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1.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 157(3): 327-331, may.-jun. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | WHO COVID, LILACS (Americas) | ID: covidwho-1552060

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Ante la pandemia de COVID-19, el apego a las medidas de higiene es un objetivo para disminuir la morbimortalidad. Objetivo: Evaluar el apego a la higiene de manos y medidas de protección durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en un hospital de tercer nivel. Métodos: Estudio transversal acerca del lavado de manos del personal de salud en los cinco tiempos recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como sobre el uso del equipo de protección personal específico. Resultados: Fueron observadas 117 oportunidades de higiene de manos en personal de salud: 40 (34 %) respecto al lavado de manos y 76 (65 %) respecto a su omisión; sobre el apego al uso de careta en cinco (4 %) y sobre la falta de apego en 112 (96 %). Se identificó apego al uso de mascarilla en 65 profesionales de enfermería (87 %), uso adecuado de mascarilla en 56 de ellos (60 %) y uso de careta en uno (1 %.) Conclusión: El personal mostró baja proporción de apego a la higiene de manos y al uso de equipo para la protección específica durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Abstract Introduction: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. Objective: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. Methods: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. Results: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). Conclusion: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/prevention & control , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Time Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Hand Hygiene/standards
2.
Gac Med Mex ; 157(3): 313-317, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1535087

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: During the COVID-19 pandemic, adherence to hygiene measures is an objective aimed at reducing morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate adherence to hand hygiene and protection measures during the COVID-19 pandemic in a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: Cross-sectional study on health personnel handwashing at the five moments recommended by the World Health Organization, as well as on the use of specific personal protective equipment. RESULTS: One hundred and seventeen hand hygiene opportunities were observed in health personnel. Hand washing was observed in 40 (34 %) and omission in 76 (65 %). Adherence to the use of face shield was observed in five (4 %), and lack of adherence in 112 (96%). Adherence to the use of face mask was observed in 65 nursing professionals (87 %), with appropriate use of the mask in 56 of them (60 %) and use of face shield in one (1 %). CONCLUSION: Health personnel showed low proportions of adherence to hand hygiene and use of equipment for specific protection during the COVID-19 pandemic.


INTRODUCCIÓN: Ante la pandemia de COVID-19, el apego a las medidas de higiene es un objetivo para disminuir la morbimortalidad. OBJETIVO: Evaluar el apego a la higiene de manos y medidas de protección durante la pandemia de COVID-19 en un hospital de tercer nivel. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal acerca del lavado de manos del personal de salud en los cinco tiempos recomendados por la Organización Mundial de la Salud, así como sobre el uso del equipo de protección personal específico. RESULTADOS: Fueron observadas 117 oportunidades de higiene de manos en personal de salud: 40 (34 %) respecto al lavado de manos y 76 (65 %) respecto a su omisión; sobre el apego al uso de careta en cinco (4 %) y sobre la falta de apego en 112 (96 %). Se identificó apego al uso de mascarilla en 65 profesionales de enfermería (87 %), uso adecuado de mascarilla en 56 de ellos (60 %) y uso de careta en uno (1 %). CONCLUSIÓN: El personal mostró baja proporción de apego a la higiene de manos y al uso de equipo para la protección específica durante la pandemia de COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Personnel, Hospital/standards , Prospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers , Time Factors
3.
Jpn J Infect Dis ; 74(5): 405-410, 2021 Sep 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1436356

ABSTRACT

We aimed to clarify the status of hand hygiene practices among ordinary citizens during the COVID-19 pandemic in Japan, as well as the frequency of daily hand hygiene as an indicator of education and evaluation. This cross-sectional study was based on an internet survey completed by 2,149 participants (age range: 20-79 years, men: 51.0%, response rate: 89.5%), selected from June 23 to 28, 2020. The participants responded regarding the frequency of implementing hand hygiene at 5 moments (after returning from a public place, after using the toilet, after touching something outside, before eating food, and after blowing the nose, coughing, or sneezing). Additionally, the participants responded to the number of daily hand hygiene events. The cutoff value of the total number of daily hand hygiene events to determine whether hand hygiene was performed at all 5 time points was determined using receiver operating characteristic analysis. The mean number of hand hygiene events was 10.2 times/day. The prevalence of implementing hand hygiene at each moment ranged from 30.2% to 76.4%; only 21.1% of respondents practiced hand hygiene at all times. Both Youden Index and specificity were high when the cut-off value was 11 times/day. Therefore, the criterion of hand hygiene (≥11 times/day) may be useful in education and evaluation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
4.
Rev Esp Quimioter ; 34(3): 214-219, 2021 Jun.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1390022

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Proper hand hygiene is the main measure in the prevention and control of infection associated with healthcare. It describes how the pandemic period of 2020 has influenced the evolution of the degree of compliance with hand hygiene practices in health professionals at the Hospital Universitario Insular de Gran Canaria with respect to previous years. METHODS: Descriptive cross-sectional study of direct observation on compliance with the five moments of hand hygiene in the 2018-2020 period. Adherence is described with the frequency distribution of the different moments in which it was indicated. RESULTS: Total adherence has increased from 42.5% in 2018, to 47.6% in 2019, and 59.2% in 2020 (p <0.05). Total adherence was greater in the moments after contact with the patient (67%) than in the moments before contact (48%). The area with the highest adherence was dialysis (83%). There is a greater adherence in open areas than in hospitalization areas (65% vs 56%). Higher adherence was determined in physicians (73%) and nurses (74%), than in nursing assistants (50%) (p<0.05). CONCLUSIONS: In 2020 there was an increase in adherence to hand hygiene compared to previous years. A higher percentage of adherence was determined in physicians and nurses than in nursing assistants. We consider that the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has played a relevant role in this increase in adherence.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Personnel , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross-Sectional Studies , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Health Personnel/trends , Humans , Medical Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Medical Staff, Hospital/trends , Nursing Assistants/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Assistants/trends , Nursing Staff, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Nursing Staff, Hospital/trends , Spain , Tertiary Care Centers
5.
Subst Abus ; 42(2): 220-226, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233793

ABSTRACT

Background: We sought to understand the association between heavy alcohol and frequent drug use and non-adherence to recommended social distancing and personal hygiene guidelines for preventing the spread of COVID-19 early in the US pandemic. Methods: A survey was offered on the crowdsourcing platform, Amazon Mechanical Turk (MTurk) during April 2020 (the early days of strict, social distancing restrictions). The study included 1,521 adults ages 18 years and older who resided in the US and were enrolled as MTurk workers, i.e., workers who are qualified by Amazon to complete a range of human interaction tasks, including surveys through the MTurk worker platform. Main predictors included measures of heavy drinking, marijuana, and polysubstance use. The dependent measures were measures of social distancing and personal hygiene, based on guidelines recommended at the time of the survey by the US Centers for Disease Control to prevent the spread of COVID-19. Results: We found consistent negative associations between heavy drinking and drug use and adherence to social distancing and personal hygiene. Additionally, three control variables, age, gender, and race/ethnicity, were significant correlates of adherence to these measures. Conclusions: The findings here are consistent with previous research exploring links between substance use and other adverse health behaviors. Further, the negative association between heavy drinking (five or more drinks in one sitting) and adherence underscore the public health risks entailed with the unrestricted reopening of public drinking establishments.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hygiene , Marijuana Abuse/epidemiology , Physical Distancing , Public Health , Public Policy , Adolescent , Adult , Communicable Disease Control , Female , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , United States , Young Adult
7.
J Hosp Infect ; 111: 27-34, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1169215

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic has affected healthcare workers (HCWs) in their clinical practice. HCWs were challenged with new guidelines and practices to protect themselves from occupational risks. AIM: To determine whether hand hygiene behaviour by real-time measurement was related to the dynamic of the epidemic, and the type of patient being cared for in France. METHODS: This study used an automated hand hygiene recording system to measure HCW hand hygiene on entry to and exit from patient rooms throughout the COVID-19 pandemic. The correlation between hand hygiene compliance and COVID-19 epidemiological data was analysed. Analysis of variance was performed to compare compliance rate during the different periods of the epidemic. FINDINGS: HCW hand hygiene rate on room entry decreased over time; on room exit, it increased by 13.73% during the first wave of COVID-19, decreased by 9.87% during the post-lockdown period, then rebounded by 2.82% during the second wave of the epidemic. Hand hygiene during patient care and hand hygiene on room exit had a positive relationship with the local COVID-19 epidemic; conversely, hand hygiene on room entry did not depend on the trend of the epidemic, nor on nursing of COVID-19 patients, and it decreased over time. CONCLUSION: HCWs modified their behaviours to face the risk propensity of the pandemic. However, to improve the poor compliance at room entry, reducing confusion between the hand hygiene recommendation and glove recommendation may be necessary; disinfection of gloving hands might solve this issue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/standards , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , France , Humans , Infection Control/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
8.
J Hosp Infect ; 111: 6-26, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1141983

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is general consensus that hand hygiene is the most effective way to prevent healthcare-associated infections. However, low rates of compliance amongst healthcare workers have been reported globally. The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has further emphasized the need for global improvement in hand hygiene compliance by healthcare workers. AIM: This comprehensive systematic review provides an up-to-date compilation of clinical trials, reported between 2014 and 2020, assessing hand hygiene interventions in order to inform healthcare leaders and practitioners regarding approaches to reduce healthcare-associated infections using hand hygiene. METHODS: CINAHL, Cochrane, EMbase, Medline, PubMed and Web of Science databases were searched for clinical trials published between March 2014 and December 2020 on the topic of hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers. In total, 332 papers were identified from these searches, of which 57 studies met the inclusion criteria. FINDINGS: Forty-five of the 57 studies (79%) included in this review were conducted in Asia, Europe and the USA. The large majority of these clinical trials were conducted in acute care facilities, including hospital wards and intensive care facilities. Nurses represented the largest group of healthcare workers studied (44 studies, 77%), followed by physicians (41 studies, 72%). Thirty-six studies (63%) adopted the World Health Organization's multi-modal framework or a variation of this framework, and many of them recorded hand hygiene opportunities at each of the 'Five Moments'. However, recording of hand hygiene technique was not common. CONCLUSION: Both single intervention and multi-modal hand hygiene strategies can achieve modest-to-moderate improvements in hand hygiene compliance among healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/trends , Hand Hygiene/standards , Hand Hygiene/trends , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Professional-to-Patient/prevention & control , Adult , Female , Forecasting , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 426, 2021 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1112431

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, social distancing and hand hygiene have been the primary means of reducing transmission in the absence of effective treatments or vaccines, but understanding of their determinants is limited. This study aimed to investigate knowledge and socio-cognitive perceptions, and their associations with such protective behaviours, in UK university students. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of 293 students was undertaken on 13 May 2020. Survey questions addressed demographics, knowledge of the disease and effectiveness of the protective measures, risk perception, socio-cognitive perceptions (e.g. attitude, social support, and self-efficacy), habit, time factors and trust, as well as the hand hygiene and social distancing behaviours. Multiple linear regression was used to identify the strongest associations of potential determinants with behaviour. RESULTS: Participants reported high levels of social distancing with 88.9% answering "Mostly" or "Always" for every activity, but only 42.0% reporting the same for all hand hygiene activities. Knowledge of the effectiveness of each activity in preventing transmission was high, with 90.7% and 93.5% respectively identifying at least 7 of 8 hand hygiene or 9 of 10 social distancing activities correctly. Habit (ß = 0.39, p = 0.001) and time factors (ß = 0.28, p = 0.001) were the greatest contributors to unique variance in hand hygiene behaviour, followed by ethnicity (ß = - 0.13, p = 0.014) and risk perception (ß = 0.13, p = 0.016). For social distancing behaviour, the determinants were self-efficacy (ß = 0.25, p < 0.001), perceived advantages (ß = 0.15, p = 0.022), trust in policy (ß = 0.14, p = 0.026) and gender (ß = - 0.14, p = 0.016). Regression models explained 40% hand hygiene and 25% social distancing variance. CONCLUSIONS: This study indicated that communications about effectiveness of hand hygiene and social distancing behaviours had been effective in terms of knowledge acquisition. However, in the light of likely second waves of COVID-19, attention to maintaining social distancing behaviour and improving hand hygiene behaviour may need to address more difficult areas of changing habits, overcoming time factors and building trust, as well as interventions to increase self-efficacy and address risk perception concerns.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Physical Distancing , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Students/psychology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires , United Kingdom , Universities
10.
Dermatitis ; 32(2): 86-93, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1091202

ABSTRACT

Occupational contact dermatitis accounts for 95% of all cases of occupational skin disease with irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) constituting 80% to 90% of these cases. Health care workers, hairdressers, and food service workers are typically most affected by occupational ICD of the hands as these occupations require frequent hand hygiene and/or prolonged exposure to water, also known as "wet work." In the context of the current COVID-19 pandemic, frequent hand hygiene has become a global recommendation for all individuals, and new workplace guidelines for hand sanitization and surface sterilization are affecting occupations not previously considered at risk of excessive wet work including grocery or retail workers, postal workers, sanitization workers, and others. In this review, we discuss the etiology and pathogenesis of occupational ICD with additional focus on treatment and interventions that can be made at an institutional and even national level for education and prevention of ICD resulting from frequent hand hygiene.


Subject(s)
Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Irritant/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Irritant/etiology , Dermatitis, Occupational/etiology , Female , Hand Dermatoses/etiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Occupational Exposure/statistics & numerical data
11.
Epidemiol Prev ; 44(5-6 Suppl 2): 136-143, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1068133

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: to describe the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic with a focus on undetected cases and to evaluate different post-lockdown scenarios. DESIGN: the study introduces a SEIR compartmental model, taking into account the region-specific fraction of undetected cases, the effects of mobility restrictions, and the personal protective measures adopted, such as wearing a mask and washing hands frequently. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: the model is experimentally validated with data of all the Italian regions, some European countries, and the US. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: the accuracy of the model results is measured through the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) and Lewis criteria; fitting parameters are in good agreement with previous literature. RESULTS: the epidemic curves for different countries and the amount of undetected and asymptomatic cases are estimated, which are likely to represent the main source of infections in the near future. The model is applied to the Hubei case study, which is the first place to relax mobility restrictions. Results show different possible scenarios. Mobility and the adoption of personal protective measures greatly influence the dynamics of the infection, determining either a huge and rapid secondary epidemic peak or a more delayed and manageable one. CONCLUSIONS: mathematical models can provide useful insights for healthcare decision makers to determine the best strategy in case of future outbreaks.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Models, Theoretical , Pandemics , Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Convalescence , Disease Susceptibility , Environmental Exposure , Europe/epidemiology , Geography, Medical , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Italy/epidemiology , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Physical Distancing , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , United States/epidemiology
12.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 104(2): 496-501, 2020 Dec 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1000462

ABSTRACT

Cleaning and disinfection of frequently touched surfaces and frequent hand hygiene are recommended measures to prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, poison center calls regarding exposures to cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers have increased as compared with prior years, indicating a need to evaluate household safety precautions. An opt-in Internet panel survey of 502 U.S. adults was conducted in May 2020. Survey items evaluated knowledge regarding use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; attitudes about household cleaning and disinfection; and safety precautions practiced during the prior month. We assigned a knowledge score to each respondent to quantify knowledge of safety precautions and calculated median scores by demographic characteristics and attitudes. We identified gaps in knowledge regarding safe use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers; the overall median knowledge score was 5.17 (95% CI: 4.85-5.50; maximum 9.00). Knowledge scores were lower among younger than older age-groups and among black non-Hispanic and Hispanic respondents compared with white non-Hispanic respondents. A greater proportion of respondents expressed knowledge of safety precautions than the proportion who engaged in these precautions. Tailored communication strategies should be used to reach populations with lower knowledge of cleaning and disinfection safety. In addition, as knowledge alone did not shape individual engagement in safety precautions, health promotion campaigns may specifically emphasize the health risks of unsafe use and storage of cleaners, disinfectants, and hand sanitizers to address risk perception.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Disinfectants , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Hand Sanitizers , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Family Characteristics , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
13.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 21885, 2020 12 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-977272

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown how a newly emergent communicable disease can lay considerable burden on public health. To avoid system collapse, governments have resorted to several social distancing measures. In Belgium, this included a lockdown and a following period of phased re-opening. A representative sample of Belgian adults was asked about their contact behaviour from mid-April to the beginning of August, during different stages of the intervention measures in Belgium. Use of personal protection equipment (face masks) and compliance to hygienic measures was also reported. We estimated the expected reproduction number computing the ratio of [Formula: see text] with respect to pre-pandemic data. During the first two waves (the first month) of the survey, the reduction in the average number of contacts was around 80% and was quite consistent across all age-classes. The average number of contacts increased over time, particularly for the younger age classes, still remaining significantly lower than pre-pandemic values. From the end of May to the end of July , the estimated reproduction number has a median value larger than one, although with a wide dispersion. Estimated [Formula: see text] fell below one again at the beginning of August. We have shown how a rapidly deployed survey can measure compliance to social distancing and assess its impact on COVID-19 spread. Monitoring the effectiveness of social distancing recommendations is of paramount importance to avoid further waves of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/transmission , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics/prevention & control , Physical Distancing , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Belgium/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
14.
Eur J Dermatol ; 30(6): 668-673, 2020 Dec 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-963042

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, authorities have preached the importance of personal hygiene, including hand washing and disinfection. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate changes in the frequency of hand washing and hand care, the onset of hand eczema (HE) and risk factors associated with HE since the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 in Munich in January 2020. MATERIALS & METHODS: All dermatologic outpatients at the university hospital between April 6 and April 19 were asked to complete a structured questionnaire. RESULTS: Data of 512 patients with a median age of 49 years (243 females, 267 males) were analysed. The frequency of hand washing and hand disinfection increased after the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 (p < 0.001, respectively). While symptoms associated with HE were reported by 29.9% (149/499) of patients, the actual diagnosis of HE was reported less frequently by 11.2% (53/473) with a median duration of 120 days. Frequent hand disinfection (p = 0.039), atopic dermatitis (p = 0.006) and young age (p = 0.0499) were identified as risk factors for symptoms of HE. Hand care was performed more frequently during the pandemic than before (p < 0.001). A high frequency of hand care during the pandemic was not significantly associated with symptoms of HE (p = 0.172), but was associated with self-recognition of HE symptoms (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: After the outbreak of SARS-CoV-2, the frequency of hand hygiene measures increased. A considerably high prevalence of HE symptoms was associated with frequent hand disinfection, atopic dermatitis and young age. Awareness of HE should be raised in order for preventive measures to be taken earlier.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Eczema/epidemiology , Hand Dermatoses/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk Factors
15.
Int J Nurs Stud ; 115: 103853, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-957136

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Universal face mask use was recommended owing to the growing pandemic of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19). However, little is known about the public's compliance with mask-wearing behaviours. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the public's mask-wearing behaviours in the context of COVID-19. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Online survey from 6 April 2020 to 5 May 2020 in China. PARTICIPANTS: This study included 10,165 persons who lived in China, understood Chinese, and were not health care providers. METHODS: Descriptive statistics were used to assess the public's mask-wearing behaviours. A binary logistic regression analysis was performed to identify the risk factors affecting the mask-wearing behaviours. RESULTS: Nearly all (99%) people wore a mask during the covid-19 pandemic, with most (73.3%) demonstrating good compliance with face mask use. However, 41.8% of the participants seldom cleaned their hands before putting on a face mask, and more than half (55.3%, 62.1%) of those who touched (n=8108, 79.8%) or adjusted (n=9356, 92.0%) their mask while using it failed to consistently wash their hands afterward. When removing a used mask, 7.6% of the participants discarded it into a garbage bin without a lid and 22.5% discarded it into a garbage bin in their reach regardless of presence of a lid. Participants reported wearing disposable medical masks (93.8%), followed by N95 respirators (26.2%), and cloth face masks (8.5%). Some participants wore multiple masks simultaneously (occasionally 26.5%, often 2.1%, always 1.5%). A total of 5,981 (58.8%) participants reported reusing disposable masks, with nearly two thirds (n=3923, 65.6%) indicating they would hang the used masks in well-ventilated places. More than one-third (37.6%) of the respondents did not replace mask when it had been used for more than 8 hours. Exposure to instructions on face mask use was the strongest predictor of good compliance (odds ratio=4.13, 95% confidential interval= 3.60-4.75, p=0.000). Other factors included specific situations, location, and gender. The influence of age needs further investigation. Most participants (76.4%) accessed information mainly via social media platforms. CONCLUSIONS: Nearly all people wore face mask and most of them used it properly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Hand hygiene before and during mask-wearing, choosing an appropriate type of face mask, reusing disposal face mask, and disposing of used face masks should be particularly emphasized in future evidence dissemination or behaviour-change interventions. Information on social media platforms for evidence dissemination and behaviour change may benefit the public the most, but this initiative requires further research to investigate its effectiveness.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Health Behavior , Masks/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , China , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(41): 1485-1491, 2020 Oct 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-874994

ABSTRACT

Frequent hand hygiene, including handwashing with soap and water or using a hand sanitizer containing ≥60% alcohol when soap and water are not readily available, is one of several critical prevention measures recommended to reduce the spread of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).* Previous studies identified demographic factors associated with handwashing among U.S. adults during the COVID-19 pandemic (1,2); however, demographic factors associated with hand sanitizing and experiences and beliefs associated with hand hygiene have not been well characterized. To evaluate these factors, an Internet-based survey was conducted among U.S. adults aged ≥18 years during June 24-30, 2020. Overall, 85.2% of respondents reported always or often engaging in hand hygiene following contact with high-touch public surfaces such as shopping carts, gas pumps, and automatic teller machines (ATMs).† Respondents who were male (versus female) and of younger age reported lower handwashing and hand sanitizing rates, as did respondents who reported lower concern about their own infection with SARS-CoV-2§ and respondents without personal experience with COVID-19. Focused health promotion efforts to increase hand hygiene adherence should include increasing visibility and accessibility of handwashing and hand sanitizing materials in public settings, along with targeted communication to males and younger adults with focused messages that address COVID-19 risk perception.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Female , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/ethnology , /statistics & numerical data , Sex Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
17.
Clin Microbiol Infect ; 26(12): 1670-1675, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-846867

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To describe the fraction of asymptomatic health-care workers (HCWs) in two designated hospitals for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) treatment in Wuhan and explore the factors associated with asymptomatic severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. METHODS: All HCWs in Wuhan Union Hospital and Wuhan Red Cross Hospital with either positive SARS-CoV-2 nucleic acid or positive antibody test before 18 April 2020 were included. Exposure, epidemiological and demographic information were retrospectively collected by a structured questionnaire. Medical records were also reviewed for clinical characteristics and CT images of HCWs. RESULTS: As of 18 April 2020, a total of 424 HCWs were identified. Among them, 276 (65.1%) were symptomatic and 148 (34.9%) were asymptomatic. Fifty-five (19.9%) families of the symptomatic HCWs and 16 (10.8%) families of the asymptomatic HCWs were infected with SARS-CoV-2. HCWs with infected family members tended to be symptomatic (OR 2.053, 95% CI 1.130-3.730; p 0.018). Multivariable logistic regression analysis exhibited that performing tracheal intubation or extubation (OR 4.057, 95% CI 1.183-13.909; p 0.026) was associated with an increased likelihood of symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection, whereas consistent use of N95 respirators (OR 0.369, 95% CI 0.201-0.680; p 0.001) and eye protection (OR 0.217, 95% CI 0.116-0.404; p < 0.001) were associated with an increased likelihood of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection in HCWs comprised a considerable proportion of HCW infections during the pandemic of COVID-19. Those who performed tracheal intubation or extubation were most likely to develop related symptoms, whereas those taking aggressive measures, including consistent use of N95 masks and eye protection, tended to be asymptomatic cases.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/statistics & numerical data , Adult , China/epidemiology , Female , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infectious Disease Transmission, Patient-to-Professional/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Male , Middle Aged , N95 Respirators/statistics & numerical data , Personal Protective Equipment/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
18.
Appl Psychol Health Well Being ; 12(4): 1286-1305, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-814204

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hand hygiene is crucial to avoid healthcare-associated infections and the transmission of COVID-19. Although the WHO has issued global hand hygiene recommendations for healthcare, adherence remains challenging. Considering social-cognitive theories such as the health action process approach (HAPA) can help to improve healthcare workers' adherence. This study aimed to observe adherence and to assess determinants in obstetric hospitals during and after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: In all, 267 observations of behaviour were conducted in two German obstetric university hospitals over three time periods (pre-COVID-19 pandemic, heightened awareness, and strict precautions). In addition, 115 healthcare workers answered questionnaires regarding social-cognitive determinants of hand hygiene behaviour. Multiple regression and multiple mediation analyses were used to analyse associations. RESULTS: Adherence to hand hygiene recommendations increased from 47 per cent pre-COVID-19 pandemic to 95 per cent just before lockdown while simple measures against the pandemic were taken. Self-efficacy was associated with the intention to sanitise hands (ß = .397, p < .001). Coping self-efficacy mediated the association of intention with hand hygiene adherence. CONCLUSIONS: Obstetric healthcare workers seem to adapt their hand hygiene behaviour to prevent infections facing the global COVID-19 pandemic. To further improve interventions, social-cognitive determinants should be considered, especially intention and (coping) self-efficacy.


Subject(s)
Academic Medical Centers/statistics & numerical data , Attitude of Health Personnel , COVID-19/prevention & control , Guideline Adherence/statistics & numerical data , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Hospitals, Maternity/statistics & numerical data , Personnel, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Adult , Female , Germany , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
19.
Work ; 66(4): 767-775, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-760847

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Prevention is the best way to manage a pandemic like COVID-19. The World Health Organization has issued public advice to create awareness by providing people knowledge to prevent/protect them from COVID-19. Hence, the present study was planned to assess knowledge of prevention and its practical use amongst samples from the Saudi Arabian population. It can be used to bring awareness among the masses not only in expanding their knowledge about COVID-19 but also on how to enforce a practicing behavior in relation to the prevention of COVID-19. The study is among the pioneer studies on the issue related to knowledge and practice of the prevention of COVID-19 among Saudis and foreign nationals residing in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVE: The prime objective of this study is to examine the existence of knowledge among the Saudi and non-Saudi nationals about COVID-19 and its impact on their behavior to practice the protocols to prevent the disastrous infection of COVID-19. This study has also examined how the residents in Saudi Arabia react to the methods and protection measures adopted by the government for their dominions to eradicate the spread of COVID-19. METHODS: The study used a survey-based methodology and data was collected from Saudi nationals as well as expatriates living and working in five different regions of Saudi Arabia. Non-probability snowball sampling was used to reach and select the population of the current study. A self-designed, structured, and validated questionnaire was electronically distributed among the respondents. SPSS version 21 was used to analyze the data of the current study. RESULTS: Out of the 443 respondents, 356 respondents (84%) knew they had to wash their hands for 20 seconds and did this as well, 303 respondents (75%) knew that sneezing or coughing into the arm/elbow can prevent the spread of COVID-19 and were doing this as well, 357 respondents (82%) knew that COVID-19 can be transferred by shaking hands and avoided this, 333 respondents (79%) knew that they had to maintain a safe distance of at least one meter and kept this distance, 315 respondents (76%) knew that touching one's face can transfer the virus and avoid this, and 414 respondents (95%) knew that staying at home can decrease the chances of getting infected. The relationship between different regions and most of the knowledge-based and practice-based questions was significant (p < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Results reveal that there is a significant relationship between knowledge and practice, but the strength of association is weak. It was found that knowledge and practice of COVID-19 was followed differently in the five regions of Saudi Arabia and the level of education of the respondents influenced their choice of practice to protect themselves from the effects of COVID-19. The study has contributed in the body of literature by examining the inter-relationship between knowledge and practice and their use in prevention of COVID-19 among the Saudi population.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Infection Control/standards , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19/virology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Educational Status , Female , Hand Hygiene/standards , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Infection Control/statistics & numerical data , Male , Middle Aged , Physical Distancing , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Saudi Arabia/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult
20.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 17(16)2020 08 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-705461

ABSTRACT

During the coronavirus-19 disease (COVID-19) pandemic, the basic strategy that is recommended to reduce the spread of the disease is to practice proper hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors, but among adolescents, low adherence is common. The present study aimed to assess the gender-dependent hand hygiene and personal protective behaviors in a national sample of Polish adolescents. The Polish Adolescents' COVID-19 Experience (PLACE-19) Study was conducted in a group of 2323 secondary school students (814 males, 1509 females). Schools were chosen based on the random quota sampling procedure. The participants were surveyed to assess their knowledge and beliefs associated with hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as their actual behaviors during the COVID-19 pandemic. The majority of respondents gave proper answers when asked about their knowledge. However, females displayed a higher level of knowledge (p < 0.05). Most of the respondents declared not leaving home, handwashing, using alcohol-based hand rub, avoiding contact with those who may be sick, and avoiding public places as their personal protective behaviors. They declared using face masks and gloves after the legal regulation requiring people to cover their nose and mouth in public places was enacted in Poland. Regarding the use of face masks and not touching the face, no gender-dependent differences were observed, while for all the other behaviors, females declared more adherence than males (p < 0.05). Females also declared a higher daily frequency of handwashing (p < 0.0001) and washing their hands always when necessary more often than males (68.2% vs. 54.1%; p < 0.0001). Males more often indicated various reasons for not handwashing, including that there is no need to do it, they do not feel like doing it, they have no time to do it, or they forget about it (p < 0.0001), while females pointed out side effects (e.g., skin problems) as the reason (p = 0.0278). Females more often declared handwashing in circumstances associated with socializing, being exposed to contact with other people and health (p < 0.05), and declared always including the recommended steps in their handwashing procedure (p < 0.05). The results showed that female secondary school students exhibited a higher level of knowledge on hand hygiene and personal protection, as well as better behaviors, compared to males. However, irrespective of gender, some false beliefs and improper behaviors were observed, which suggests that education is necessary, especially in the period of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , Communicable Disease Control/methods , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hand Hygiene/statistics & numerical data , Health Behavior , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Adolescent , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Guideline Adherence , Guidelines as Topic , Hand Disinfection , Humans , Male , Masks , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Poland/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors
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