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1.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3215-3220, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1726143

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been appeared first in China since December 2019. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs primarily with droplets through coughing and sneezing and also occurs through inhalation of aerosolized secretions, which travel, remain suspended in the air longer. Materials and methods: Since early stages of the outbreak, COVID-19 cases have been described in healthcare workers (HCWs). However, in the early stages, the disease may be asymptomatic. This may lead to incorrect diagnosis or delayed diagnosis and may lead to the nosocomial spread of the virus. One of the most important causes of transmission among HCWs is being exposed to an aerosolized virus in a closed environment for a long time. It is possible to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19 in hospitals with outpatient treatment and triage. Results: Infection control measures, including wearing surgical masks, hand hygiene, and social distance are considered essential in preventing human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2. Immediate response and practices of infection control measures are critical for saving lives during an epidemic inside and outside the hospital. Conclusion: Analyzing current knowledge about the features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, screening, personal protection protocols, triage and psychological support practices for healthcare professionals can be promising in terms of controlling the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Body Temperature , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Masks , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Lancet Infect Dis ; 22(6): 835-844, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1698162

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is at the core of effective infection prevention and control (IPC) programmes. 10 years after the development of the WHO Multimodal Hand Hygiene Improvement Strategy, we aimed to ascertain the level of hand hygiene implementation and its drivers in health-care facilities through a global WHO survey. METHODS: From Jan 16 to Dec 31, 2019, IPC professionals were invited through email and campaigns to complete the online Hand Hygiene Self-Assessment Framework (HHSAF). A geospatial clustering algorithm selected unique health-care facilities responses and post-stratification weighting was applied to improve representativeness. Weighted median HHSAF scores and IQR were reported. Drivers of the HHSAF score were determined through a generalised estimation equation. FINDINGS: 3206 unique responses from 90 countries (46% WHO Member States) were included. The HHSAF score indicated an intermediate hand hygiene implementation level (350 points, IQR 248-430), which was positively associated with country income level and health-care facility funding structure. System Change had the highest score (85 points, IQR 55-100), whereby alcohol-based hand rub at the point of care has become standard practice in many health-care facilities, especially in high-income countries. Institutional Safety Climate had the lowest score (55 points, IQR 35-75). From 2015 to 2019, the median HHSAF score in health-care facilities participating in both HHSAF surveys (n=190) stagnated. INTERPRETATION: Most health-care facilities had an intermediate level of hand hygiene implementation or higher, for which health-care facility funding and country income level were important drivers. Availability of resources, leadership, and organisational support are key elements to further improve quality of care and provide access to safe care for all. FUNDING: WHO, Geneva University Hospitals and Faculty of Medicine, and WHO Collaborating Center on Patient Safety, Geneva, Switzerland.


Subject(s)
Cross Infection , Hand Hygiene , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence , Hand Disinfection , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Facilities , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Self-Assessment , World Health Organization
3.
Epidemiol Infect ; 150: e3, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1616906

ABSTRACT

Hand hygiene (HH) performance on entering intensive care units (ICUs) is commonly accepted but often inadequately performed. We developed a simple, inexpensive module that connects touchless dispensers of alcohol sanitiser (TDAS) to the automatic doors of a paediatric ICU, and assessed the impact of this intervention on HH compliance of hospital staff and visitors. A prospective observational study was conducted over a 3-week period prior to the intervention, followed by a 4-week period post intervention. HH performance was monitored by a research assistant whose office location enabled direct and video-assisted observation of the ICU entrance. A total of 609 entries to the ICU was recorded. Overall HH performance was 46.9% (92/196) before and 98.5% (406/413) after the intervention. Our findings suggest that HH performance on entering an ICU can be improved via a mechanism that makes operation of an automatic door dependent on use of a TDAS system, and thus contribute to infection control.


Subject(s)
Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/methods , Visitors to Patients/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/standards , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Prospective Studies
4.
CMAJ Open ; 9(4): E1175-E1180, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1575909

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Reliable reports on hand hygiene performance throughout the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking as most hospitals continue to rely on direct observation to measure this quality indicator. Using group electronic hand hygiene monitoring, we sought to assess the impact of COVID-19 on adherence to hand hygiene. METHODS: Across 12 Ontario hospitals (5 university and 7 community teaching hospitals), a group electronic hand hygiene monitoring system was installed before the pandemic to provide continuous measurement of hand hygiene adherence across 978 ward and 367 critical care beds. We performed an interrupted time-series study of institutional hand hygiene adherence in association with a COVID-19 inpatient census and the Ontario daily count of COVID-19 cases during a baseline period (Nov. 1, 2019, to Feb. 29, 2020), the pre-peak period of the first wave of the pandemic (Mar. 1 to Apr. 24, 2020), and the post-peak period of the first wave (Apr. 25 to July 5, 2020). We used a Poisson regression model to assess the association between the hospital COVID-19 census and institutional hand hygiene adherence while adjusting for the correlation within inpatient units. RESULTS: At baseline, the rate of hand hygiene adherence was 46.0% (6 325 401 of 13 750 968 opportunities) and this improved beginning in March 2020 to a daily peak of 79.3% (66 640 of 84 026 opportunities) on Mar. 30, 2020. Each patient admitted with COVID-19 was associated with improved hand hygiene adherence (incidence rate ratio [IRR] 1.0621, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.0619-1.0623). Increasing Ontario daily case count was similarly associated with improved hand hygiene (IRR 1.0026, 95% CI 1.0021-1.0032). After peak COVID-19 community and inpatient numbers, hand hygiene adherence declined and returned to baseline. INTERPRETATION: The first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic was associated with significant improvement in hand hygiene adherence, measured using a group electronic monitoring system. Future research should seek to determine whether strategies that focus on health care worker perception of personal risk can achieve sustainable improvements in hand hygiene performance.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/virology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Impact Assessment , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Public Health Surveillance
5.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 298-302, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513873

ABSTRACT

For preventing the spread of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, measures like wearing masks, social distancing, and hand hygiene played crucial roles. These measures may also have affected the expansion of other infectious diseases like respiratory tract infections (RTI) and gastro-intestinal infections (GII). Therefore, we aimed to investigate non-COVID-19 related RTI and GII during the COVID-19 pandemic. Patients with a diagnosis of an acute RTI (different locations) or acute GII documented anonymously in 994 general practitioner (GP) or 192 pediatrician practices in Germany were included. We compared the prevalence of acute RTI and GII between April 2019-March 2020 and April 2020-March 2021. In GP practices, 715,440 patients were diagnosed with RTI or GII in the nonpandemic period versus 468,753 in the pandemic period; the same trend was observed by pediatricians (275,033 vs. 165,127). By GPs, the strongest decrease was observed for the diagnosis of influenza (-71%, p < 0.001), followed by acute laryngitis (-64%, p < 0.001), acute lower respiratory infections (bronchitis) (-62%, p < 0.001), and intestinal infections (-40%, p < 0.001). In contrast, the relatively rare viral pneumonia strongly increased by 229% (p < 0.001). In pediatrician practices, there was a strong decrease in infection diagnoses, especially influenza (-90%, p < 0.001), pneumonia (-73%, p < 0.001 viral; -76%, p < 0.001 other pneumonias), and acute sinusitis (-66%, p < 0.001). No increase was observed for viral pneumonia in children. The considerable limitations concerning social life implemented during the COVID-19 pandemic to combat the spread of SARS-CoV-2 also resulted in an inadvertent but welcome reduction in other non-Covid-19 respiratory tract and gastro-intestinal infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Gastrointestinal Diseases/epidemiology , Respiratory Tract Infections/epidemiology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Cross-Sectional Studies , Electronic Health Records/statistics & numerical data , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Male , Masks , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Prevalence , Young Adult
6.
PLoS One ; 16(10): e0258662, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1496511

ABSTRACT

We aimed to apply the Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model to increase effectiveness and sustainability of the World Health Organization's (WHOs) hand hygiene (HH) guidelines within healthcare systems. Our cross-sectional, mixed-methods study took place at Jimma University Medical Center (JUMC), a tertiary care hospital in Jimma, Ethiopia, between November 2018 and August 2020 and consisted of three phases: baseline assessment, intervention, and follow-up assessment. We conducted questionnaires addressing HH knowledge and attitudes, interviews to identify HH barriers and facilitators within the SEIPS framework, and observations at the WHO's 5 moments of HH amongst healthcare workers (HCWs) at JUMC. We then implemented HH interventions based on WHO guidelines and results from our baseline assessment. Follow-up HH observations were conducted months later during the Covid-19 pandemic. 250 HCWs completed questionnaires with an average knowledge score of 61.4% and attitude scores indicating agreement that HH promotes patient safety. Interview participants cited multiple barriers to HH including shortages and location of HH materials, inadequate training, minimal Infection Prevention Control team presence, and high workload. We found an overall baseline HH compliance rate of 9.4% and a follow-up compliance rate of 72.1%. Drastically higher follow-up compared to baseline compliance rates were likely impacted by our HH interventions and Covid-19. HCWs showed motivation for patient safety despite low HH knowledge. Utilizing the SEIPS model helped identify institution-specific barriers that informed targeted interventions beyond WHO guidelines aimed at increasing effectiveness and sustainability of HH efforts.


Subject(s)
Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Adult , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Ethiopia , Female , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/psychology , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 40(10): e379-e381, 2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355794

ABSTRACT

This brief report presents transmission rates from a prospective study of 15 households with pediatric index cases of severe acute respiratory coronavirus-2 in Los Angeles County from December 2020 to February 2021. Our findings support ongoing evidence that transmission from pediatric index cases to household contacts is frequent but can be mitigated with practicing well-documented control measures at home, including isolation, masking and good hand hygiene.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Respiratory Tract Infections/transmission , Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Family Characteristics , Female , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Los Angeles , Male , Masks , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Social Isolation
8.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control ; 10(1): 114, 2021 08 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1346265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In healthcare facilities, nosocomial transmissions of respiratory viruses are a major issue. SARS-CoV-2 is not exempt from nosocomial transmission. Our goals were to describe COVID-19 nosocomial cases during the first pandemic wave among patients in a French university hospital and compliance with hygiene measures. METHODS: We conducted a prospective observational study in Grenoble Alpes University Hospital from 01/03/2020 to 11/05/2020. We included all hospitalised patients with a documented SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis. Nosocomial case was defined by a delay of 5 days between hospitalisation and first symptoms. Hygiene measures were evaluated between 11/05/2020 and 22/05/2020. Lockdown measures were effective in France on 17/03/2020 and ended on 11/05/2020. Systematic wearing of mask was mandatory for all healthcare workers (HCW) and visits were prohibited in our institution from 13/03/2021 and for the duration of the lockdown period. RESULTS: Among 259 patients included, 14 (5.4%) were considered as nosocomial COVID-19. Median time before symptom onset was 25 days (interquartile range: 12-42). Eleven patients (79%) had risk factors for severe COVID-19. Five died (36%) including 4 deaths attributable to COVID-19. Two clusters were identified. The first cluster had 5 cases including 3 nosocomial acquisitions and no tested HCWs were positive. The second cluster had 3 cases including 2 nosocomial cases and 4 HCWs were positive. Surgical mask wearing and hand hygiene compliance were adequate for 95% and 61% of HCWs, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: The number of nosocomial COVID-19 cases in our hospital was low. Compliance regarding mask wearing, hand hygiene and lockdown measures drastically reduced transmission of the virus. Monitoring of nosocomial COVID-19 cases during the first wave enabled us to determine to what extent the hygiene measures taken were effective and patients protected. Trial registration Study ethics approval was obtained retrospectively on 30 September 2020 (CECIC Rhône-Alpes-Auvergne, Clermont-Ferrand, IRB 5891).


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross Infection/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cross Infection/virology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Personnel , Hospitals, University/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Masks/microbiology , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies
10.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(4): 373-376, 2021 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1323441

ABSTRACT

Multiple countries have reported evacuation missions to repatriate their citizens in the early phase of the emergence of COVID-19 from China. However, a paucity of data exists on how to optimally execute an evacuation while balancing the risk of transmission during the flight and avoiding spread to the evacuees' home countries. We describe the collective findings of the flight evacuation mission from Wuhan, China to Tokyo, Japan from January 28 to February 17, 2020. The evacuation team established the evacuation processing flow, including a focused health questionnaire, temperature monitoring, ticketing and check-in, and boarding procedure planning. The evacuees were seated according to pre-planned zones. Additionally, to facilitate the triage of evacuees for medical needs, we conducted in-flight quarantine to determine the disposition of the evacuees. All evacuees, regardless of their health condition, were required to perform rigorous hand hygiene frequently and to wear surgical masks throughout the flight. We implemented strict infection prevention and control throughout the mission, including in-flight quarantine. The pre-planned protocol and vigilant observation during the flight were crucial elements of this mission. Our experience is of value in developing a more refined plan for the next outbreak.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Quarantine/methods , Tokyo/epidemiology , Travel
11.
Turk J Med Sci ; 51(SI-1): 3215-3220, 2021 12 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1320601

ABSTRACT

Background/aim: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has been appeared first in China since December 2019. Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurs primarily with droplets through coughing and sneezing and also occurs through inhalation of aerosolized secretions, which travel, remain suspended in the air longer. Materials and methods: Since early stages of the outbreak, COVID-19 cases have been described in healthcare workers (HCWs). However, in the early stages, the disease may be asymptomatic. This may lead to incorrect diagnosis or delayed diagnosis and may lead to the nosocomial spread of the virus. One of the most important causes of transmission among HCWs is being exposed to an aerosolized virus in a closed environment for a long time. It is possible to prevent and control the spread of COVID-19 in hospitals with outpatient treatment and triage. Results: Infection control measures, including wearing surgical masks, hand hygiene, and social distance are considered essential in preventing human-to-human transmissions of SARS-CoV-2. Immediate response and practices of infection control measures are critical for saving lives during an epidemic inside and outside the hospital. Conclusion: Analyzing current knowledge about the features of SARS-CoV-2 infection, screening, personal protection protocols, triage and psychological support practices for healthcare professionals can be promising in terms of controlling the infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Infection Control/organization & administration , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Adult , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , Body Temperature , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Health Personnel , Hospitals , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/standards , Masks , Physical Distancing , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Future Microbiol ; 16(11): 797-800, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295588

ABSTRACT

Aim: Ethanol is highly effective at inactivating enveloped viruses, including SARS-CoV-2. The aim of this study is to evaluate the virucidal activity of Amuchina Gel Xgerm (74% ethanol) against SARS-CoV-2, according to the European Standard EN14476:2013+A2:2019. Materials & methods: Virucidal activity of the study product was evaluated against SARS-CoV-2 strain USAWA1/2020 in suspension, in the presence of 0.3 g/l of bovine serum albumin. Results: The log10 reduction of SARS-CoV-2 in the presence of bovine serum albumin was ≥4.11 ± 0.12 after 30 s of exposure to the study product (80% dilution). Cytotoxicity was observed in the 100 dilution, affecting the detection limit by 1 log10. Conclusion: Virucidal activity against SARS-CoV-2 supports the effectiveness of this alcohol-based formulation as a prevention measure for COVID-19 illness.


Lay abstract The virus responsible of COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2, can be inactivated by ethanol. This study evaluates the ability of an alcohol-based hand sanitizer (Amuchina Gel Xgerm, 74% ethanol) to kill SARS-CoV-2, according to the European Standard guidelines. Amuchina Gel Xgerm completely inactivates the virus after 30 s of exposure. This result supports the effectiveness of this alcohol-based formulation as a prevention measure for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Ethanol/pharmacology , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans
13.
Food Environ Virol ; 13(3): 316-321, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281335

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the SARS-CoV-2-inactivation activity of ozonated glycerol (OG). When a viral solution with 1% fetal bovine serum (FBS) was mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 20 s, OG with ozone concentrations of over 1000 ppm inactivated ≥ 94.38% of the virus. Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to the inactivation of ≥ 99.82% of the virus (the viral titer was below the detection limit). Extension to 24 h resulted in concentrations over 200 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.87% of the virus (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Next, viral solutions with 1, 20, and 40% FBS were mixed with test solutions at a ratio of 1:19 and incubated for 5 min. Whereas the virucidal activity of 500 ppm OG was very limited in the presence of 1% FBS (79.47% inactivation), it increased in the presence of 20 and 40% FBS (95.13 and 97.95% inactivation, respectively; the viral titers were not below the detection limit). Meanwhile, over 1000 ppm OG inactivated ≥ 99.44% of the virus regardless of the FBS concentration (the viral titers were below the detection limit). Extension of the reaction time to 1 h led to 500 ppm OG inactivating ≥ 99.91 and ≥ 99.95% of the virus with 20 and 40% FBS, respectively (the viral titers were below the detection limit). These results suggested that OG might be useful as a virucidal agent against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Glycerol , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Sanitizers/pharmacology , Ozone/pharmacology , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Animals , COVID-19/prevention & control , Chlorocebus aethiops , Skin , Vero Cells , Viral Load
14.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(6): e2116425, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281193

ABSTRACT

Importance: The COVID-19 pandemic has severely disrupted US educational institutions. Given potential adverse financial and psychosocial effects of campus closures, many institutions developed strategies to reopen campuses in the fall 2020 semester despite the ongoing threat of COVID-19. However, many institutions opted to have limited campus reopening to minimize potential risk of spread of SARS-CoV-2. Objective: To analyze how Boston University (BU) fully reopened its campus in the fall of 2020 and controlled COVID-19 transmission despite worsening transmission in Boston, Massachusetts. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multifaceted intervention case series was conducted at a large urban university campus in Boston, Massachusetts, during the fall 2020 semester. The BU response included a high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction testing facility with capacity to deliver results in less than 24 hours; routine asymptomatic screening for COVID-19; daily health attestations; adherence monitoring and feedback; robust contact tracing, quarantine, and isolation in on-campus facilities; face mask use; enhanced hand hygiene; social distancing recommendations; dedensification of classrooms and public places; and enhancement of all building air systems. Data were analyzed from December 20, 2020, to January 31, 2021. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis confirmed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction of anterior nares specimens and sources of transmission, as determined through contact tracing. Results: Between August and December 2020, BU conducted more than 500 000 COVID-19 tests and identified 719 individuals with COVID-19, including 496 students (69.0%), 11 faculty (1.5%), and 212 staff (29.5%). Overall, 718 individuals, or 1.8% of the BU community, had test results positive for SARS-CoV-2. Of 837 close contacts traced, 86 individuals (10.3%) had test results positive for COVID-19. BU contact tracers identified a source of transmission for 370 individuals (51.5%), with 206 individuals (55.7%) identifying a non-BU source. Among 5 faculty and 84 staff with SARS-CoV-2 with a known source of infection, most reported a transmission source outside of BU (all 5 faculty members [100%] and 67 staff members [79.8%]). A BU source was identified by 108 of 183 undergraduate students with SARS-CoV-2 (59.0%) and 39 of 98 graduate students with SARS-CoV-2 (39.8%); notably, no transmission was traced to a classroom setting. Conclusions and Relevance: In this case series of COVID-19 transmission, BU used a coordinated strategy of testing, contact tracing, isolation, and quarantine, with robust management and oversight, to control COVID-19 transmission in an urban university setting.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Infection Control/standards , Universities/trends , Urban Population/statistics & numerical data , Boston/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Contact Tracing/instrumentation , Contact Tracing/methods , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Quarantine/methods , Universities/organization & administration
15.
PLoS One ; 16(5): e0251694, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1225817

ABSTRACT

The main strategy for combatting SARS-CoV-2 infections in 2020 consisted of behavioural regulations including contact reduction, maintaining distance, hand hygiene, and mask wearing. COVID-19-related risk perception and knowledge may influence protective behaviour, and education could be an important determinant. The current study investigated differences by education level in risk perception, knowledge and protective behaviour regarding COVID-19 in Germany, exploring the development of the pandemic over time. The COVID-19 Snapshot Monitoring study is a repeated cross-sectional online survey conducted during the pandemic in Germany from 3 March 2020 (waves 1-28: 27,957 participants aged 18-74). Differences in risk perception, knowledge and protective behaviour according to education level (high versus low) were analysed using linear and logistic regression. Time trends were accounted for by interaction terms for education level and calendar week. Regarding protective behaviour, interaction terms were tested for all risk perception and knowledge variables with education level. The strongest associations with education level were evident for perceived and factual knowledge regarding COVID-19. Moreover, associations were found between low education level and higher perceived severity, and between low education level and lower perceived probability. Highly educated men were more worried about COVID-19 than those with low levels of education. No educational differences were observed for perceived susceptibility or fear. Higher compliance with hand washing was found in highly educated women, and higher compliance with maintaining distance was found in highly educated men. Regarding maintaining distance, the impact of perceived severity differed between education groups. In men, significant moderation effects of education level on the association between factual knowledge and all three protective behaviours were found. During the pandemic, risk perception and protective behaviour varied greatly over time. Overall, differences by education level were relatively small. For risk communication, reaching all population groups irrespective of education level is critical.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Risk Reduction Behavior , Adult , Aged , Anxiety/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Fear/psychology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection/trends , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Risk Behaviors , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , Risk Assessment/methods , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Surveys and Questionnaires
16.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0250020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207630

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, the safety of patients and healthcare providers is at risk due to health care-associated infections (HCAIs). World Health Organization and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommend using alcohol-based hand rub (ABHR) for hand hygiene in healthcare settings to prevent HCAIs. Irrational use of ABHR will have undesirable consequences including wastage of products, exposure of healthcare providers to infections and emergence of microbial resistance to the alcohol in hand sanitizers. This study aimed to explore the perspective and experiences of compounding pharmacists on production and utilization of ABHR solution for coronavirus disease in 2019 (COVID-19) prevention in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. METHODS: A descriptive qualitative study using in-depth interview of 13 key-informants serving as compounding pharmacists in public hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, was conducted. The study participants were identified and selected by purposive sampling. All transcribed interviews were subjected to thematic analysis and transcripts were analyzed manually. FINDINGS: The compounding pharmacists in this study had a mean age of 30.6 (±3.1) years and nine of the thirteen participants were men. Ten participants believed that the compounding practice in their respective sites followed the principles of good compounding practice. More than half of the participants did not believe that ABHR products were used rationally in health facilities. They argued that users did not have enough awareness when and how to use sanitizers. Most of the interviewees reported that compounding personnel had no formal training on ABHR solution production. Study participants suggested incentive mechanisms and reimbursements for experts involved in the compounding of ABHR solutions. CONCLUSION: Three of the compounding pharmacists indicated that ABHR production in their setting lack compliance to good compounding practice due to inadequate compounding room, quality control tests, manpower and equipment. Despite this, most study participants preferred the in-house ABHR products than the commercially available ones. Thus, training, regular monitoring and follow-up of the hospital compounding services can further build staff confidence.


Subject(s)
Alcohols/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene , Hand Sanitizers/chemistry , Pharmacy , Adult , Ethanol/chemistry , Ethiopia , Female , Hand Hygiene/economics , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Sanitizers/economics , Health Facilities , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Male , Pharmacists , Pharmacy/methods
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 27(7): 1042.e1-1042.e4, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1201418

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Disinfection effectiveness against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) on human skin remains unclear because of the hazards of viral exposure. An evaluation model, which has been previously generated using human skin obtained from forensic autopsy samples, accurately mimics in vivo skin conditions for evaluating the effectiveness of disinfection against the virus. Using this model, we evaluated disinfection effectiveness against viruses on human skin. METHODS: Ethanol (EA), isopropanol (IPA), chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) and benzalkonium chloride (BAC) were used as target disinfectants. First, disinfectant effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and influenza A virus (IAV) was evaluated in vitro. Disinfectant effectiveness against SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin was then evaluated by titrating viruses present on the skin after applying each disinfectant on the skin for 5-60 seconds. RESULTS: Both, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin were completely inactivated within 5 seconds by 40%-80% EA and 70% IPA (log reduction values (LRVs) were >4). However, SARS-CoV-2 and IAV were barely inactivated by 20% EA (LRVs were <1). In vitro evaluation showed that, compared with EA and IPA, CHG and BAC were significantly inferior in terms of disinfection effectiveness. Conversely, the disinfection effectiveness of CHG and BAC against SARS-CoV-2 was higher on human skin than in vitro, and increased with increases in their concentration and reaction time (LRVs of 0.2% CHG/0.05% BAC were >2, and LRVs of 1.0% CHG/0.2% BAC were >2.5). CONCLUSIONS: Proper hand hygiene practices using alcohol-based disinfectants such as EA/IPA effectively inactivate SARS-CoV-2 and IAV on human skin.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants/pharmacology , Influenza A virus/drug effects , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , 2-Propanol/pharmacology , Anti-Infective Agents, Local/pharmacology , Benzalkonium Compounds/pharmacology , COVID-19/virology , Chlorhexidine/analogs & derivatives , Chlorhexidine/pharmacology , Ethanol/pharmacology , Hand Hygiene/methods , Humans , Models, Biological , Skin/virology
18.
BMC Health Serv Res ; 21(1): 88, 2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1055818

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene (HH) among healthcare workers (HCWs) is critical for infection prevention and control (IPC) in healthcare facilities (HCFs). Nonetheless, it remains a challenge in HCFs, largely due to lack of high-impact and efficacious interventions. Environmental cues and mobile phone health messaging (mhealth) have the potential to improve HH compliance among HCWs, however, these remain under-studied. Our study will determine the impact of mhealth hygiene messages and environmental cues on HH practice among HCWs in the Greater Kampala Metropolitan Area (GKMA). METHODS: The study is a cluster-randomized trial, which will be guided by the behaviour centred design model and theory for behaviour change. During the formative phase, we shall conduct 30 key informants' interviews and 30 semi-structured interviews to explore the barriers and facilitators to HCWs' HH practice. Besides, observations of HH facilities in 100 HCFs will be conducted. Findings from the formative phase will guide the intervention design during a stakeholders' insight workshop. The intervention will be implemented for a period of 4 months in 30 HCFs, with a sample of 450 HCWs who work in maternity and children's wards. HCFs in the control arm will receive innovatively designed HH facilities and supplies. HCWs in the intervention arm, in addition to the HH facilities and supplies, will receive environmental cues and mhealth messages. The main outcome will be the proportion of utilized HH opportunities out of the 9000 HH opportunities to be observed. The secondary outcome will be E. coli concentration levels in 100mls of hand rinsates from HCWs, an indicator of recent fecal contamination and HH failure. We shall run multivariable logistic regression under the generalized estimating equations (GEE) framework to account for the dependence of HH on the intervention. DISCUSSION: The study will provide critical findings on barriers and facilitators to HH practice among HCWs, and the impact of environmental cues and mhealth messages on HCWs' HH practice. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN Registry with number ISRCTN98148144 . The trial was registered on 23/11/2020.


Subject(s)
Hand Hygiene/methods , Telemedicine , Attitude of Health Personnel , Cues , Guideline Adherence , Health Personnel , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Uganda
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(3): 874-883, 2021 Jan 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1060758

ABSTRACT

In low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), hand sanitizer may be a convenient alternative to soap and water to increase hand hygiene practices. We explored perceptions, acceptability, and use of hand sanitizer in rural Bangladesh. We enrolled 120 households from three rural villages. Promoters distributed free alcohol-based hand sanitizer, installed handwashing stations (bucket with tap, stand, basin, and bottle for soapy water), and conducted household visits and community meetings. During Phase 1, promoters recommended handwashing with soap or soapy water, or hand sanitizer after defecation, after cleaning a child's anus/feces, and before food preparation. In Phase 2, they recommended separate key times for hand sanitizer: before touching a child ≤ 6 months and after returning home. Three to 4 months after each intervention phase, we conducted a survey, in-depth interviews, and group discussions with child caregivers and male household members. After Phase 1, 82/89 (92%) households reported handwashing with soap after defecation versus 38 (43%) reported hand sanitizer use. Participants thought soap and water removed dirt from their hands, whereas hand sanitizer killed germs. In Phase 2, 76/87 (87%) reported using hand sanitizer after returning home and 71/87 (82%) before touching a child ≤ 6 months. Qualitative study participants reported that Phase 2-recommended times for hand sanitizer use were acceptable, but handwashing with soap was preferred over hand sanitizer when there was uncertainty over choosing between the two. Hand sanitizer use was liked by household members and has potential for use in LMICs, including during the coronavirus pandemic.


Subject(s)
Alcohols/chemistry , Hand Hygiene/methods , Hand Sanitizers/analysis , Rural Population/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Family Characteristics , Female , Hand Disinfection/methods , Hand Disinfection/standards , Health Behavior , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Poverty , Qualitative Research , Young Adult
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