested. These results indicate that giving healthcare workers a choice between different high-quality products is important to ensure maximum acceptability.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , 2-Propanol , Ethanol , Hand Disinfection/methods , Health Personnel , Humans
19.
20.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0269225, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1917013

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) is still causing morbidity and mortality all over the world. Preventive measures such as wearing a facemask, social distancing and hand hygiene continue to be the only options available in countries such as Ethiopia where vaccines are not yet widely available. Hand hygiene is one of the easiest and cheapest preventive measures, and one that is especially important for barbers and beauty salon workers who are widely exposed to the virus due to their contact with many customers. Therefore, measuring the proportion of good hand hygiene practices and associated factors among barbers and beauty salon workers may provide essential guidance in the development of effective interventions to improve COVID-19 prevention measures. A facility-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 410 barbers and beauty salon workers in Dessie City and Kombolcha Town from January 5 to February 10, 2021. The study participants were selected using a simple random sampling technique. A structured questionnaire and an observational checklist were used to collect the data. The collected data were entered into EpiData version 4.6 and analysed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 25.0. Logistic regression analysis using bivariate and multivariable logistic regression models was employed. From the bivariate analysis, variables with p <0.25 were retained into multivariable logistic regression analysis. Finally, from the multivariable analysis, variables that had a p-value < 0.05 were declared as factors significantly associated with good hand hygiene practices. Of the total 410 barbers and beauty salon workers, 52.9% [95% CI: 48.3-57.6] had good hand hygiene practices whereas 47.1% [95% CI: 42.4-51.7] had poor hand hygiene practices. From the total respondents, more than half 250 (61%) were male and 160 (39%) were female, with a mean age of 27.42 ±7.37 years. Out of 410 barbers and beauty salon workers, 73.7% had good knowledge about COVID-19 and 59.5% had a positive attitude towards taking precautions against COVID-19. Female sex (AOR = 2.17, 95% CI:1.29-3.65), educational level of college or above (AOR = 5.53, 95% CI:2.85-10.71), positive attitude towards taking precautions against COVID-19 (AOR = 2.4, 95% CI:1.46-4.17), belief in the effectiveness of hand hygiene practices (AOR = 3.78, 95% CI:2.18-6.55) and presence of a hand-washing facility with soap and water (AOR = 5.55, 95% CI:3.28-9.40) were factors significantly associated with good hand hygiene practices among barbers and beauty salon workers. The proportion of good hand hygiene practice was not sufficient to combat the virus. Good hand hygiene practice was higher among those with higher educational level, positive attitude towards taking precautions against COVID-19, belief in the effectiveness of hand hygiene practices, presence of a hand-washing facility with soap and water and those of female sex. Thus, improving hand hygiene practices through continued training, especially for those with a lower educational level and for male workers, is recommended. Moreover, government and non-government organizations should work together to provide alcohol-based hand sanitizer at a low cost to those barbershops and beauty salons if there is no access to water and soap.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , Soaps , Water , Young Adult
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