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1.
Front Public Health ; 9: 782705, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1581106

ABSTRACT

Objective: The use of personal protective equipment and hand hygiene are often the most recommended line of defense against coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19). The purpose of this study is to determine the magnitude of compliance and associated factors of personal protective equipment (PPE) utilization and hand hygiene practice among healthcare workers in public hospitals of South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia. Methods: A hospital-based cross-sectional study was conducted among 489 healthcare workers in public hospitals of South Wollo Zone, Northeastern Ethiopia from June 15 to July 30, 2021. Proportional sample size allocation to each selected hospital followed by simple random sampling techniques were used to select the study participants using human resource records from each hospital. A pre-tested and structured self-administered questionnaire with WHO's standardized hand hygiene and PPE utilization observational checklist were used to collect data. Bivariate and multivariable analyses with 95% CI and p-value < 0.05 were employed to identify the associated factors of personal protective equipment utilization. Results: About 32 and 22.3% of healthcare workers were compliant with personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene practice, respectively. Feedback for safety (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.26-3.35), training on COVID-19 prevention (AOR = 3.43; 95% CI: 2.01-5.86), and perception to infection risk (AOR = 1.98; 95% CI: 1.18-3.33) were significant factors of good compliance with personal protective equipment utilization. Conclusion: The magnitude of good compliance with personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene was low. Interventions to promote personal protective equipment utilization and hand hygiene should focus on feedback for safety, training on COVID-19 prevention, and perception of infection risk.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Public , Humans , Personal Protective Equipment , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Aten Primaria ; 53 Suppl 1: 102225, 2021 Dec.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1578850

ABSTRACT

The health system failed to guarantee the safety of both professionals and citizens who came to the centers at the beginning of the pandemic. The lack of materials and guidelines for the prevention of infections caused in Spain the worst catastrophe in the history of patient safety and occupational health in healthcare. It also happened in other countries but Spain had the highest rates of infected health workers in the world. It was a largely avoidable event. We review what measures have been taken to prevent infections in primary care centers, such as hand hygiene, masks and personal protection material or the maintenance of social distance, among others. We update the recommendations and raise the perspectives in a situation that requires flexibility and adaptability to maintain quality and safe care.


Subject(s)
Hand Hygiene , Pandemics , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Patient Safety , Primary Health Care
3.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1175-E1180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable reports on hand hygiene performance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking as most hospitals continue to rely on direct observation to measure this quality indicator. Using group electronic hand hygiene monitoring, we sought to assess the impact of COVID-19 on adherence to hand hygiene. METHODS: Across 12 Ontario hospitals (5 university and 7 community teaching hospitals), a group electronic hand hygiene monitoring system was installed before the pandemic to provide continuous measurement of hand hygiene adherence across 978 ward and 367 critical care beds. We performed an interrupted time-series study of institutional hand hygiene adherence in association with a COVID-19 inpatient census and the Ontario daily count of COVID-19 cases during a baseline period (Nov. 1, 2019, to Feb. 29, 2020), the pre-peak period of the first wave of the pandemic (Mar. 1 to Apr. 24, 2020), and the post-peak period of the first wave (Apr. 25 to July 5, 2020). We used a Poisson regression model to assess the association between the hospital COVID-19 census and institutional hand hygiene adherence while adjusting for the correlation within inpatient units. RESULTS: At baseline, the rate of hand hygiene adherence was 46.0% (6 325 401 of 13 750 968 opportunities) and this improved beginning in March 2020 to a daily peak of 79.3% (66 640 of 84 026 opportunities) on Mar. 30, 2020. Each patient admitted with COVID-19 was associated with improved hand hygiene adherence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.0621, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0619-1.0623). Increasing Ontario daily case count was similarly associated with improved hand hygiene (IRR 1.0026, 95% CI 1.0021-1.0032). After peak COVID-19 community and inpatient numbers, hand hygiene adherence declined and returned to baseline. INTERPRETATION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant improvement in hand hygiene adherence, measured using a group electronic monitoring system. Future research should seek to determine whether strategies that focus on health care worker perception of personal risk can achieve sustainable improvements in hand hygiene performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Public Health Surveillance
4.
J Prev Med Hyg ; 62(3): E592-E597, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1574106

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the causative agent of pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID 19) Protection from virus exposure in children's hospital is a pivotal aspect of SARS-COV-2 pandemic control. Healthcare workers (HCW) could play an important role in viral infection in-hospital spread. Infection control measures were thus implemented to protect fragile patients and healthcare workers.We retrospectively described a HCW infectionscase-series due to SARS-CoV-2 from February 24th to July 31stat the IRCCS Istituto Giannina Gaslini. Seven separate cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection were observed among healthcare workers, with a total of 395 contacts, and 23 (6%) secondary case. A program of contact tracing and quarantine of SARS-CoV-2 positive HCW, screening of asymptomatic HCW, use of surgical masks, hand hygiene, social distancing and use of PPE in COVID-19 cases assistance prevented the spread of the virus to patients and blocked the diffusion within the hospital.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Child , Contact Tracing , Health Personnel , Hospitals, Pediatric , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
5.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 15(11): 1584-1592, 2021 11 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572704

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study aims to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and behavior of people towards COVID-19 and to evaluate compliance with practices such as social isolation, curfews, mask use and hand hygiene. METHODOLOGY: A month after the COVID-19 infection was observed in Turkey, a standard questionnaire link was sent to participants via the online questionnaire platform to determine the knowledge, attitude, and behavior of the public. The survey results of 503 people were evaluated. RESULTS: During the COVID-19 pandemic 81.2% of the participants stayed at home, 79.1% of the participants wore a mask, 74% of the participants expressed to be following social distancing rules, 54.1% confirmed the use of hand sanitizers and 43.9% confirmed the use of gloves (43.9%), which are considered to be personal protective measures. The knowledge of terms such as 'quarantine' and 'isolation' was 94% and 97.4% respectively and 37.2% of the participants were of the opinion that the COVID-19 virus was produced in a laboratory environment. Within the research group, a rate of 65.6% of the participants found their own knowledge of COVID-19 to be sufficient. The participants found the announcements of official institutions more reliable than the announcements on television programs, the internet and social media. CONCLUSIONS: The public information on COVID-19 was found to be sufficient. In order to prevent the spreading of the pandemic, participants were partially compliant to rules such as staying at home, using masks, maintaining hand hygiene and social isolation. Compared to men, women's use of protective equipment was higher.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Internet , Male , Middle Aged , Social Isolation , Surveys and Questionnaires , Turkey/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1572449

ABSTRACT

The effectiveness of hand hygiene (HH) on reducing the transmission of contagious diseases is widely known, although its use has been commonly associated with the area of healthcare. During the COVID-19 pandemic, HH was one of the main measures established to contain the transmission of this virus. The identification of the main barriers and facilitators of HH in young adults (aged 18-29 years old) will contribute to the better planning of HH training and its posterior success. A total of 716 young adults participated in the study by completing the ad hoc online questionnaire (#YesWeHand), which analyzed, among other aspects, the age range, gender and field of study that they belonged to. From the total participants, 81.3% indicated knowing how to perform HH correctly, while 49.4% affirmed having received training. The main reason for performing HH was concern for their own safety and that of others (75.8%), while forgetfulness (36.5%) was the main reason for not performing HH. In the group of young adults, being female, aged between 22 and 25 years old, and having studied in the area of Health Sciences, had a positive influence on correct HH. It is deemed necessary to maintain HH beyond the primary education stages, and to adapt it to different fields of education, ages, and genders, in order to maximize its success. Given the overrepresentation of participants from the healthcare field, it would be desirable to conduct more studies to ensure a better representation of the different educational levels and fields of study of the participants, in order to identify, in a more reliable way, the variables that influence HH.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Adolescent , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel , Humans , Male , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Young Adult
7.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 313-317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535087

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). CONCLUSION: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
8.
Orv Hetil ; 162(46): 1842-1847, 2021 11 14.
Article in Hungarian | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518389

ABSTRACT

Összefoglaló. Manapság, a COVID-19-járvány közepette, a megfelelo kézmosás segít megelozni vagy legalábbis lassítani a fertozo betegségek, például a SARS-CoV-2-fertozés terjedését. A kézmosás rutinjának megfelelo oktatás multilaterális tevékenységet igényel, amely a fiatalok ismeretén, egészségmagatartásán, attitudjein, tapasztalatain és motivációján alapul. A TANTUdSZ Ifjúsági Egészségnevelési Program kortársoktató pedagógiai és egészségtudományi egyetemi karok hallgatóival, valamint középiskolai kortárssegítokkel és mintegy 3000, magyarországi óvodás, általános és középiskolás diák bevonásával valósult meg, különbözo egészségfejlesztési területeken. A vizsgálatok egyik célja az oktatási program hatékonyságának értékelése érdekében a gyermekek kézhigiénés ismereteinek és készségeinek elemzése és összehasonlítása volt a beavatkozások elott és után. A jelen közleményben ismertetett longitudinális felmérés alsó tagozatos tanulók (n = 165) kézmosási készségének és attitudváltozásainak rövid és hosszú távú változását értékeli három idopontban. A mérések önkitöltos, anonim kérdoívvel és kéziszkenner-technológiával (Semmelweis Scanner) készültek, mely utóbbi mérési eszköz a különbözo kézterületek tisztaságát kvantitatív és digitális értékelésekkel detektálta. A beavatkozás eredményes volt mind rövid, mind hosszú távon a bemeneti (kezdeti) mérésekhez képest. Az eredmények azonban különbséget mutattak a gyakorlati készségek elsajátításának folyamatában. Jelentos elorelépés történt a kézmosás attitudjének változásában. Az életkor-specifikus egészségfejlesztési oktatási programokban, különösen a gyermekpopulációban, hangsúlyt kell fektetni az elméleti, a gyakorlati ismeretek, valamint az egészségmagatartás hosszú távú megorzésére is. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1842-1847. Summary. Presently, in the midst of the COVID-19 pandemic, proper hand washing helps prevent or at least slow the spread of infectious diseases such as SARS-CoV-2 infection. Proper education in hand washing routines requires multilateral action based on young people's knowledge, health behaviors, attitudes, experiences, and motivations. The TANTUdSZ Youth Health Education Program was implemented with students of contemporary teaching faculties of pedagogical and health sciences as well as with secondary school peer helpers and with the involvement of about 3000 pre-school, primary and secondary school students in Hungary in various fields of health development. One of the aims of the studies was to analyze and compare children's hand hygiene knowledge and skills before and after the pedagogical interventions in order to evaluate the effectiveness of the educational program. The longitudinal survey described in this paper assesses the short- and long-term changes of primary school students' (from class 1 to 4; n = 165) hand washing skills and the attitudinal changes in their health behaviors at three time points. Measurements were performed using a self-completion, anonymous questionnaire and hand-held scanner technology (Semmelweis Scanner), the latter measuring device detecting the purity of different hand areas with quantitative and digital evaluations. The educational intervention was effective in both short and long term compared to input (initial) measurements. However, the results showed a difference in the process of acquiring practical skills. There has been a significant progress in changing attitudes to hand washing. Age-specific health promotion education programs, especially in the pediatric population, should also focus on the long-term preservation of theoretical, practical knowledge, and health behaviors. Orv Hetil. 2021; 162(46): 1842-1847.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Adolescent , Attitude , Child , Humans , Hungary , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513873

ABSTRACT

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , Young Adult
10.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21654, 2021 11 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1504870

ABSTRACT

To slow the spread of infectious disease, it is crucial to understand the engagement of protective behavior among individuals. The purpose of this study was to systematically examine individuals' protective behaviors and the associated factors across countries during COVID-19. This causal-comparative study used a self-developed online survey to assess individuals' level of engagement with six protective behaviors. Analysis of variance and McNemar's test were employed for data analysis. Three hundred and eighty-four responses were analyzed. The majority of participants lived in three areas: Taiwan, Japan, and North America. Overall, the participants reported a high level of engagement in protective behaviors. However, engagement levels varied according to several demographic variables. Hand hygiene and cleaning/ventilation are two independent behaviors that differ from almost all other protective behaviors. There is a need to target the population at risk, which demonstrates low compliance. Different strategies are needed to promote specific protective behaviors.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adult , Female , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258840, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496515

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite the development and enforcement of preventive guidelines by governments, COVID-19 continues to spread across nations, causing unprecedented economic losses and mortality. Public places remain hotspots for COVID-19 transmission due to large numbers of people present; however preventive measures are poorly enforced. Supermarkets are among the high-risk establishments due to the high interactions involved, which makes compliance with the COVID-19 preventive guidelines of paramount importance. However, until now, there has been limited evidence on compliance with the set COVID-19 prevention guidelines. Therefore, this study aimed to measure compliance with the COVID-19 prevention guidelines among supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality Uganda. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted among selected supermarkets in Kampala Capital City and Mukono Municipality in September 2020. A total of 229 supermarkets (195 in Kampala City and 34 in Mukono Municipality) were randomly selected for the study. Data were collected through structured observations on the status of compliance with COVID-19 prevention guidelines, and entered using the KoboCollect software, which was preinstalled on mobile devices (smart phones and tablets). Descriptive statistics were generated to measure compliance to the set COVID-19 Ministry of Health prevention guidelines using Stata 14 software. RESULTS: Only 16.6% (38/229) of the supermarkets complied with the COVID-19 prevention and control guidelines. In line with the specific measures, almost all supermarkets 95.2% (218/229) had hand washing facilities placed at strategic points such as the entrance, and 59.8% (137/229) of the supermarkets surveyed regularly disinfected commonly touched surfaces. Only 40.6% and 30.6% of the supermarkets enforced mandatory hand washing and use of face masks respectively for all customers accessing the premises. Slightly more than half, 52.4% (120/229) of the supermarkets had someone or a team in charge of enforcing compliance to COVID-19 measures and more than half, 55.5% (127/229) of the supermarkets had not provided their staff with job-specific training/mentorship on infection prevention and control for COVID-19. Less than a third, 26.2% (60/229) of the supermarkets had an infrared temperature gun for screening every customer, and only 5.7% (13/229) of the supermarkets captured details of clients accessing the supermarket as a measure to ease follow-up. CONCLUSION: This study revealed low compliance with COVID-19 guidelines, which required mandatory preventive measures such as face masking, regular disinfection, social distancing, and hand hygiene. This study suggests the need for health authorities to strengthen enforcement of these guidelines, and to sensitise the supermarket managers on COVID-19 in order to increase the uptake of the different measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/trends , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Masks , Physical Distancing , Public Policy/trends , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Supermarkets , Surveys and Questionnaires , Uganda
12.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496511

ABSTRACT

We aimed to apply the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model to increase effectiveness and sustainability of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) hand hygiene (HH) guidelines within healthcare systems. Our cross-sectional, mixed-methods study took place at Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), a tertiary care hospital in Jimma, Ethiopia, between November 2018 and August 2020 and consisted of three phases: baseline assessment, intervention, and follow-up assessment. We conducted questionnaires addressing HH knowledge and attitudes, interviews to identify HH barriers and facilitators within the SEIPS framework, and observations at the WHO's 5 moments of HH amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) at JUMC. We then implemented HH interventions based on WHO guidelines and results from our baseline assessment. Follow-up HH observations were conducted months later during the Covid-19 pandemic. 250 HCWs completed questionnaires with an average knowledge score of 61.4% and attitude scores indicating agreement that HH promotes patient safety. Interview participants cited multiple barriers to HH including shortages and location of HH materials, inadequate training, minimal Infection Prevention Control team presence, and high workload. We found an overall baseline HH compliance rate of 9.4% and a follow-up compliance rate of 72.1%. Drastically higher follow-up compared to baseline compliance rates were likely impacted by our HH interventions and Covid-19. HCWs showed motivation for patient safety despite low HH knowledge. Utilizing the SEIPS model helped identify institution-specific barriers that informed targeted interventions beyond WHO guidelines aimed at increasing effectiveness and sustainability of HH efforts.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
13.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(22): e0121521, 2021 10 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1494942

ABSTRACT

Fomites can represent a reservoir for pathogens, which may be subsequently transferred from surfaces to skin. In this study, we aim to understand how different factors (including virus type, surface type, time since last hand wash, and direction of transfer) affect virus transfer rates, defined as the fraction of virus transferred, between fingerpads and fomites. To determine this, 360 transfer events were performed with 20 volunteers using Phi6 (a surrogate for enveloped viruses), MS2 (a surrogate for nonenveloped viruses), and three clean surfaces (stainless steel, painted wood, and plastic). Considering all transfer events (all surfaces and both transfer directions combined), the mean transfer rates of Phi6 and MS2 were 0.17 and 0.26, respectively. Transfer of MS2 was significantly higher than that of Phi6 (P < 0.05). Surface type was a significant factor that affected the transfer rate of Phi6: Phi6 is more easily transferred to and from stainless steel and plastic than to and from painted wood. Direction of transfer was a significant factor affecting MS2 transfer rates: MS2 is more easily transferred from surfaces to fingerpads than from fingerpads to surfaces. Data from these virus transfer events, and subsequent transfer rate distributions, provide information that can be used to refine quantitative microbial risk assessments. This study provides a large-scale data set of transfer events with a surrogate for enveloped viruses, which extends the reach of the study to the role of fomites in the transmission of human enveloped viruses like influenza and SARS-CoV-2. IMPORTANCE This study created a large-scale data set for the transfer of enveloped viruses between skin and surfaces. The data set produced by this study provides information on modeling the distribution of enveloped and nonenveloped virus transfer rates, which can aid in the implementation of risk assessment models in the future. Additionally, enveloped and nonenveloped viruses were applied to experimental surfaces in an equivalent matrix to avoid matrix effects, so results between different viral species can be directly compared without confounding effects of different matrices. Our results indicating how virus type, surface type, time since last hand wash, and direction of transfer affect virus transfer rates can be used in decision-making processes to lower the risk of viral infection from transmission through fomites.


Subject(s)
Fingers/virology , Fomites/virology , Virus Physiological Phenomena , Bacteriophage phi 6/physiology , Bacteriophage phi 6/ultrastructure , Fomites/classification , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Levivirus/physiology , Levivirus/ultrastructure , Viral Envelope/ultrastructure , Virus Diseases/transmission , Virus Diseases/virology , Viruses/ultrastructure
14.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 150, 2021 10 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1484322

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare-associated infections (HCAIs) present a major public health problem that significantly affects patients, health care providers and the entire healthcare system. Infection prevention and control programs limit HCAIs and are an indispensable component of patient and healthcare worker safety. The clinical best practices (CBPs) of handwashing, screening, hygiene and sanitation of surfaces and equipment, and basic and additional precautions (e.g., isolation, and donning and removing personal protective equipment) are keystones of infection prevention and control (IPC). There is a lack of rigorous IPC economic evaluations demonstrating the cost-benefit of IPC programs in general, and a lack of assessment of the value of investing in CBPs more specifically. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to assess overall costs associated with each of the four CBPs. METHODS: Across two Quebec hospitals, 48 healthcare workers were observed for two hours each shift, for two consecutive weeks. A modified time-driven activity-based costing framework method was used to capture all human resources (time) and materials (e.g. masks, cloths, disinfectants) required for each clinical best practice. Using a hospital perspective with a time horizon of one year, median costs per CBP per hour, as well as the cost per action, were calculated and reported in 2018 Canadian dollars ($). Sensitivity analyses were performed. RESULTS: A total of 1831 actions were recorded. The median cost of hand hygiene (N = 867) was 20 cents per action. For cleaning and disinfection of surfaces (N = 102), the cost was 21 cents per action, while cleaning of small equipment (N = 85) was 25 cents per action. Additional precautions median cost was $4.1 per action. The donning or removing or personal protective equipment (N = 720) cost was 76 cents per action. Finally, the total median costs for the five categories of clinical best practiced assessed were 27 cents per action. CONCLUSIONS: The costs of clinical best practices were low, from 20 cents to $4.1 per action. This study provides evidence based arguments with which to support the allocation of resources to infection prevention and control practices that directly affect the safety of patients, healthcare workers and the public. Further research of costing clinical best care practices is warranted.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection/prevention & control , Disinfection/economics , Hand Hygiene/economics , Hygiene/economics , Infection Control/economics , Adult , Canada , Female , Humans , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prospective Studies
15.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(21)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480761

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Numerous educational interventions have been conducted to improve hand hygiene (HH) compliance and effectiveness among nursing students, with mixed results. The aim is to evaluate the effectiveness of posters as a teaching tool and factors associated with HH quality. (2) Methods: A pre-post experimental intervention study was conducted with a total of 293 nursing students randomly assigned to two groups (experimental and control) who, before and after HH, took cell culture samples from their non-dominant hands. Only the experimental group was exposed to the poster. (3) Results: In the experimental group, significant differences were observed among students older than 22 years (p = 0.017; V = 0.188), with a higher percentage of failures (15.7% vs. 3.6%). Poster displaying was associated with passing, other variables being equal, although without statistical significance (ORa = 2.07; 95% CI = 0.81-5.26). Pre-practice hand contamination was weakly associated with lower HH quality (ORa = 0.99, 95% CI = 0.99-0.99). (4) Conclusions: The use of posters as a teaching method shows indications of efficacy. Prior hand contamination slightly affects the quality of HH. Further evaluation of teaching methods is needed to ensure good technical performance of HH to prevent the spread of infectious diseases during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Case-Control Studies , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Students
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(40): 1420-1424, 2021 Oct 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1456569

ABSTRACT

Most U.S. overnight youth camps did not operate during the summer of 2020 because of the COVID-19 pandemic* (1). Several that did operate demonstrated that multiple prevention strategies, including pre- and postarrival testing for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, masking, and physical distancing helped prevent the introduction and spread of COVID-19; in contrast, camps that relaxed prevention strategies, such as requiring a single prearrival test without subsequent testing, experienced outbreaks (2-4). The availability of COVID-19 vaccines for persons aged ≥12 years enabled implementation of an additional prevention strategy that was not available in summer 2020. This study assessed the number of COVID-19 cases and potential secondary spread among 7,173 staff members and campers from 50 states, 13 countries, and U.S. military overseas bases at nine independently operated U.S. summer youth camps affiliated with the same organization. The camps implemented multiple prevention strategies including vaccination, testing, podding (cohorting), masking, physical distancing, and hand hygiene during June-August 2021. Vaccination coverage was 93% among eligible persons aged ≥12 years.† All staff members (1,955) and campers (5,218) received site-specific, protocol-defined screening testing, which included prearrival testing and screening tests during the camp session (38,059 tests). Screening testing identified six confirmed COVID-19 cases (one in a staff member and five in campers) by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing (screening test positivity rate = 0.02%). Three additional cases (in two staff members and one camper) were identified based on symptoms and were confirmed by RT-PCR testing. Testing for SARS-CoV-2, isolation, and quarantine in a population with high vaccination coverage resulted in no known secondary transmission of SARS-CoV-2 identified during camp. Implementation of multicomponent strategies is critical for prevention of COVID-19 outbreaks in congregate settings, including overnight youth camps.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Camping , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Adolescent , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Child , Female , Hand Hygiene , Humans , Male , Masks , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Seasons , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination Coverage/statistics & numerical data
17.
J Hosp Infect ; 117: 111-116, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1363293

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene remains both the major strategy and an ongoing challenge for infection control. The main issues in the sustainability of hand hygiene automatic monitoring are healthcare worker (HCW) turnover rates and declining participation. AIM: To assess hand hygiene compliance and the impact of real-time reminders over three years. METHODS: HCW compliance was observed for the use of alcohol-based hand rubs (AHR) on room entry and exit. Linear multi-level mixed models with time autocorrelations were performed to analyse the repeated measurements of daily room compliance and the effect of reminders over eight quarters (24 months). FINDINGS: In all, 111 HCWs were observed and 525,576 activities were identified in the database. There was an improvement in compliance both on room entry and exit over two years, and the rooms which had activated reminders had better performance than the rooms which did not have activated reminders. CONCLUSIONS: This study showed the benefit of using real-time reminders; even 20% of rooms with an activated reminder improved overall hand hygiene compliance. A randomized real-time reminder setting may be a potential solution in reducing user fatigue and enhancing HCW self-awareness.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control
18.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1745, 2021 09 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1438268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Public health strategies in the context of respiratory droplet-transmissible diseases (such as influenza or COVID-19) include intensified hand hygiene promotion, but a review on the effectiveness of different ways of promoting hand hygiene in the community, specifically for this type of infections, has not been performed. This rapid systematic review aims to summarize the effectiveness of community-based hand hygiene promotion programs on infection transmission, health outcomes and behavioral outcomes during epidemic periods in the context of respiratory droplet-transmissible diseases. We also included laboratory-confirmed health outcomes for epidemic-prone disease during interepidemic periods. METHODS: We searched for controlled experimental studies. A rapid systematic review was performed in three databases and a COVID-19 resource. Following study selection (in which studies performed in the (pre-)hospital/health care setting were excluded), study characteristics and effect measures were synthesized, using meta-analyses of cluster-RCTs where possible. Risk of bias of each study was assessed and the certainty of evidence was appraised according to the GRADE methodology. RESULTS: Out of 2050 unique references, 12 cluster-RCTs, all in the context of influenza, were selected. There were no controlled experimental studies evaluating the effectiveness of hand hygiene promotion programs in the context of COVID-19 that met the in-/exclusion criteria. There was evidence that preventive hand hygiene promotion interventions in interepidemic periods significantly decreased influenza positive cases in the school setting. However, no improvement could be demonstrated for programs implemented in households to prevent secondary influenza transmission from previously identified cases (epidemic and interepidemic periods). CONCLUSIONS: The data suggest that proactive hand hygiene promotion interventions, i.e. regardless of the identification of infected cases, can improve health outcomes upon implementation of such a program, in contrast to reactive interventions in which the program is implemented after (household) index cases are identified.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hand Hygiene , Respiratory Tract Infections , Humans , Pandemics , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 405-410, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436356

ABSTRACT

We aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, as well as the frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, men: 51.0%, response rate: 89.5%), selected from June 23 to 28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public place, after using the toilet, after touching something outside, before eating food, and after blowing the nose, coughing, or sneezing). Additionally, the participants responded to the number of daily hand hygiene events. The cutoff value of the total number of daily hand hygiene events to determine whether hand hygiene was performed at all 5 time points was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The mean number of hand hygiene events was 10.2 times/day. The prevalence of implementing hand hygiene at each moment ranged from 30.2% to 76.4%; only 21.1% of respondents practiced hand hygiene at all times. Both Youden Index and specificity were high when the cut-off value was 11 times/day. Therefore, the criterion of hand hygiene (≥11 times/day) may be useful in education and evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
20.
Work ; 66(4): 717-729, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1435948

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a highly contagious acute respiratory syndrome and has been declared a pandemic in more than 209 countries worldwide. At the time of writing, no preventive vaccine has been developed and tested in the community. This study was conducted to review studies aimed at preventing the spread of the coronavirus worldwide. METHODS: This study was a review of the evidence-based literature and was conducted by searching databases, including Google Scholar, PubMed, and ScienceDirect, until April 2020. The search was performed based on keywords including "coronavirus", "COVID-19", and "prevention". The list of references in the final studies has also been re-reviewed to find articles that might not have been obtained through the search. The guidelines published by trustworthy organizations such as the World Health Organization and Center for Disease Control have been used in this study. CONCLUSION: So far, no vaccine or definitive treatment for COVID-19 has been invented, and the disease has become a pandemic. Therefore, observation of hand hygiene, disinfection of high-touch surfaces, observation of social distance, and lack of presence in public places are recommended as preventive measures. Moreover, to control the situation and to reduce the incidence of the virus, some of the measures taken by the decision-making bodies and the guidelines of the deterrent institutions to strengthen telecommuting of employees and reduce the presence of people in the community and prevent unnecessary activities, are very important.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Workplace/organization & administration , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Clinical Laboratory Techniques/standards , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Decision Making, Organizational , Disinfection/organization & administration , Disinfection/standards , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Hygiene/organization & administration , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Incidence , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/organization & administration , Mass Screening/organization & administration , Mass Screening/standards , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , SARS-CoV-2 , Telecommunications/organization & administration , Telecommunications/standards , Workplace/standards
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